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played long and Pigwigy grew tired of wait Columbus Point, at the southeast end of ing, he would find some shady nook and take Cat Island, is said to be the first land on which “forty winks."

Columbus stood on this continent. He deSometimes Pigwigy played tag with Johnny. scribes the natives as coming in swarms down First he would show that he wanted to play to his boats, and tells us that their affections by frisking about in front of Johnny; then were gained by gifts of red caps, strings of they would take turns tagging. Johnny would beads, and other trifles." After this the na. slap Pigwigy on the back with his hand, and tives, he tells us, swam out to his vessels with Pigwigy, in his turn, would nudge Johnny with all kinds of gifts. They knew nothing of his round nose. It was great fun, and Pig- swords or any fighting tool. Columbus said wigy seemed to enjoy it, with his little grunts they cut themselves on the swords because of delight, as much as any one.

they did not know the edge was sharp. There When Farmer Stuart would begin to hitch are men who believe that Watling's Island, fifty up the horses, Don and Ben, to what was miles eastward of Cat Island, was the island called the town wagon," Pigwigy seemed to on which Columbus landed. It probably realize that he was going to be left alone, and never will be decided just where Columbus watched the operation very dolefully; and made his first landing, but that it was on an when the wheels began to turn he would lift island is certain, and that the natives were up his voice and squeal as plainly as possible, friendly is certain. that he—wanted-to-go-too. When they came back, Pigwigy was always

The Dream of the Toy on hand to greet them. He would rub

By Katherine Pyle against the wagon-wheels, and almost topple The Sandman lost a dream one nightJohnny over, so eager was he to show how A dream meant for a boy ; glad he was that they were all back again. It floated round awhile, and then

Thus Pigwigy grew and grew, until his It settled on a Toy.
span of days far exceeded those of any ordi-
nary pig. But at last Pigwigy had to go the The Toy dreamed that it stood in class
way that all good pigs go.

With quite a row of boys;
How bad everybody felt! But, as Farmer The teacher rapped upon his desk
Stuart said, Pigwigy was just as nice and And cried, “ Less noise ! less noise !"
sweet in the barrel as he had been out of it.

Then, looking at the Toy, he scowled
Where Did Columbus Land ?

And said, “ Next boy—foretell."
All the little people who read The Outlook “Oh, please, sir," cried the little Toy,
know that this country has had a war with “I don't know how to spell.
Spain; that we sent soldiers and sailors to
Cuba, and that our war-ships sank the Span-

" Indeed, I don't know how it is; ish war-ships on the southern coast of Cuba,

I'm sure I am a toy, near Santiago; that among these war-ships Although I seem to be in class, was Admiral Cervera's flagship, the Maria And dressed up like a boy." Teresa. This Government decided to raise

“What's that? What's that ?" the teacher this flagship, and succeeded. After she was

cried, raised she was to come North, be repaired,

In awful tones he spoke; and be added to our fleet of war-ships. After

He came with strides across the floor, she left Cuba she encountered a severe storm and was wrecked on Cat Island, the island,

And then the Toy awoke. it is claimed by some, which Columbus first There lay the nursery very still, sighted in October, 1492, over four hundred The shelf above its head : years ago. We do not know positively that the fire burned dimly on the hearth. this is so, but most of those who have studied the children were in bed. this first voyage, the charts, and all that was written by Columbus and those who were There lay the dolls and Noah's Ark. with him, or who wrote immediately after “Oh, dear me," said the Toy, about this thrilling voyage, believe that Cat “I just had such a dreadful dream! Island was the land first sighted by Colum- I dreamed I was a boy." bus.

-St. Nicholas.

For the Instruction of Buyers committee closes with an appeal that is needed One of the strongest arguments for co- everywhere : operation between the women of the several The Consumers' League is before all an eduStates who are endeavoring to secure better

cational movement, instructing its members in a

habit of mind which influences their relations to conditions for the wage-earning women and

all who work for them. Its members will dechildren is found in the report of the Con. mand, not only good workmanship, fair hours, sumers' League of Massachusetts. The com clean conditions, and decent wages in the large mittee investigating the condition of the

factories, but will use their influence for better

conditions in the small dressmaking, tailoring, factories and home workers reports:

and millinery establishments where their work An investigation, made during the past summer, may be done. They will prefer to pay a fair of seamstresses working in their own homes on price, and will not glory in cheapness which can cotton underwear, shows that by means of our be secured only by the gift of another's time and present State law, requiring a license for such strength. They will realize that the many evils workers, which is given only to those whose of the competitive system will not be modified homes are clean, the amount of work so distrib. while this system is upheld, not only by selfish uted has been greatly reduced. The wages, how merchants and manufacturers, but by a great ever, remain pitifully small, and the pin-money body of selfish and indifferent consumers. Such worker aids in lowering wages by her willingness knowledge should make the League temperate to accept a pittance. This hopeless form of com- and just in its demands. petition with factory work and steam machinery The women of New York State who are must cease ere long, but meanwhile it is productive

ve interested in the wage-earning women and of many evil results.

Our investigation thus far tends to prove that children will rejoice in the position taken by the Massachusetts laws are effectively enforced. Governor Roosevelt, in his first message, on There are few sweat-shops and garret workers, the labor question, especially as it relates to but there is also a lessening supply of work,

women and children in the mercantile estaband New England garment-workers are suffering because the manufacture of clothing is so largely lishments, and the regulations outlined for the carried on in New York and in other States, abolishment of the sweat-shop system. His where factory laws are either more lenient or advocacy of increasing the number of factory less respected. A very small proportion of the

inspectors follows of necessity from his own clothing sold in Boston is made in New England. Until we can secure the same protection for

recommendations, and is but one more eviworkers in other States it may seem to be our dence that the present Governor of New best policy to encourage wholesome conditions York knows the condition of his State. The of manufacture by asking for goods of Maine law as it stands is a good law inoperative and Massachusetts make.

because there are not officers enough to enThe lesson is obvious. To raise the standard

force it. The plan of the Governor meets of living, and of wages, which follows, the

the issue made by the Massachusetts Coneffort must be made in every State to secure

sumers' League, which is forced to accept an that class of legislation which secures to the

injustice to the garment-makers in that State, wage-earners right conditions.

because a lax or indifferently administered The committee investigating the conditions

law in a neighboring State makes it a com

law in a ne surrounding the wage-earners working in petitor in the labor market of the country. stores in the shopping district reports en

The Consumers' Leagues in both States couragingly. Wages are higher in Boston

have an opportunity to create public sentithan in New York, because the people demand

ment to produce proper legislation and its a higher class of service. To quote: “Where

enforcement, and looking to the elevation of cheaper help is employed, it is detrimental,

the race. Nothing can affect home life more as customers can testify, to the reputation of

disastrously than to turn the home into a the house." The laws of Massachusetts

workshop, or to make labor so cheap that a regulating the hours of work in stores are man's family becomes his competitor in the most favorable to the workers, and the laws labor market. are enforced-enforced because of intelligent public sentiment—except in the outlying and

A Father's Discovery tenement-house districts, where injustice is They stood together beside the writer in done the workers both in hours of work re- a crowded car, the morning after New Year's. quired and in wages. The report of this Both men had reached middle life. Their clothing and manners indicated financial ease shall know them, every one. I have confi. and refined surroundings. They may have dence enough in them to know that the men been brothers; at least they were intimate we cannot have as friends cannot be their friends, as they addressed each other by their friends. I'll fish, golf, tennis, skate, play Christian names.

ball—I've learned basket-ball to play with “ I made a discovery yesterday, Fred: my them—with those cubs that brought the color girls have grown up !" The friend, Fred, to the girls' cheeks and the new light to their looked at him inquiringly. It was evident eyes, yesterday. Yes, I saw then that they that the discovery was one of mixed pleasure had grown up. Why, you're right, man! I and pain, judging by the expression on the have not bought a doll for seven years. The speaker's face. “ Yes, they have grown up. cubs I cannot buy, but I'll know them. Every The greatest possible pleasure is no longer a man who bows to them shall bow to me, and walk with papa; strange men, I call. them slap me on the back as his chum if—if he cubs, have begun to be interesting compan. passes. Fred, the examination will be severe, ions for a walk.”

but the prize is worth it.” The men left the The listener smiled. “Poor chap!” he car. said, like one who had gone through the experience; "what else did you expect ? An Ugly and Dangerous Fashion That's life.”

Doubtless hundreds of women are surprised “The dickens, man! 'Twas only yesterday to find that they have yielded to the uncleanly I was ransacking stores for dolls and tea- and untidy fashion of trailing dresses on the sets."

street. It is unfortunate that the increased « Yes," interrupted his friend, “and to- knowledge of the sanitary dangers of trailing morrow you'll be doing the same thing for dresses through our streets, and then over your granddaughters." The first man looked carpets and rugs, should not be understood startled. With an amused glance the one well enough to forbid this. addressed as Fred asked, “ What are you No one disputes that a trailing dress in the going to do about it, old man ?"

house is far more beautiful and graceful than “ Fred, do you realize that that is a serious one that does not trail, but it is equally cerquestion? It is very important—what I am tain that no one will dispute, not even those going to do about it. I don't want those who have yielded to this untidy fashion, that girls interested in any of those cubs, and I it is far from becoming on the street. To don't want those fellows interested at all in the woman who may throw her dress aside my girls. They grow more charming and when dampness and dirt have marred it, such companionable every day. I want them let fashions are of no moment, but to the woman alone.”

who must consider her clothes from the stand“No, you don't, my dear fellow. They can- point of cost, who must wear her clothes not have a father always; and even if they for the longest possible time, this fashion could, have they no right which you are imposes serious burdens. The woman of bound to respect? Would they be what they independence may scorn the thought of selfare, the most charmingly natural girls one imposed burdens, but the fact remains that meets anywhere, if they did not possess to a it is a burden to some women, serious and remarkable degree strong, womanly natures ? real, to find that their clothes are not up to You and your wife are to be congratulated the faskion. It is unfortunate that fashion that you have in them nearly approached and good taste are not synonymous. Much your ideal woman, as you used to describe that is ugly would never be known if they those ideal women.”

It was evident that the father of the girls With the prevalence of grip, and the declawas deeply touched. “Fred, the men do not rations of some of the best medical experts live to whom I would surrender those girls." that it is contagious; with ordinances relating

Both men were quiet awhile, when the to the cleaning of street-cars to meet special father said, “That's pretty selfish-a war health conditions being issued by Health against life."

Boards; with the widely diffused knowledge “ Yes,” responded the other, quietly, “it is.” of the spread of disease by germs, it seems

“ Fred, if I have to give them up, I'll know strange that intelligent women should allow the men. Every man they know shall become their garments to be so fashioned as to be a my friend, if I can make him. Their mother means to carry disease into their own homes,


The Outlook

Published Weekly

January 21, 1899

Vol. 61

No. 3

Rarely have three aggression." The question now, said Senator Congressional History:

speeches been made Hoar, is not, “ Who will haul down the flag ?” Senator Hoar's Speech

in Congress which but, “ Who will haul down the code? Who have deservedly attracted so much attention will haul down the President?” as those made in .the Senate last week by Mr. Hoar, of Massachusetts, and Mr. Mason, of Illinois, against the acquisition of the

Senator Mason's speech Philippines, and that made by Mr. Foraker, Congressional History: f

Senator Foraker's followed similar lines. of Ohio, in favor of the President's policy. Reply He disclaimed, as did Senator Hoar's argument, though nominally Senator Hoar, any thought of turning over one against the constitutionality of the pro- the Philippines to the mercies of Spain, and posed colonial policy, was really one against strongly advocated that, in accordance with its expediency and against its morality. It our Monroe Doctrine, we should protect them, was unconstitutional, he said, to rule the as we had the Spanish-American republics, Philippines without the consent of their peo against alien government from any quarter. ple, not because the letter of the Constitu- Self-government, he declared, was the only tion forbade it, but because, as the courts way along which the manhood of a people have held the letter of the Constitution was could be developed. Like Senator Hoar, always to be interpreted in the spirit of the Senator Mason condemned the President for Declaration of Independence, and it was in- abandoning the best principles of his Nation conceivable to him that the men who framed and of his party. The defense of the Presi. the Constitucion intended to convey to the dent fell upon Senator Foraker, of Ohio, and National Government a power that they the speech he made was a peculiarly brilliant * abhorred, and that they believed no sov- one. The resolution under discussion, he ereign on earth could rightfully exercise.” said, the resolution of Senator Vest, declarWe could not, he said, declare that taxation ing that the Federal Government has no without representation was tyranny, and yet constitutional power to acquire territory “to impose such taxation upon ten millions of be held and governed permanently as colopeople; we could not declare against the nies”_was of no present importance. “No quartering of alien troops among ourselves one, from the President down to his humblest in t me of peace, and yet maintain a standing supporter, has sought or desired to exercise " army over the Philippines. The plea that such power. The only present question, he we would govern their people for their good, said, was the power of the Federal Governhe said, was the plea of George III., and ment to acquire territory, whether by treaty or later it was the plea in defense of slavery. conquest, and to provide for its government. In reply to the argument that this Nation These powers, said Senator Foraker, the had already acquired and governed terri. United States Government possesses without tories without consulting the inhabitants, he qualification. As Chief Justice Marshall declared that there was the widest possible said, nearly a century ago : difference between the acquisition and gove The Constitution of the United States confers ernment of practically vacant lands, and the absolutely on the Government of the Union the acquisition and government of a subject power of making war and of making treaties ; people. President McKinley had himself de consequently that Government possesses the

power of acquiring territory either by conquest clared, a year ago, that “forcible annexation


or treaty. ... The right to govern may be the under our code of morality would be criminal inevitable consequence of the right to acquire territory. Whatever may be the source whence system, in growing to embrace 72,000 clerks, the power is derived, the possession of it is un- instead of 10,000 as at first, had overquestioned.


reached itself, etc., etc. When Mr. Moody, In reply to a question whether the provisions of Massachusetts, urged that the opponents of the Constitution immediately extended of the law ought to fight it directly instead over all territory under our jurisdiction, Sena- of trying to cripple it by voting against the tor Foraker replied that he thought not, “ expayment of lawful salaries, the friends of the cept in a qualified sense;" and Senator Teller amendment declared that year after year they cited Daniel Webster to the effect that Con- had been denied the opportunity to vote gress might even refuse to a Territory trial directly upon the repeal of the law. Upon by jury if it so deemed best. “No public the direct issue they claimed that a majority man in this country,” said Senator Teller, of the House would support them. As this " save Mr. Calhoun, ever insisted that the debate was almost exclusively among the ReConstitution must go by its own force into publicans, pledged by their platform to sus. a Territory.” Continuing, Senator Foraker tain the law, the effect was altogether depresssaid that no one proposed to dispense with ing. Curiously enough, the only Democrats the consent of the governed in relation to the who spoke opposed the amendment crippling Philippines, except as Senator Hoar himself the Commission. There was some fear that had been willing to dispense with it in rela. when the matter came before the House the tion to the Hawaiians. The only alternative appropriation would be eliminated. When the United States had before it, he said, was the roll-call came, however, only 96 (56 Re. either to turn the islands back to Spain or publicans and 40 Democrats) voted against take them itself; for the islands had no gov- the appropriation, while 124 (74 Republicans ernment of their own. What we have done, and 50 Democrats) recorded themselves in its he urged, does not deny to the Filipinos favor. “ the privilege of establishing a free republic if they are capable of it and want to establish

A Disgraceful lacident scandal of an unconit. ... I have not heard of anybody who

The purely military wants to do that. The President of the cealed hostility between the authorities of the United States does not, I know.” In con. War Department and the General command. clusion, Senator Foraker declared his willing ing the army has been followed by the perness to trust the Administration, and trust

sonal scandal involved in the public vitupera. the institutions of this Government and the

tion of General Miles by Commissary-General people of this Government, to do justice by

Eagan. The language used by General the Filipinos, when we have learned more

Eagan—and that, too, in a deliberately preabout their capacities and desires.

pared document, read before the Army Com

mission, not in the heat of oral speechThe House of Repre making—was not only violent and offensive, Congressional History :

yi. sentatives has again but literally indecent. It savored of the barThe Civil Service Debate

defeated the annual room rather than of the barracks. We quote amendment striking out the appropriation a single phrase—some phrases are unquotable: for the Civil Service Commission from the General Eagan says, for instance, of statebill provided for the payment of salaries ments attributed to General Miles, " The The defeat this year, however, was not a statements in that interview I here and now satisfactory one to friends of the reform. In denounce as unmitigated falsehoods, vile and the Committee of the Whole, where alone slanderous, so slanderous that it can only be the matter was debated, an unusual number called filth.” And over and over again he of Republicans spoke against the appropria calls his opponent a liar without any “if" or tion, and the motion to strike it out prevailed “but," and with vulgar iteration and vehe. by a vote of sixty-seven to sixty-one. Mr. mence. The chief cause of all this billingsgate Evans, of Kentucky, who made the motion was General Miles's sarcastic reference to to strike out the appropriation, declared that the refrigerated beef furnished the army as he believed in appointment for merit, but “embalmed," and his statement that the opposed life tenure in office. Mr. Grosvenor, canned beef was unfit for use. Without of Ohio, declared that the law had “ throttled” trying to decide upon the points in contro. the appointing power of the Government. versy, it may be said that, as to the refriger. Mr. Hepburn, of lowa, declared that the ated beef, it is quite probable that General

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