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the other day, and leave the reader to judge no response at all, though the school is if they are not worth this passing record. crowded with them in my district. But when

I end up by saying, Will the American chil

dren stand up?' the whole school rises joy“I have so many tiny children sent to me fully." as children of school age," said the younger teacher (who is the principal of a large school in the crowded tenement part of the city),

“Have you many French children ?” said u and I am often very much perplexed to the Spectator, knowing the pride of the know whether they are really under five or French in la patrie. “ No; very few. Still, not. You know those half-fed children often we have some; indeed, we have children of look younger than they are.” “Yes, I have every nationality under the sun, I think, from been through all that,” said the other, sympa the Hungarian and Syrian to the African. thetically," but now I look at their teeth." It is wonderful how soon the foreign children The Spectator gasped, but she went on in the learn the language of their adopted country. most matter-of-fact way. “If the teeth are a

Even when the parents cannot speak a word little loose, or if they have lost one or two of English, and have only been a little while that child is probably five or over. If they in America, the children use their own lanare all there, and all firm, the child is only guage as little as possible, and seem to delight three or four. It is really a very fair test.

in ours. But they are not so bright-not Sometimes the children are mere babies, evi- nearly so bright-as American children. Any dently. Then I say. Go home and play for teacher who has tried her hand on both kinds a whole year, my child, and then come back.' of public-school material will tell you that." They go off delighted—to play for a year,

“ Yet the American stock, almost everywhere, that is fine! But the mothers are not so is a mixed stock," said the Spectator. “Yes," pleased, you may imagine.” “No, indeed!" said the elder teacher, thoughtfully, “but a said the other. “They are glad to get them

mixture of the best, the hardiest, and the off their hands and into school. The Italian

strongest races, up to this last half-centurymothers are especially anxious. Sometimes

and the best element from each race, too. the little Italian applicants, evidently not over

The Puritans and the Huguenots and the three. keep reiterating like parrots. Me five!' Covenanters, and the sturdy Germans and • Me five!' till I tell them to go home and ask Swedes, were really the pick of the world for their mothers. If they come back still re- colonists. Now, my little scholars are from peating · Me five !' then I send for the moth

the lower classes of the weaker nations, and ers, and tell them they must make an affidavit

most of our immigration for years has been of the child's age, and that they will be re- in that line. But still,” she added, with coursponsible to the law if they do not tell the ageous patriotism, “ they will be better cititruth. That usually settles it: if the child is zens, and better men and women, as Amerireally five, they are willing to swear to it; but cans than they would have been if they had if not, they are afraid of the very idea of the stayed at home and grown up in Hungary law."

or Italy or Syria; I am sure of that. And I ! feel quite content to spend my days in teach

ing them their opportunities—for America is “Do you not have trouble with so many the open door of opportunity to them.” nationalities ?" the Spectator asked, hoping to hear something still more interesting. “Oh, we hang the flag over the school platform," was the answer, “and have the regular exer

And as the Spectator agreed with her, he cise of saluting it, and the children become

quoted softly to himself the fine lines of Emma very patriotic indeed. They will not own, in

Lazarus upon our harbor statue of Liberty

Enlightening the World: most cases, that they are not Americans." “ Yes,” said the other, “ I often ask, "Will “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries the German children in the room stand up?'. With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your

she, The Germans are more wedded to their Fa

poor, therland, apparently, than other immigrants, Your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free; for a few—though not by any means half

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore; of them usually rise to this invitation. Now

Send these—the homeless, tempest-tossed-to let the Italian children stand' generally brings I lift my lamp beside the golden door !"


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THILE the formal order for the military government of Cuba only directs

General Brooke to exercise the authority of Military Governor of the island, it is pretty well understood that equally important civil functions

will be his, and that in effect his powers will not differ greatly from those of a Governor-General. To him will be responsible the Governors of Provinces for instance, General Wood in Santiago Province and General Lee in Havana Province—while in the case of the city of Havana, its Governor, General Ludlow, will also report directly to General Brooke. Practically the discretion granted to him is almost unlimited under the general instructions for governing Cuba which may be issued by the President and under the legislation of Congress. General Brooke has been a soldier for thirty-seven years. In the Civil War he rose rapidly until at the end of the war he was a Major-General of Volunteers. In the regular army very few officers have seen such varied and constant service in the Far West and South, while his fine management of the Porto Rican campaign under General Miles has added distinctly to his military reputation. The new Governor of Cuba is not quite sixty years old, is of massive build, and over six feet in height. In conduct and courage he is every inch a soldier. He is trusted by his fellow-officers, popular in the army, and has been well described as “a man built for big undertakings."

A Model American Military Administrator

By Theodore Roosevelt

T THAT I am about to write concern take them; but we have taken them, and

ing the great service rendered, stay there we must for the time being

not only to Cuba, but to America, whether this temporary stay paves the way by Brigadier-General Leonard Wood, now for permanent occupation, or whether it is to Military Governor of Santiago, is written last only until some more satisfactory arrangevery much less as a tribute to him than for ment, whether by native rule or otherwise, the sake of pointing out what an object-lesson takes its place. Discussion of theories will he has given the people of the United States not avail much; we have a bit of very pracin the matter of administering those tropic tical work to be done, and done it must be, lands in which we have grown to have so somehow. I am certain that if the Cubans great an interest. The most extreme expan- show themselves entirely fit to establish and sionist will admit that the proper administra- carry on a free and orderly government, the tion of our newly acquired tropical depend great mass of my fellow-citizens will gladly encies is absolutely essential if our policy of permit them to decide themselves as to the expansion is not to collapse ; on the other destiny of Cuba, and will allow them to be hand, at least the most intelligent among the independent if they so desire. I am also anti-imperialists will admit that we have cer- certain that Americans would take much this tain duties which must be performed as long position in regard to the Philippines were as we stay in the tropic lands.

the conditions such as to justify it. But I Of course there are some anti-expansion- am also certain that our people will neither ists whose opposition to expansion takes the permit the islands again to fall into the form of opposition to American interests; clutches of Spain or of some Power of Conand with these gentry there is no use dealing tinental Europe which would have interfered at all. Whether from credulity, from timid- to our harm in the last war if it had dared ity, or from sheer lack of patriotism, their to, nor yet permit them to sink into a conattitude during the war was as profoundly dition of squalid and savage anarchy. un-American as was that of the “ Copper- The policy of shirking our responsibilities heads” in 1861. Starting from the position cannot be adopted. To refuse to attempt to of desiring to avoid war even when it had secure good government in the new terribecome inevitable if our National honor was tories acquired last summer would simply to be preserved, they readily passed into a mean that we were weaklings, not worthy to frame of mind which made them really cha- stand among the great races of the world. grined at every American triumph, while they Such a policy would itself be a failure; and showed very poorly concealed satisfaction if we follow any other policy we can do no over every American shortcoming; and now worse than fail; so it may be taken for they permit their hostility to the principle of granted that we are going to try the experiexpansion to lead them into persistent effort ment. All that remains is to see that we to misrepresent what is being done in the try it under conditions which give us most islands and parts of islands which we have chances of success; that is, which render it actually conquered.

most likely that we shall give good governBut these men are in a very small minority. ment to the conquered provinces, and thereI think most Americans realize that facts fore add to the honor and renown of the must be faced, and that for the present, and in American name no less than to the material the immediate future, we shall have, whether well-being of our people at home and abroad. we wish it or not, to provide a working in these tropical and far-off lands good government, not only for Hawaii and Porto government has got to be secured mainly, Rico, but for Cuba and the Philippines. not from Washington, but from the men We may not wish the Philippines, and may sent to administer the provinces. It is, of regret that circumstances have forced us to course, essential that Congress should ultimately provide a good scheme of government his service under General Miles in the Southfor the colonies-or rather for each colony, western Territories. These were then harried as there will have to be wide variation in the by the terrible Apaches; and the army was en. methods applied—but even this scheme can tering on the final campaigns for the overthrow be worked out only by the aid and advice of of Geronimo and his fellow-renegades. No the men who have had actual experience in one who has not lived in the West can apprethe wholly new work to which Americans are ciate the incredible, the extraordinary fatigue now called; and until we are able to get and hardship attendant upon these campaigns. such advice any scheme must be of the most There was not much fighting, but what there tentative character. What is really essential was, was of an exceedingly dangerous type ; is to have first-class men chosen to adminis. and the severity of the marcles through the ter these provinces, and then to give these waterless mountains of Arizona, New Mexico, men the widest possible latitude as to means and the northern regions of Old Mexico and methods for solving the exceedingly diffi- (whither the Apache bands finally retreated) cult problems set before them. Most fortu. were such that only men of iron cou'd stand Dately, we have in General Wood the exact them. But the young contract doctor, tall, type of man whom we need ; and we have in broad-chested, with his light-yellow hair and his work for the past four months an exact blue eyes, soon showed the stuff of which he illustration of how the work should be done. was made. Hardly any of the whites, whether

The great importance of the personal ele- soldiers or frontiersmen, could last with him ; ment in this work makes it necessary for me and the friendly Indian trailers themselves to dwell upon General Wood's qualifications could not wear him down. In such camas I should not otherwise do. The success- paigns it soon becomes essential to push forful administrator of a tropic colony must ward the one actually fitted for command, ordinarily be a man of boundless energy and whatever his accidental position may be; endurance; and there were probably very and Wood, although only a contract surgeon, few men in the army at Santiago, whether finished his career against the Apaches by among the officers or in the ranks, who could serving as commanding officer of certain of match General Wood in either respect. No the detachments sent out to perform pecusoldier could outwalk him, could live with liarly arduous and dangerous duty; and he more indifference on hard and scanty fare, did his work so well and showed such concould endure hardship better, or do better spicuous gallantry that he won that most without sleep; no officer ever showed more coveted of military distinctions, the medal of ceaseless energy in providing for his soldiers, honor. On expeditions of this kind, where in reconnoitering, in overseeing personally the work is so exhausting as to call for the all the countless details of life in camp, in last ounce of reserve strength and courage in patrolling the trenches at night, in seeing by the men, only a very peculiar and high type personal inspection that the outposts were of officer can succeed. Wood, however, doing their duty, in attending personally to never called upon his men to do anything all the thousand and one things to which a that he himself did not do. They ran no commander should attend, and to which only risk that he did not run; they endured no those commanders of marked and exceptional hardship which he did not endure: intolermental and bodily vigor are able to attend. able fatigue, intolerable thirst, never-satisfied

General Wood was a Cape Cod boy; and hunger, and the strain of unending watchfulto this day there are few amusements for ness against the most cruel and dangerous of which he cares more than himself to sail a foes-trough all this Wood led his men small boat off the New England coast, espe. until the final hour of signal success. When cially in rough weather. He went through the he ended the campaigns, he had won the high Harvard Medical School in 1881-82, and regard of his superior officers, not merely for began to practice in Boston; but his was one courage and endurance, but for judgment and of those natures which, especially when young, entire trustworthiness. A young man who is frets for adventure and for those bard and high of heart, clean of life, incapable of a dangerous kinds of work where peril blocks mean or ungenerous action, and burning with the path to a greater reward than is offered the desire to honorably distinguish himself, by more peaceful occupations. A year after needs only the opportunity in order to do leaving college he joined the army as a con- good work for his country. tract surgeon, and almost immediately began T his opportunity came to Wood with the

outbreak of the Spanish war. I had seen Because of his success he was made Brigamuch of him during the preceding year. dier-General, and at the battle of San Juan Being myself fond of outdoor exercise, I had he commanded one of the two brigades which found a congenial companion in a man who made up General Joe Wheeler's Cavalry had always done his serious duties with the Division. When Santiago surrendered, he utmost conscientiousness, but who had found was soon put in charge, first of the city, and time to keep himself, even at thirty-seven, a then of the city and province. first-class football player We had the same Since then he has worked wonders. Both ideals and the same way of looking at life; his medical and his military training stood


GENERAL LEONARD WOOD we were fond of the same sports; and, last, him in good stead. I was frequently in but not least, being men with families, we Santiago after the surrender, and I never saw liked, where possible, to enjoy these sports Wood when he was not engaged on some in company with our small children. We one of his multitudinous duties. He was therefore saw very much of each other; personally inspecting the hospitals; he was and we had made our plans long in advance personally superintending the cleaning of the as to what we should do if war with Spain streets; he was personally hearing the most broke out; accordingly, he went as Colonel, important of the countless complaints made and I as Lieutenant-Colonel, of the Rough by Cubans against Spaniards, Spaniards Riders. How well he commanded his regi. against Cubans, and by both against Ameriment is fresh in the minds of every one. cans; he was personally engaged in working

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