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swamp is vocal with the rollicking notes their tunnels, bored just beneath the leaves of the crow-blackbird and redwing, and while the snow covered them, were batmarsh-hawks are again coursing low over tered down ; and the squirrels dared not the meadows in search of mice and the venture along their slippery runways in awakened frogs.
the tree-tops, nor risk a leap from branch Such vernal rejoicing is often inter- to branch. rupted, nevertheless, by an ice-storm-one The house at that time was surrounded of the most disagreeable incidents of this with big trees, relics of ancient woods now month of many moods. A day of rain will almost engulfed in the growing town ; these come when the temperature is low enough were inhabited by a large colony of gray to freeze most of the water as it falls, and squirrels, besides a few red ones. I could the result is that the ground, the windward see, here and there, a head poked inquirside of buildings, fences, tree-trunks, and ingly out of a hole, or peering from the all other exposed objects, are soon per- door of one of the little cabins lodged fectly glazed, and each leafless twig is among the oak limbs; but not a single incased in ice. When, as frequently hap- furry acrobat would trust himself to those pens, such a day and night are succeeded glassy twigs, and I thought I could detect by, a clear morning, and the bright but an anxious expression in their big black feeble sunlight is reflected from thousands eyes, as if they wondered how they were of burnished, crackling twigs, as from a going to get any breakfast. forest of glass, the scene is a very striking The squirrels had to endure their fast, and beautiful one; but the weight of the but for the birds something might be accumulated ice often causes vast damage done. So we cracked a handful of nuts, to shade and orchard trees-one of Na- broke some corn into grains, and threw ture's rudest methods of pruning.
these and the table-crumbs out by the Such ice-storms occasionally happen as door. I had actually seen no birds about, late as the last week of March, by which save a band of bluejays and a group of time all animal life has begun to stir about English sparrows which had dwelt in the and many birds have arrived, so that wide- wood-pile all winter. But in a very few spread distress and death are likely to minutes a plentiful company came to our follow. The little birds can usually shelter table, including some whose presence I themselves, though migrating hosts some- had not noted before, evidently newtimes become so soaked and chilled in comers. There were song-sparrows with such storms that they are unable to fly, black ephods; the big-headed whitetumble helpless to the ground, and may throats, and their brethren with the jaunty be caught in the hands. The larger birds caps of black and white; the chestnutfare even worse. Credible instances have crowned tree-sparrows; a goldfinch, still come to my knowledge of eagles and swans wearing his dull winter suit; a whole host
the strongest of land and aquatic birds of snowbirds, in white waistcoats with respectively--becoming so plumage-soaked ivory bills and pink stockings ; nuthatches, and loaded with ice that they could not chickadees, and, most beautiful of all, the spread their wings or rise into the air, and purple finch. have thus suffered the humiliation of being This last is one of our most confiding taken alive or knocked over with sticks. and prettiest birds. The male looks as
I recall one such season when a tempest though he had plunged his crested head of freezing rain had raged for thirty-six deep into the juice of dead-ripe strawhours, though it was quite time for winter's berries, the rich syrup of which had savagery to cease, even in stern New trickled down his breast, staining rosily England.
the white feathers, and had poured over Next morning it was hard times among his back into a pool near his tail. the wild animals in the grove, and worse How did all these little beggars learn out in the country fields. Seeds and buds so quickly that alms had been spread for were locked in icy chests, and the insect them? Where had they been hiding? stores, packed away for safe keeping under Whither did they disappear next day, the bark and in various crannies, were when the sun had come out, the ice had sealed beyond the reach of the most per- melted, and not a bird visited my lunchsistent beaks. The field-mice found that counter ?
By Elbert Francis Baldwin O T HE recent visits of M. Carolus- creations—and there they stop. Delicious
Duran to America have served · as is their eye-delight, let us be satisfied 1 both to extend his deserved popu- with it. Their creator has not always been larity and also to emphasize the distinct- fortunate in his subjects; for the most ive art of which he is a master. His aim part they seem self-conscious ; they are and style, followed by French portrait- thinking about the pose. This rather repainters, may be called the objective. The acts upon the artist himself, and we begin beautiful is sought and realized for the to fancy him, too, as a bit self-conscious beautiful alone : the goal is art for art's and self-complacent. His studies, howsake. A Frenchman does not preach a ever, are so frank, sincere, and altogether moral sermon from it; he does not tear charming-why does he not go a step the soul out of art, as do the subjective further, and give them a bit of poetry? artists. He finds his whole duty and de- Is he only a man with a marvelously quick light in the reproduction of nature by and sure eye for every asthetic effect? Is means of his own individual technique. he only an artist with individual style In this M. Carolus-Duran is as good an a-plenty, but nothing more? We end by example as any. His drawing is care looking at the unduly accentuated and fully bold, his brush-handling unlabored ; glowing gowns and curtains and embroiabove all, his color is wonderfully vigor- deries in his portraits rather than at the ous and vivid. Take the Velasquez-like heads themselves. At the same time, all child,“ Beppino,” for instance. One of this this elegant environment is a relief from painter's best works is the portrait of his the entire literalness which includes no wife. France has honored itself by the emphasis on beauty, nor even the quest acquisition of this exquisite picture, and it for it. now hangs in the National Gallery of the If M. Carolus Duran has been more Luxembourg, near the artist's equally successful with his portraits of women and celebrated - Lilia.” In the Museum cata- children than with those of men, the older logue it is called “La Dame au Gant," as and more eminent M. Léon Bonnat has ? Madame Carolus-Duran is pulling off a been more successful with men than with glove from her left hand. The other women, and has produced noteworthy glove has already fallen on the floor. She studies of the most distinguished French has apparently just come in ; she has not personalities-- Thiers, Dumas, Jules Ferry, yet removed her hat. The figure is full- Jules Grévy, Pasteur, Carnot, Cogniet, length, and is painted as if walking across Aimé Millet, Cardinal Lavigerie-a cola room, the head being lightly turned and lection as notable for historic value as the eyes glancing as if for an instant at for artistic worth. M. Bonnat does more the spectator. Nothing could be more than mere brush-work ; he instructs the graceful than this pose, and the whole world by word also, for he is the honored composition is as rare a union as any of Professor of Painting at the Paris Ecole the vivacious and the restful. In color it des Beaux Arts. His pupils admire the is certainly a change to a quieter sym- fine, intelligent head-as good a subject phony from the painter's usual boldness for painting as any—with its white hair of tone. So specially gorgeous, indeed, is and beard, its grave and serious expresthe color in most of his pictures that it sion, above all the self-poise of one who has become his chief distinguishing char- knows well what he is talking about. M. acteristic. His canvases gleam with such Carolus-Duran has also had much success a bewildering dazzlement of the shades as a teacher. Strangely enough, the prodof sapphires, rubies, topazes, opals, ame- igal colorist comes from the north—he thysts, that we fancy his own mind must was born at Lille in 1837 ; while M. itself be a constantly changing kaleido Bonnat, who is more famous for his drawscope. Yet his portraits are never ephe.n- ing than his color, comes from the warmer eral or trivial, They are lovely physical south-he was born at Bayonne in 1833,
For forty years he has not failed to send like beard; the rather sardonic yet hearty à canvas to the annual Salon exhibition. expression-all this combination of the The State has secured three of his best animal in one of the best men and keenest portraits for the Luxembourg-namely, minds would be enough for most portraitthose of Léon Cogniet, his master and ure. The painter, however, has added predecessor in Beaux-Arts membership; various accessories : an Arabic inscription of Aimé Millet, the sculptor; and, most above the Primate's head, and a double striking of all, of Cardinal Lavigerie, late cross against the wall; some huge volumes Primate of Algeria.
lie on the ground, and there is a table M. Bonnat brings to his later portraiture covered with papers and a map of Africa, the strength of his success in genre and upon which rests the Cardinal's hat. Imhistorical scenes and in figure pieces. pressive as is this portrait, its image on His drawing is grandly forcible, but at the mind is not entirely a lasting one. The times his color strikes one as being some work has been wrought in masterly style; what raw, especially just after the sight but of what permanent good the style of one of M. Carolus-Duran's portraits. without some soul ? M. Bonnat's emphasis on light and shade If English portrait-painters are not the makes his subject stand well out from the equals of the French in the above technicanvas. His works are minutely studied, cal excellences (which are also French and he has a thorough mastery of detail, national traits), no more can they repress thus differing from some other realists. in art their own national simplicity, somFew portrait-painters have ever had greater berness, self-sufficiency, nobleness. To facility for crystallizing all sorts of physi- the world at large, in its search for beauty, ognomy, and the Bonnat characterizations English portraits may not be so acceptable always have as much veracity as force. as French, but they appeal more to the Like that of Herr von Lenbach, his genius individual ; they are generally subjective is noticeable quite as much in the treat- rather than objective ; they have more ment of hands as heads.
poetry and less prose; they give greater The qualities which unite these French play to the imagination ; in short, they realists are a genuinely Gallic gayety, vi- are more spiritual. vacity, acuteness, harmony, proper per- If, however, there is any painter bridgspective and proportion, objectivity. No ing the gulf which separates the arts of matter how grave and reverend the Signor- France and England as emphatically as subject, these distinctively French quali- the Channel separates the land, such a ties are evident. Take, if you please, the man may be found in Professor Hubert Lavigerie portrait. It is that of a Roman Herkomer. Four decades ago, a pale, Catholic prelate in his robes of state. He delicate child, about ten years old, came sits there before you, comfortably, solidly, to England. His parents had already but not stolidly ; first of all a great physi- taken him to America from his birthcal object. He looks at you frankly, place near Landsberg in Bavaria, for the laughingly, even jokingly; but have a care: uprisings in '48 had made it impossible it is a great ecclesiastic who jokes; and for them to live longer in the Fathernow you seem to see a sterner gaze out of land. The expected fortune had not been eyes environed by expressive wrinkles, found in the New World ; its streets were and you begin to feel the coldness of steel not paved with gold, even though the armor underneath the warm robes. The mines of California had just been discovPrimate's substantial self is clothed in ered. Hubert's father and uncle, carpenblack and tied in, so to speak, by a wide ters of artistic instinct and intelligence, sash of red silk. On either side falls his were only able to keep their heads above Cardinal's purple gown. His right hand, water ; but already the boy was showing on one of the fingers of which gleams a marks of genius, and his father must make ruby, rests on the arm of his chair and more than a mere livelihood in order holds a pen ; the left hand is lying on his to give his son needed advantages. If breast near a gold crucifix. The hands are America was a disappointment, perhaps masterly, yet somehow they suggest paws. England would not be; and the family set The intelligent yet bull-like head; the sail for Europe. Thus to British glory we sensitive nose; the splendid white, mane- lost one who would have stood in the very front of our artist-ranks. In later solidity, tenacity, but also of that eternal years the son's success was ample com- “unhasting, unresting " which has made pensation for his parents' endeavors, but England great. Thus the poses of his he never allowed his onward strides to subjects are singularly natural—so natural, separate him from them. He provided a indeed, and so assured, as sometimes even home and workshop for his father and to suggest Hals himself. Higher praise uncle in his own fine castle of “Lululund” than this there can hardly be. That great at Bushey, which the great prices he re- Dutchman, whose only rival was Remceives for his portraits enabled him to brandt, was not excelled even by the build. This splendid residence represents painter of the “Night Watch " in surethe actual personal decoration of the two ness of touch. In drawing, brush-handold men as well as of the owner himself. ling, coloring, Mr. Herkomer seems equally The massive central keep is called “ Moth- at home; and he approaches the French er's Tower;" while on the bank of the because his technique, especially in color, river Lech in Bavaria, near the old home, is so admirable. On the other hand, in the filial artist has erected another memo- the individuality of his portraits, and in rial tower. Professor Herkomer's mother their expression of inner, more intimate was a talented musician; and so marked life, he is English indeed. is his own musical ability that, if he had The entire contrast to French objectivnot devoted himself mostly to becoming a ity, however, is found in the works of the great painter, he might have become nota- octogenarian, George Frederick Watts, one ble in another field. As it is, he has of the most stimulating personalities of composed works of no mean merit; he is this or any age. He was never a studio an accomplished virtuoso and conductor. student, in the sense of absorbing much More than any other artist, indeed, he is a from other men's teaching or other men's versatile modern Leonardo; he is painter, works, and he remains a somewhat inferior sculptor, architect, poet, musician, actor, technician. He was independent from the manager, machinist, decorator, director, start in methods as in aims. He was and professor. This last dignity, the ap- determined that his work, whether good pointment to the Slade Professorship at or bad, should at least be as permanent Oxford, succeeding Mr. Ruskin, is never as he could make it. Accordingly, he theless no more highly prized than is his would not weaken its durability by any directorship of the school at Bushey, where old-fashioned mixing of colors. He laid many persons have established themselves, them on side by side whenever he wished studying and working under his direction a union of two shades. His work thus and breathing a veritable art-atmosphere. often seems spotty, muddy, though someHere he gives active and practical expres- times he produces a lambent color only sion to his Oxford lectures. The students to be compared to a dusty opal. His color now form quite a community by them- has long been the target of critics, who selves, and Professor Herkomer has cre- also ieproach him with drawing only as ated a village of artistically planned cot- he paints. Nor do they fail to add that tages for them near his own home. the abstract conceptions of his symbolic
The first thing that strikes us in the canvases enter at times into his portraits. Herkomer portraits is the apparent ap- There is a vagueness which distresses proach of the figures from the canvas. those used to a Bonnat decision and preWe do not go to them, they come to us. cision of line and color. One reason for this is the nakedness of While the young Watts was thus perthe backgrounds. Not only is there an sistently following out his own bent in entire absence of accessories; there is painting, he was even more noteworthy in not even a foundation-color rich enough to proclaiming a new and altruistic philosoattach itself to those of the figures and phy and practice. He was one of the detract from them,
first to give effect to that splendid socialThe second thing we note is the mus- ism, as far removed from the extremes of cular repose of the subject. It is never a collectivism as from the smug bigotry of merely idle repose. Head, shoulders, the epoch when a new John the Baptist arms, neck, bust, figure, all speak, not began preaching and painting in the wilonly of British blood and brawn, of virility, derness. With the late William Morris,