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sible; if not, then to create animosity between authority directly from the people of the them, or at the least to force our Govern- Philippines. He adds : ment to take immediately a decisive position What we ask is independence. What we have as regards the insurgents. This last, how fought for and gained is independence by right. ever, may be in fact a desirable thing. The

The American Government has not yet announced

its policy, and until that is done we cannot defiinsurgents are reported to have committed

nitely outline our action, except that in the mean little violence, and attempts at looting were time it will be for independence. What we may summarily pur ished. General Miller, in con seek to do should the American Government demand of two regiments and a battery, and

cide to extend its authority is an entirely different

matter, and does not enter into the question as under convoy of the Baltimore, reached the

e now presented. It would be unwise for me to neighborhood of Iloilo two or three days speak upon it now. after the insurgents had seized the city. His orders from General Otis to occupy the place did not contemplate the situation

The hearings which are

Railway Postal Rates found to exist. Wisely and properly, General

now going on before Miller refrained from aggressive steps and the joint session of the Post-Office Commitreported to his superior officer. General tees at Washington relating to the payment Otis, it is reported, has now sent an agent to of the railroads for carrying the mails have the insurgen:s requesting them to allow our brought out much interesting information, troops to occupy the city, but earnestly assur- and a good deal of adroit special pleading. ing them of the good will and friendly inten- Unfortunately, the worst of this special pleadtions of the United States toward the people ing has not come from railway officials, but of the Philippines. It is hoped that it will from men in the Post-Office Department, and not be necessary to use force, and that the has been intended, not to help the Governreported intention of the Filipinos to yield ment which pays their salaries, but to he'p only after a serious assault will give way. the railroads, from whom they are supposed The guns of the Baltimore command Iloilo, to receive no pay. For instance, one postand if an attack cannot be avoided there is office official, in order to break down evidence little doubt that our forces, although much that the Government pays the roads several outnumbered by the insurgents, are equal to times as high a rate as the express companies, the emergency. Aguinaldo, the so-called declared that the post-office reports regarding President of the Filipino Republic, has dis- the weight of the mail had for years been appeared from the neighborhood of Manila; utterly misleading, and that the weight of his absence makes the situation more difficult the mails, instead of being about 600,000,000 of adjustment. The insurgent leaders have pounds, as indicated by the receipts of the shown a disposition to refuse to release the Department, was nearly 1,200,000,000 pounds. Spanish prisoners held by them, as required in support of this declaration he cited the by General Otis, alleging that hundreds of fact that the city of Chicago alone furnished insurgents are still held as prisoners by Spain, 75,000,000 pounds of mail; and argued that and that the release of prisoners should be as Chicago furnished only one-sixteenth of the mutual. Iloilo is the next largest town to receipts, the total weight of the mails must Manila in the Philippines, and is a commercial be sixteen times 75,000,000 pounds. This center for the important group of the Visaza argument ignored the fact, which everybody Islands. Why an American expedition was not is familiar with, that a few publishing centers sent there at an earlier date is not certainly furnish nearly all the “second class " or known; probably such a step might have seem- newspaper mail, which yields scarcely any ed too much like an aggression on Spain while revenue. Chicago, in fact, furnishes more the treaty of peace was still under discussion, second-class matter than Philadelphia, BrookThe interests of the insurgents are to be rep- lyn, Boston, Baltimore, and St. Louis comresented in Washington by a “ junta "headed bined, and indefinitely more than all the by Señor Agoncillo, who is already here, and rural districts of the country put together, including three commissioners now on their though these cities and these districts furnish way. Señor Agoncillo's position, as stated to vastly more of the postal revenues. Somereporters, is that Spain had no rights in the what similar though entirely honorable Philippines to cede, that her authority has attempts were made by the officers of express been practically non-existent for some time, companies to show that no trust should be and that the United States could only acquire placed upon the reports which these com

panies made for the census of 1890. The ence in the country has greatly declined ; General Manager of the American Express although at one time France was, from the Company, for example, showed that a subor- standpoint of the Syrians, the greatest of dinate official of his company had reported European Powers. Russia has now taken the weight of the express matter to be the her place, by the aid of intelligent consuls, total weight for which different railroads monasteries, and schools; and if Russia were paid, and that, as several railroads often wants Syria, in the end she will probably get carried the same package before it reached it. The country is filled with Greek modasits destination, the weights were often entered teries and with Russian pilgrims. That the several times. The corrections which he Emperor of Germany is intent upon extendmade reduced the average weight of packages ing the sphere of German influence in Syria, to a little less than thirty pounds. Yet, even and that many steps have been taken in that with this correction, inasmuch as the aver- direction, has been made clear during the age payment made to the railroads is but six- past few weeks to all who have studied the teen cents for each package, the express situation. The significant fact about all this companies are paying but six mills per pound, speculation is the agreement, apparently, that while the Government pays just ten times that Palestine is not likely to remain indefinitely sum. Inasmuch, however, as express mat in Turkish possession. ter is usually hauled only about one-third as far as mail matter, the advocates of the railroads, reversing their usual position, may

Persecuting the Jews

No public movement of claim that the short haul should pay only

seno late years has been more one-third as much as the long haul. If this odious in spirit or more contemptible in be just, then the charge which the railroads method than the anti-Semite agitation in make to the Government is only three times Europe. The leaders of that movement have as great as they make to the express com shown a lack of humanity and an indifference panies.

to the decencies of civilized life which seem like a survival of barbarism. This is espe

cially true of the French anti-Jewish fanatics, ... The visit of the Em led by men who have not hesitated to hint at The Future of Palestine

peror of Germany has a new St. Bartholomew's. What the haters awakened a good deal of discussion in Eu- of the Jews can do when they have their way rope as to the probable future of Palestine. has been shown in Algiers. The Mayor of The London “Spectator” indulges in some that city, who is a fanatical anti-Semite, for speculation in regard to the destiny of that the purpose of ridding the colony of its Jewvery interesting country—a country which ish residents, has devised a system of irritat. presents great difficulties for the simple ing and offensive regulations. He com pels reason that Jerusalem is sacred, as the “ Spec- the cafés frequented by Jews to close early; tator" says, “ to so many creeds and warring he limits Jewish cabmen to special stands; faiths.” It is the holy place of all the Chris- he has put Jewish shopkeepers under the tian Churches-Protestant, Romanis!, and most annoying regulations; and he has fitly Greek; it is sacred to the Jews, and it is crowned the device of his small-minded and sacred to the Mohammedans. The Turk is mean-spirited persecution by a bit of childish Dow in possession; but it seems highly im- malice which would seem incredible if it were probable that he will be able to keep pos. not reported from trustworthy sources. He session. When he goes, who will take his has had photographers sent to the Jewish place? Up to this time Russia, France, and shops to take snap-shot portraits of the ladies England bave alone been interested in Syria; who visit these shops as customers, and these now Germany has entered the field. The portraits are to be hung in a public place! success of the Zionist movement, which would What has become of the French devotion to make the Jews the holders of the Holy Land women, or of that courtesy with which the as the trustees for Europe, is one of the pos. French have so long been credited, even by sibilities of the future; but there are very those who have not respected their political grave difficulties in the way of making it character? The world has outgrown the age a reality, England does not want Syria; when cne race can entertain itself by sticking and, if the “ Spectator" is to be believed, pins into another race. Such exhibitions are " would not take it as a gift.” French influ. offensive to all right-minded people.

We have received a letter proposal to lessen the present competitive A Peace Pilgrimage som Mr William se from Mr. William T. increase of burdensome armies and navies.

T. Stead, sent to a number of prominent Ameri- It is certain that any movement toward recans, accompanying advance sheets of the ducing military and naval forces will have to English edition of the “Review of Reviews," come from the people; it is too much to and urging that measures be taken to develop expect that it will come from those who a public sentiment among the nations of the are supported by the immense military estabearth in support of the Czar's proposal for lishments. Whether Mr. Stead's plan of a peace. In his letter he says:

pilgrimage through the States of Europe for I may state that I have seen in my journey

the purpose of creating this public sentiment round Europe most of our Ambassadors and is the best method to secure the end we are your Peace Commissioners of Paris. None of not so sure. them, of course, could speak officially, but personally they one and all expressed to me their hearty sympathy, and assured me that, in their opinion, the occasion was most propitious, and

The situation in the Austrian Emthat the movement, if started in America, could

In Austria pire does not improve; on the connot fail to sweep all before it. Circumstances

trary, the political and religious antagonisms which to many appeared to be detrimental to the success of such a crusade of peace in your coun

are becoming as violent and as irrational try and in mine, in reality will contribute most in Hungary as in Austria. The Nationalist to its success. The very moderate and states. Opposition, which had a great opportunity, manlike proposals of the Emperor in no way as readers of The Outlook remember of

as readers of The Outlook remember, of putconflict with the maintenance of what each nation considers to be its legitimate armament;

ting itself in the position of rendering a great all that is sought is to slow down the break-neck service to the Empire, and so assuming, for competition in armaments which has resulted in the time being at least, a paramount influence an international game of Beggar-my-Neighbor on a scale that is a disgrace to Christendom.

in its affairs, continues to oppose every The need for establishing some kind of inter

attempt to secure any compromise which will national safeguard or barrier against the easily make it possible to carry on the joint busiexcited passions of the peoples has been demon- ness of the two countries. Baron Banffy, strated only too clearly by recent events. I think, the Premier

the Premier, seems to be in thorough accord therefore, that it will be possible for men of all parties, and of both schools of the expansionists with the Emperor, and probably has a and their opponents, to unite in the support of majority of the Liberal party at his back, this crusade of peace.

But he is opposed by the Clericals, the As a means for creating this public senti- Separatists, and the Nationalists, all of whom ment, he proposes local organizations in are engaged in a passionate warfare against every center of population in Britain and him, carrying on the most violent agitation America “ to express in formal resolution in all parts of the country. What is to be their determination that the Peace Conference accomplished by this obstruction it is difficult shall be made a success, and to appoint a at this distance to discern. It looks very local committee for the furtherance of the much as if the Opposition were throwing objects of the Conference.” From these local away the greatest opportunity Hungary has committees he proposes a national committee had of late years; as if they were driving of the two English-speaking nations to be the Emperor into the last resort of governing organized, under whose authority and ap- without the Constitution. pointment a joint deputation should“ make a pilgrimage of peace throughout Europe, summoning all the other nations to bestir them

The Triple Alliance

- There are signs that the selves, and to unite with them in this great

“ strain on the Triple Allimanifestation of popular enthusiasm in the ance has nearly reached the breaking point. cause of peace," eventually reaching the Czar The good understanding which has been before the Peace Conference opens, and con- arrived at between Italy and France has veying to him the “welcome assurance that effected a great change of feeling in Italy, he has behind him in his beneficent enter. and one which must, in the nature of things, prise the immense force of the English- cool the Italian ardor for an alliance with speaking race.” We believe that Mr. Stead Austria and Germany, which is chiefly a is absolutely right in his judgment that an defensive alliance against France. The Ausappeal should be made directly to the people trians are very much irritated by the expulsion of Europe and America in support of the of Austrian subjects from Silesia in pursuance

The Nicaragua

of a very arbitrary policy on the part of the accumulated with untiring energy. The anGerman Government, and by very arbitrary nual draft of recruits has been greatly inmethods. In the Austrian Reichsrath on a creased, the strength of the armies on a recent occasion Count Thun spoke with un- peace footing has been augmented, and every mistakable vigor on the subject. There was a form of military organization enlarged in note of something very like menace in his scope and advanced in effectiveness. There attitude ; and there is no doubt that his is no doubt of the truth of these statements; words express a growing feeling in Austria. and there is no reason, apparently, why the The German press does not attempt to explain process should not go on indefinitely unless the action of the German Government, but some great military leader, like the Czar of puts in the plea that, while the subjects of Russia, takes the matter in hand as the the German Empire in Austria and Hun- Czar proposes to do—and by mutual agreegary are probably less than one hundred ment stops a ruinous process of increasing thousand, many of whom are of great value the drainage both of men and money. In the to the localities in which they live on account long run it is probable that disarmament must of their financial and other resources, the come about in this way; or else, as a result Austrian subjects on German territory amount of hopelessly increasing the burdens, the to nearly two hundred and fifty thousand, peoples of Europe will rise in despairing the great majority of whom are either Polish protest. or Bohemian workingmen settled chiefly in Silesia and Saxony, but largely represented also in all parts of Germany as peddlers,

The preliminary report waiters, musicians, and in the different crafts.

Commission's Report

of the Nicaragua Canal During recent years a large number of Aus

Commission is as clear, trian Jews have settled in Germany. It must and compact as a public document should be confessed that this is a very inadequate be. The Commission states that its memanswer to Count Thun's indictment; and that bers have personally examined the entire if the policy of arbitrarily excluding foreign- canal region from ocean to ocean; have em. ers is to be justified, it must find some stronger ployed some seventy engineers and helpers ground than a mere difference in numbers for ten months in making surveys and examibetween two countries.

nations; and have also obtained the observations of experts regarding the climatic and

other conditions affecting the feasibility of Meantime More Armaments

The German press the canal project. They are unanimous in

ence is already saying the belief that the construction of the canal with great distinctness that it is very doubt is entirely feasible. Admiral Walker and ful whether the Triple Alliance is any longer Mr. Haupt, one of the engineers upon the treated with seriousness either in Vienna or Commission, estimate the cost at $123,000,Budapest; and that influences are at work 000, while the other engineer, Mr. Hains, which are likely to detach Austria from her believes that this estimate should be increased place beside Germany. The Government about one-fifth. The Commissioners state that organs are not slow to lay hold of the cool- a much less expensive canal could be conness of Austria as an argument in behalf of structed, but justly urge that when the canal the proposed increase of the German army, is built it should be adapted to the large and to reaffirm the dangerous position in ships of modern commerce. The route which which Germany stands by reason of her geo they recommend is the one mapped out by graphical situation. The Czar's “ Peace Captain Lull in 1872. They do not condemn Manifesto" is accepted as entirely sincere, the Maritime Canal Company's route, but and is regarded as a pledge that at present give it as their judgment that the Lull route no attack may be expected from any side; would be slightly easier of construction, but it is pointed out that the process of dis- would present no problems not well within armament has not begun, and that unless good engineering precedents, and would be there is a radical change of conditions it is a safer and more reliable canal when connot likely to begin in the near future. In pleted. The Nicaragua canal bill reported both France and Russia, the German journals by Senator Morgan, favoring the Maritime declare, military organization is , being per- Canal Company, is, therefore, likely to be fected and military material of every sort still further amended, if not defeated.

President McKinley has is. University of Michigan, Taussig, of Harvard Cuban Currency sued an order designed to University, Jenks, of Cornell University, Perplexities

put an end to the confusion Sherwood, of Johns Hopkins, and Kinley, of in the Cuban currency system-or rather the University of Illinois, made a report on chaos. Just how chaotic things have been the subject of currency reform in the United is easily illustrated. As Mr. Clark says in States. We wish that, for popular effect, they his « Commercial Cuba,” one of the first had formulated their conclusions in a brief things to impress an American visitor is that statement which the ordinary American could when he exchanges his American bills for understand. In attempting to supply this Cuban gold he gets a slight premium; when formulation. The Outlook labors under the he exchanges the Cuban gold for Cuban difficulty of possibly not correctly apprebend. silver, he gets a still further premium; and if ing all the positions of the committee. We he exchanges his Cuban silver for Cuban understand its members to hold, however, paper, he receives a still further nominal en- that two things are wanting and needful in richment. The premium on the exchange our currency : stability of standard and elasfor Cuban gold is the most difficult to under- ticity of currency. To secure the first they stand, as it is naturally assumed that gold propose definitely to recognize and adopt the has everywhere the same value. In Cuba, gold standard, not on the ground that that is however, an artificial value has been given necessarily the best, but on the ground that to gold in order to prevent its export. The the only other one which economists favor, Government, for example, decreed that the that is, international bimetallism, is at presgold piece ("centen ") whose bullion value is ent and for a long time will be out of the $4.82 should pass current for $5.30, or ten per question. To secure the stability of the gold cent, more. This projected increase it has not standard they recommend its explicit adopbeen able to effect in full, but (by refusing the tion by law, and also such legislation as shall free coinage of gold to private parties) it has make it easy for the Treasury to maintain increased the market value of its gold coins the convertibility into gold of other forms of about six per cent. In attempting to replace currency. As our readers know, The Outlook this arbitrary and complicated system by a agrees with this general conclusion of the natural and simple one, President McKinley Committee. The country has decided in and his adviser, Commissioner Porter, seem favor of international bimetallism, if it can to have bad in mind some such principle as be secured; otherwise the gold standard. An this : In ihe future all coins shall be received honest and sincere effort has been made to at their bullion value; but present debts secure bimetallism, and it has failed. Now, shall be estimated at the present market those who believe in the result of the last value of the coins in which they are payable. Presidential election should unite on the only The order, however, is not so simple as this. alternative offered, the definite adoption of The centen is to have its bullion value of the gold standard. To secure elasticity the $4.82 at Government offices, but be receivable recommendations of the committee are not at its old legal value of $5.30 in payment of so explicit, nor, it seems to us, quite so clear. existing obligations; but the peso or dollar, All legal-tender notes should be withdrawn which is the monetary unit of the country, from circulation and the currency alone suphas an artificial value of 60 cents at the plied by the banks. The committee is not, Government offices, though its nominal value apparently, positively agreed. They recomis 93 cents and its bullion value about 50 mend, however, an increase of bank circulacents. As the value given to the peso at the tion, and to this end they would allow the custom-houses and tax offices is likely to be banks to issue notes on their assets as wel its market value, it would seem that the as on Government bonds. They would lower burden of debts payable in pesos would the tax on circulation, “ 01, better st. ll, levy it be changed. This change will doubtless on capital and surplus,' or they would lower create some friction.

the tax for ordinary circulation and levy a higher tax when the circulation exceeded a

certain normal income, so as to make it for Currency Reform

At the annual meeting of the the interests of the banks to withdraw their

American Economic Associa- notes except when a high rate of interest tion held in New Haven last week, a com- was paid. They favor some system of branch mittee consisting of Professors Taylor, of the banks so constructed as “to supplement but

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