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and the older free academies; and four are such a thorough hold upon our people, all are in the university—the years of woich are so well understood in all their details, they nothing more than the last four grades of have become such a part in our public life, this public system. States that do not in- they have been supported so long and so clude within the university some form of liberally by taxation, they have been susnormal and technical training have separate tained so triumphantly by all legal proceedinstitutions covering these phases of educa- ings, and in their results they have proved in tion. All these schools are bound together every respec. such a good investment, that under the general direction and supervision they have passed uncha'lenged to a place in of State commissioners of education, and our public policy. Whatever else may befall each grade is made to feel its dependence us in the uncertainties of our social and politiupon every other. Thus there is incentive cal life, and whatever else may come up for and opportunity for every child of the State reconsideration, amendment, or repeal, there to pass by easy stages, in schools urder popu- will never be a resubmission of the publiciar control, from the lowest seat in a district school question in the West. or primary school to graduation from a uni- The American people are peculiarly a pracversity of high standing. This is Huxley's tical people—a pocketbook people. They educational ladder-more effectually and com- are not apt to continue from year to year pletely reproduced in the Western States expenditures which are not satisfactory to than in any other portion of this country. them. Very generally they ask, very shrewdly,
It has taken nearly a generation to bring regarding every public movement, “ Does it out both the defects and excellencies of this pay ?" There must be, then, intense satisfacsystem, and to give to the system the im- tion in this public-school work when the peopulse and incentive and support which can ple of the West are willing to tax themselves come only from the grateful hearts of those for this work nearly as much, if not quite as who have gone out to their places in the much, as for all other purposes combined. world from under such instruction. It has The increase of the interest in public-school taken nearly a generation also to satisfy the work, measured in this way, has been simply people of the entire wisdom of this system; unparalleled. So, too, has their confidence but there can be no further question as to been shown by their willingness to give their the interest of the people and their enthusi- children these larger and better opportunities asm in these educational provisions. This at great expense and with unusual sacrifice system is not something that has been thrust in the homes. The attendance upon public upon the Western public by a few designing schools has increased much more rapidly men. It is not a hobby upon which some than population; and the most noticeable small segment of the public may successfully fact is that the greatest proportionate increase ride—it is the magnificent result of steady has been along higher lines. The enrollgrowth under steady and intelligent demand. ment of public high schools during the last It is no longer an experiment, for it stands fifteen years has so far outstripped the enupon the same ground as that occupied by rollment in previous years as to make an all other institutions which are not in exist- iliustrative chart almost impossible. The ence merely by express statute, but have attendance upon State universities from 1880 arisen out of conditions and circumstances, to 1895 increased over three hundred per and have arisen to serve these conditions and cent. The gain in equipment, expenditure, circumstances. The school work of the West and educational force has been largely comhas reached its present status by a gradual mensurate with this marvelous development process of natural development.
of popular interest. And it has come to stay. No one claims The limits of this article will not permit that it is perfect. It will always be subject extended statistics; but a few illustrations of to modification and changes. It will grow the growth of interest in secondary and higher with our growth. But as a public system, as education, and of the generosity of public contradistinguished from any and every form and private purse, may not be out of place. of private instruction; as a system organized The eloquent figures in the tables on the by the State, maintained by the State, super- opposite page are taken from a large mass vised by the State, and the wisest and surest of information very kindly furnished to the means of self-preservation possessed by the writer during the last three months. State, it will remain. All its forms have The action and reaction of the high
schools upon the universities and of the each grade and each teacher to the organizauniversities upon the high schools have been tion are clearly recognized. Take away this very marked. Nothing so quickens in teacher incentive, make the district school an end and pupil, and through these within the to itself, with no definite outlook beyond, general public, a proper appreciation of the make the high school the same, even make form and scope and power of true education, the university the same; and there come at nothing so kindles the aspirations of the once sluggishne's and barren pride and very community, as a constantly recognized con- unproductive individualism. The growth of
189. 1,148 1.500 2.132 1,075
Armour Institute (Chicago)...
$99,000 * 100,000
30.000 26,225 52,510 296,000 25,000
250,000 500.000 227,000 589,000
Armour Institute is but four years old, and hence has as yet no “ past." The figures for California are for the academic departments only, and do not include the professional schools, Chicago University is another of the
titutions already old in resources and good in works. The statements for Nlinois do not include the Schools of Medicine and of Pharmacy, which are located in Chicago. The number of instructors in the Michigan State University does not include a great number of assistants in laboratories and elsewhere, who give more or less instruction. In 1880 the Conservatory of Music at Oberlin was not in charge of the Trustees of the College.
The expression " educational plant” will be understood to mean buildings, equipment, and grounds used str for educational purposes. and does not include productive endowment.
It should be noted that the figures for Chicago include the English High School and the Manual Training School-each of high grade. The expense quoted for Cleveland is for instruction only. About half the value of plant in Denver is in the beautiful square upon which the High School stands. The figures for Indianapolis include the Industrial Training Schools-of high grade. The amounts for 1897 in St. Louis include the work, etc., of the Normal School, which is now in the same building with the High School, and under the same general management.
In these statements, as in those for Higher Education, the earlier amounts are sometimes estimates; but they have been carefully prepared for this article by gentlemen in official position in the institutions named. tact with and participation in a properly con- the high school has been quite as remarkstituted State system which insists quietly able as that of the universities. but constantly on high standards of excel- The tendency in the West is unquestionlence in its teaching force and in all its work. ably towards public education. Yet the gifts The effect of relationship runs through the of private individuals for such institutions entire system from top to bottom. There is as the Rose Polytechnic, at Terre Haute; constant incentive in every grade with every DePauw University, at Greencastle (Indiana); pupil and with every teacher, when the or- the superb Lewis Institute (Chicago), and the ganization is complete and the relations of new Bradley Institute (Peoria); and the con:
stant loyalty of the various denominations add to the effectiveness of superintendence. to their several colleges—aside from the The number of teachers' organizations is instances mentioned in the tables here constantly increasing, and membership and given-all testify to the deep and abiding better work keep pace with this. All through confidence of good men and women in the the West there is constant discussion of eduregenerating power of higher culture and cational themes, and with more and more sound training. So, too, it is noteworthy breadth and intelligence. There is no section that even in the West, where the spirit of of the Union in which there is more intellectmaterialism is supposed to be peculiarly ual activity in these directions, and the end rampant, the humanities are holding their is not yet. own with technical or more “practical ” The people of the West are evidently dework. The courses in the latter are more termined that education shall be of the peoand more recognizing the desirability and ple, and by the people, and for the people. necessity of a broad and sound foundation They do not believe that the public school is upon which to build, and are so shaping both yet quite good enough for any, but as far as matter and method that that which formerly it goes they are determined to make it good was thought to bring nothing but technical enough for all. They propose to make all skill is now resulting in some of the best history and rich experience of the past a trained minds in the young life of the common heritage, as far as education can country.
accomplish this. They desire to lift every All this advance is having its effect upon child of the State out of the mire of ignothe lower schools. There has been great rance and put his feet on the broad and sure change in the material conditions under which highway of intelligence. They will furnish elementary education is carried forward, in opportunity and incentive, and, having done equipment, and in methods. In nearly every this, they place the responsibility for results Western State there is a definite effort to elsewhere than upon themselves. They are secure better and more efficient organization determined that education shall be a power of the entire educational force of the State ; to unite the people rather than to divide to enforce some system in the grading of them. They desire that all may find possible lower schools; to secure some uniformity that large and intelligent service of their (not identity) in text-books and courses; to fellow-men which alone makes life worth the increase the preparation of the teacher; to living—which alone is life.
The Civil Service
system may measure more or less short of To the Editors of The Outlook :
the ideal. The most that is claimed for it is In the issue of The Outlook for November
that it is immeasurably superior to the system 26, in an editorial reference to the expected
it replaced ; that it has increased the effiExecutive order exempting certain positions
ciency of every branch to which it has been and classes of positions from the operation
faithfully applied; and that it has saved of the civil service rules, the following ap
many millions of dollars to the public treaspears :
ury. It can hardly be said, however, in the
sense you have in mind, that it “hampers" We speak of this as an apprehension, but not because we are devoted to the Civil Service Law
appointing officers, or that it implies any in its present form, or regard it as embodying the unusual or unwarranted “distrust of their best possible ideal for securing the best possible purpose to secure the best men for the work men in the public service. We do not wonder
We do not wonder to be done." Undoubtedly it is an interferthat heads of departments are sometimes out of patience with a system which hampers them in
ence with the free selection of subordinates the selection of their subordinates, and which for political purposes; but that, I take it, is implies a deep distrust of their purpose to secure not what you mean. When the purpose is to the best n.en for the work to be done.
select for fitness only, the rules aid the offiI fear that, unwittingly, you have given a cer; they never hamper him. false impression as to the nature of the Civil The candidates eligible for appointment Service Law. It is granted that the existing are, in the first place, those whose particular
qualifications for the position to be filled question are, however, of considerable relahave been tested in a practical and strict ex tive importance, and if space may be given to amination. The officer is not restricted to a these reflections I shall be much indebted. choice of one of these, but is permitted to
GEORGE MCANENY. select from among the three who are graded National Civil Service Reform League,
New York City. highest. The person selected serves for a probationary term of six months before the
An Important Work appointment is made absolute, and if he pos- To the Editors of The Outlook : sesses any quality affecting his fitness, not After much money and toil spent on wrong disclosed in the examination, it is apt to lines, we have at last learned that no race appear during this actual service. Even whatever is exempt from the conditions of after appointment the employee may be dis- human nature in general. All success in race missed practically in the discretion of the education has this fact for its foundation. superior, the only limitation being that the In taking away the independence of the reasons for the dismissal shall not be politi- Indian and giving him dole, we did the thing cal, and that they must be filed in writing as truly fatal to him as it would have been and an opportunity afforded for a personal to the Anglo-Saxon. That the Indian has explanation. Is it to be conceived that such “ kicked” at his treatment only proves in him a plan will have in it any embarrassment to an affinity to us founded in human nature. the officer whose sole desire is to secure and The remedy that we have largely acted upon retain the services of the best fitted ?
- taking away the dole-is, if done alone, The suggestion that the competitive system only greater injustice. We took land; in contains in it the implication of distrust is restoration we must give the freedom of the hardly reasonable, either. A general law country, with citizenship. We took independaffecting every officer alike, from the highest ence; we must give back the opportunity for to the lowest, in the service of the Govern self-support. We have come to see that we ment, cannot be said to imply distrust of the shall never get rid of the Indian until we are individual. It is to be borne in mind, also, just to him. There is only one way to get that one object sought is to give to every him off our hands—to get him upon his own citizen an equal opportunity to enter the pub- feet. lic service on his merits—a thing that the To do this so far as it is able, and to stimcompetitive plan, only, permits.
ulate others also to the work, is the endeavor It is generally understood that under the of the Indian Industries League. Its specific so-called “ spoils system,” existing prior to objects are, “to open individual opportuthe passage of the Civil Service Law, public nities of work to individual Indians,” and officers were frequently disposed, and often “to build up self-supporting industries in compelled, to make appointments for reasons Indian communities.” other than those having to do with the fitness It now desires to put up, on land adjoining of the candidate or the needs of the service. their reservation, a building for the Navajo The same difficulty existed elsewhere, and women living on the San Juan River, and the United States merely followed the lead under the charge of Mrs. Mary L. Eldridge, of other civilized governments in passing re- field matron and also missionary. In such strictive laws designed to end these practices building Mrs. Eldridge could employ them and to establish an orderly in place of a dis- in weaving the Navajo rugs. But especially orderly plan. It is hardly more reasonable would she teach these women, for whom to say that the motives of particular officers nothing has yet been done, how to use the or classes of officers are suspected than it knitting-machine, the simple hand-loom, the would be to hold that our election laws im- sewing-machine. Such work would enable pugn the honesty of individual voters, or them to use the wool of their sheep more that there is an insult of some sort involved profitably than at present. It would also in asking a public functionary to take an oath train them in regularity of occupation, and, of office.
perhaps best of all, into the perception that I appreciate that the attitude of The they can do something which has not yet Outlook is favorable to the civil service re- been done among them--a stepping out into form, and that you have been opposed to any new possibilities; and, as in the old proverb, recession from the advanced ground that it is the first step that costs. It is proposed reform has taken. The details in immediate to begin this work upon a small scale and in the very simplest way, and progress only I can see that a reviewer could easily have as fast as success will warrant. The money been led to suppose otherwise from the copineeded for this one-room building is two ous use I make of documentary corroboration, hundred and fifty dollars, exclusive of fur- but it seemed to me better to do this than to nishing. A part has been given to the give details of my personal movements from League; the remainder is earnestly desired, place to place. so that the building may be begun at once, I am firm in my belief that agricultural when the work will cost less than in the co-operation is the most important of the new spring.
developments of the movement in England. The very beautiful lace made by the Indian It was for that reason-because it is both women, under the tuition of Miss Sybil Car- the newest and most important that I gave ter, is well known. This lace is of a quality it the first place. The fact that it is not in acceptable to ladies who appreciate the best. the hands of the belated agricultural laborers The work, if encouraged, will become an themselves may be regrettable, but is, after industry supporting many of these women, to all, only a repetition of the evolution of comwhom the little money which they can earn mercial and productive co-operation itself. is the bridge from discouragement and de- The co-operative stores were started by workspair to hopeful living and perceptibly better ingmen, as these farms are now being started homes. “What is there to do out here in by co-operative storekeepers. Agricultural the woods ?” cried one of them. And Miss co-operation is now in the stage in which Carter's lace-work answered her. Miss Car- distributive co-operation was in its early days, ter has applied to the League for aid in carry the phase of more failures than successes, and ing on her work.
the phase in which it still needs the help of To meet these and other calls, the Indian leaders ; but the plant has, I believe, unmisIndustries League asks for contributions of takably got root, and is going to be a very money, and for an accession of members, large and fruitful tree. In default of initianot only for greater financial strength, but tive on the part of agricultural laborers, coalso for greater influence. The fee for mem- operative farms are being organized by the bership is only one dollar a year. The Sec- class who have co-operative initiative and retary will gladly answer questions in regard experience, and I think it a most happy fact to the League and its management. Contri- that this is so. It is along these lines of least butions and membership fees may be sent to resistance that agriculture can most easily the Treasurer, Mrs. James C. Fisk, 32 Quincy and quickly be lifted out of its present primiStreet, Cambridge, Mass., or to the Secretary, tive condition industrially, and brought to its
FRANCES C. SPARHAWK. place in the list of the highly organized in700 Commonwealth Ave., Newton Centre, Mass. dustries of the world. And as agriculture is
the most important of all industries, this Agricultural Co-operation
seemed to me the weightiest thing I saw in To the Editors of The Outlook :
H. D, LLOYD. I am again indebted to The Outlook for generous words of appreciation, and for help
Mexi-Americans in bringing to the notice of the public a sub- To the Editors of The Outlook : ject which I hope it will consider of great While public opinion is formulating the importance. I want to increase my obliga- future of the Philippines it may be well to tion to you by asking you to give me an study an object-lesson in race-absorption preopportunity of correcting the impression of sented in the Territory of New Mexico. the reviewer of “ Industrial Copartnership" Before the recent election the daily papers that my chapters with regard to agricultural of Albuquerque displayed the party tickets co-operation are written at 6 second hand.” for Bernalillo County, the list of Republican In the preparation of these chapters I made candidates containing fourteen names of long journeys in England, Ireland, and Scot- Spanish derivation to seven of English, land, went into the fields, walked through the and the Democratic list thirteen Spanish to piggeries, the greenhouses, and the creameries, eight English; the proportion of leaders thus had personal interviews with bailiffs and indicated being in about the same ratio as managers, besides attending meetings of the the original speech of the voters. Among co-operative farmers. I think this can fairly the candidates there are many names strange be described as investigation at first hand. to one who does not speak Spanish, from