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of strangers. On the site of the Forum the love. The peace of art brooded always in citizens from the politically opposed Regions the churches of Rome, even while her streets of Monti and Trastevere fought bloody bat- were hot with blood. In writing of the tles with stones on appointed feast-days. artists whose names are forever associated The Region of Trevi is eloquent of the fierce with Trastevere, Mr. Crawford is led to condeeds of the Colonna family, always at war trast the age that produced them with the with the Orsini. Their warriors are now present century, finding that modern education forgotten, but the gentle memory of their which tends to crush individuality, favors the kioswoman Vittoria remains, linked forever growth of science alone, and science is made with that of Michelangelo. Mr. Crawford to serve the financial spirit. "In old times, writes justly of their grave friendship, exon- when a discovery was made, men asked, erating them from the commonplaceness of What does it mean?. To what will it lead ?' passion. With dramatic picturesqueness he Now the first question is, 'What will it be tells the story of another and far different worth ?' This does not detract from science, woman-Vittoria Accoramboni—the beauti- but it shows the general tendency of men's ful, baleful White Devil of Italy, whose life thoughts, and it explains why there are so is the subject of the sinister play by Webster. artists like Michelangelo, nor literary men Her name is associated with the Region of like Shakespeare, in our times.” Ponte. In that same Region another golden- Mr. Crawford's opinions on this and other haired woman, but of white memory, met her subjects, though given with a certain nondeath-Beatrice, daughter of Francesco Cenci. chalance, add to the interest of his Rome to The palace of their family still stands in the those who know him only as a novelist. He Region of Regola, “ a gloomy place,... one defends the Jesuits in a strong paragraph, might guess that a dead man's curse hangs though he cites a humorous legend to show over it, without knowing how Francesco in what discredit they are held in Rome. died." Near it is the little church of Sant In the chapter on Leo XIII. Mr. Crawford Angelo in Pescheria, where Rienzi held his draws a well-balanced picture of the Pope Vigil of the Holy Ghost. Mr. Crawford por- and his surroundings. The chapter on St. trays his character, and gives a short, vivid Peter's closes the book. From the dome of outline of his life, that would well bear am- the greatest church in Christendom " you plifying in a novel. Throughout these chap- look down on what ruled half the world by ters on the Regions are rich scenes which force for ages, and on what rules the other seem like a page from fiction. The style of half to-day by faith. ...A thousand volthe book is warm and brilliant, sometimes umes have been written about it by a thouproducing a glow of color, as in the descrip- sand wise men. A word will tell what it has tion of the fatal supper in the garden of the been—the heart of the world." Villa Negroni, where the beautiful Vanozza sat with her two sons, Gandia and Cæsare Borgia. The picture is full of heat and light
Poets and Theology' and perfume and evil mystery.
“ The Great Poets and Their Theology," by But there are other memories than those Augustus Hopkins Strong, President of the of crime in the haunted streets and in the Rochester Theological Seminary, which we sweet, ancient gardens. In the Region of very briefly referred to when it appeared. Trastevere stands the Monastery of Sant' deserves special commendation for its merits Onofrio, where weary Tasso came to end
as a popular introduction to the study of the his strange, unhappy life." It was far from
greatest poets, ancient and modern. Acting,
consciously or not, on the classic Roman and the quiet sadness of its garden called up
rule that a dinner-party should not consist the infinite melancholy of the poor poet, who of fewer than the Graces or more than the drew his last breath of the fresh open air Muses, Dr. Strong has bidden nine to his under the old tree at the corner, and saw board-Homer, Virgil, Dante; Shakespeare, Rome the last time as he turned and walked Milton, Goethe; Wordsworth, Browning, painfully back to the little room where he Tennyson. His aim is simply to introduce was to die.” In the same Region Raphael to them the stranger who desires to profit by passed from the Vatican to the house of the Fornarina, by the gate of the Holy Spirit, 'The Great Poets and Their Theology. By A. H.
Strong. American Baptist Publication Society, Philafrom a heavenly art to an over-bright earthly
the acquaintance. One, therefore, does not projects now taking form at Washington in look to him for the subtleties of criticism, but this direction, he said at Harvard in 1886, simply for the outlines of good information. “It would be a misfortune and an injury, as This is what the reader will find a book of I believe, to the religious progress of the first lessons in this department of literature. country if each of the denominations into As such, it is so well conceived and executed which the evangelical world is divided were that many who already know something of to aim at the maintenance of a university the subjects will find it instructive to them. under its own sectarian name." Related to Devotees of Browning will be edified by Dr. this, and also to other interests, is the probStrong's account of his conversion to their lem of endowments. Few rather than many faith. We commend particularly the chapter universities is our need, says Dr. Gilman, on Dante, too long depreciated among Prot- “but we need them strong." Local or inestants, because misunderstood We think dividual ambitions, as well as sectarian rivalry, Dr. Strong has used the wrong word in say- tend to scattering and weakness, while a wise ing that the work of Homer has “possibly” enlargement of existing foundations will do been added to; undoubtedly it has been more good than thrice the expenditure upon The only other word of criticism that we care new ones. to set down is that the great poets are not Shall we favor the establishment of a permitted to testify of their theology without National University at Washington ? Dr. rather more of rebuttal from the modern Gilman evidently does not, but proposes an orthodox side than seems to be called for in alternative plan-simply to enlarge the opera. a work of this kind. This, however, though tions of the Smithsonian Institution so as to less to our liking, will doubtless be to many include certain specific courses of instruction an additional recommendation.
and research, open to all persons giving proof of fitness to pursue them. Thus a learned
society exactly answering to the classical idea University Problems'
of a university may be developed around the Under this title President Gilman has in- nucleus now existing “with less friction, less cluded a half-score of addresses, given for expense, less peril, and with the prospect of the most part at university seats during the more permanent and widespread advantages past twenty-five years. Some of these are to the country than by a dozen denominalargely bistorical, and deal with problems tional seminaries, or one colossal University solved or in a fair way to be, as his inaugurals of the United States." Eminently wise as is before the University of California in 1872 this expert advice, we fear it is wasted on and before the Johns Hopkins University in those who are hankering for something big, 1876, his semi-centennial address before the and for the distinction gained by pushing it. Sheffield Scientific School at Yale in 1897, On the problem of the higher education of and his paper on “Modern Progress in Medi- women Dr. Gilman reserves his judgment, cine," given at Hartford in 1898. Others while stating the different views with the intitreat such fundamental themes as “ The Util- mation that the last word has not yet been ity of Universities," “ The Characteristics of said, and that the development, around some exa University,” and “Higher Education in isting college for women, of a woman's univerthe United States." All are characterized sity is "not impossible nor undesirable.” As by the broad and clear vision, the grasp of regards the problem of residence, he is not principles and attention to details, the per- satisfied either with the dormitories or the spicacity, vigor, and sound sense which Dr. lack of them, and looks forward to the evoluGilman so amply exhibits in his high office. tion of student homes “ with many of those
In our country there are universities and charms which made conventual and subseuniversities, some in reality and some in quently collegiate life attractive." Dame, differing as much as a captain in the While Dr. Gilman repeatedly declares that regular army and a captain of the militia. the ancient definition, Societas magistrorum It is the problems of the genuine university et discipulorum (a union of masters and with which Dr. Gilman is concerned. One pupils), is all that is essential to the idea of a of these is sectarianism. In foresight of the university, he insists on the distinctive feaUniversity Problems in the United States. By
tures by which such a union bespeaks fidelity Daniel Coit Gilman, LL.D., President of the Johns to its ideal, such as zeal for the advancement Hopkins University. (The Century Company, New York.)
of learning and for the discovery and encour. of learning and for the discovery and encour.
agement of unusual talent, devotion to litera. Fund, and most of the editing of the reports ture, the defense of ideality, a high standard of Sir Charles Warren, published under the of professional learning, and the cultivation title of “Survey of Western Palestine," was of a spirit of repose. In his address at tbe done by him. A concise summary of the work inauguration of President Wilson, at Wash of this survey was published by Sir Walter ington and Lee University, he names as the Besant in 1886, under the title “Twentyfour university watchwords, “ Letters, Sci- one Years' Work in the Holy Land.” ence, Christianity, Politics." The university “ looks forward to the simplification of relig
Books of the Week ious faith, and the supremacy of those Christian doctrines which transcend denominations [The books mentioned under this head were received
by The Outlook during the week ending December and sects.” It is also “ bound to study the
23. Prices will be found under the head of Books functions of the State aod the conditions of Received in the preceding issue of The Outlook. This public prosperity, and to bring the experience
weekly report of current literature will be supple
mented by fuller reviews of the more important works.] and wisdom of the world to bear upon the political and social problems which occasion
RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY solicitude to every patriot.”
The Student's Life of Jesus, by Professor One of the not least important un.versity G. H. Gilbert, of the Chicago Theological problems in America is one which Dr. Gilman Seminary, stands apart in a class by itself does not explicitly name (though it is involved from the lives of Christ commonly read. It in his looking forward to a time when the is a compact and predominantly critical presvoice of the universities shall direct the whole entation of historical facts in clear distinccourse of public education from the primary tion from devotional lessons or theological school upward). The reforms in the gram- discussions. As such, it is specially adapted mar-school curriculum which have been intro to the needs of students, as its title implies, duced in New England through the influence and is a valuable addition to their existing of the associated colleges plainly indicate apparatus for Biblical study. While conthat it is only by associated action that the servative in its conclusions upon mooted universities can make their influence similarly points, it is conspicuously free from theologieffective upon the schools of the Nation. For cal bias. It does not hesitate to admit that this purpose, and others which readily sug. the Gospel records are not in every part of gest themselves as requiring an educated equal historic value, or that there have been public opinion for the condition of National "unconscious or even designed alterations” welfare. the foremost problem seems to be in of the primitive oral tradition, or that the the expansion of the original university idea Virgin Birth (the historicity of which is mainof a “ society of teachers and pupils " in'o a tained) is in no necessary connection with the “concert of powers,” whose voices, now scat divinity of Christ. Professor Gilbert takes tered, shall speak as one.
account of all critical objections, and strongly We have been particularly impressed with maintains the historical trustworthiness of a passage in President Gilman's inaugural the four evangelists. But he reminds us that before the University of California in 1872, the Christ is infinitely greater than the writ. in which he prophetically contemplates that ten Gospel. “The power of Christianity is transfer of the world's interest from the His spiritual presence; and not the inspiration Mediterranean to the Pacific which furnished or the infallibility of the story of His earthly the theme of a widely read commencement life." (The Macmillan Company, New York.) address in 1898. We have only to add that Mr. Frank H. Sprague has written a little it is greatly to be wished that this volume book entitled Spiritual Consciousness, as could be got into the hands of many ambitious “the outcome of an independent search for or benevolent persons, whose idea of a uni- the spiritual viewpoint." It is doubtless versity needs transformation into a high true, as he insists, that a normal human life ideal.
is conditioned on a spiritual view of life.
But we strongly object to the author's unSir Walter Besant is accompanying Sir ethical notion of the spiritual. Genuine Charles Warren on an expedition to the Holy Spiritual experiences are not realized except Land, in which he has always been inter- by the will to do so; that is, the spiritual is ested. In 1868, indeed, Sir Walter was act. the ethical product of ethical choice. So the ing as Secretary to the Palestine Exploration Beatitudes exhibit it, and Mr. Sprague is
fond of appealing to Jesus as our leader in Things of Northfield, and Other Things the ways of the Spirit. Yet he tells us that that Should Be in Every Church, by Dr. " genuine spiritual experiences are born in a David Gregg, of the Lafayette Avenue Presrealm above the personal, and come sponta- byterian Church in Brooklyn, is a collection neously to those alone who have ceased s'riv- of five discourses which he preached to his ing after results of their own individual congregation after a visit to Mr. Moody's choosing." As to this, see John vii., 17. annual Bible Conference. They are the serFor the development of spiritual conscious- mons of one who has come down from the ness Jesus habitually communed with God mount, and wishes things on the plain of as a Being other than himself. Of this there common life to be consormed to the pattern is no intimation by Mr. Sprague, who indeed shown upon the mount. (E. B. Treat & Co., speaks of God as Spirit, but apparently New York.) regards “the Divine” as an impersonal soul The New Testament Emphasized: Based of all things. The theory of mental healing upon a Study of the Original Greek Text, which he connects with these conceptions of by the Rev. Horace E. Morrow. The author the spiritual and the Divine transcends the aims to indicate by varieties of type the space here available for criticism. In part emphasis as it exists in the Greek original, it is doubtless correct; in part it is equally modified by the requirements of correct open to doubt with his statement that “the elocutionary reading. His work comes to us early Christians enjoyed practical immunity with high commendations both from minisfrom disease, for the disciples then possessed ters and elocutionists, and evinces in no small the gift of healing." For the contrary see degree a careful study of the subject. Nev1 Corinthians xi., 30. (Published by Frank ertheless it requires considerable improveH. Sprague, Wollaston, Mass.)
ment in order to attain desirable conformity The Christ: A Poetical Study of His Life with its ideal. We take for illustratioa the from Advent to Ascension, by 0.C. Auringer passage at which we chanced to open the and J. Oliver Smith, is of unequal merit in its book, beginning at Luke xxiv., 29, and italivarious parts. There are some very good cize the words printed in full-faced type as lyrical pieces, as “ Bethany” and “Gethsem- specially emphatic: ane." The first stanza of “The Manger" 29. “ The day is far spent.” “Far spent" is good poetry; the last is rhymed prose. is the translation of a single word, kéKULKEV, It is inexcusable to employ 6 wisting” as and therefore “spent" is as emphatic as far. equivalent to "knowing," and a rhymer is 34. “ The Lord is risen indeed." "Is hard put to it whɔ has to make “'cept” do risen" is the emphatic word here, as indiduty for “except." (G. P. Putnam's Sons, cated by the Greek verb ûyépon beading the New York.)
clause. " Risen is the Lord indeed," would The Christ Question Settled; or, Jesus, exactly represent it. “Indeed” is always Man, Medium, Martyr: A Symposium, etc., emphatic, and hardly requires marking. and What the Spirits Say About It, by J. M. 36. “ As they thus spake." The whole Peebles, M.D. The main purpose of the clause is emphatic, not “ thus" separately. author, a leader among Spiri'ualists, seems 44. “Written ... in the psalms concernto be to put dowa the “ unscholarly chatter” ing me.” The emphasis here belongs not of a few Spiritualists who regard Jesus as a to "psalms” but to “me," as is shown by mythical, not a historical, person. His own the Greek emphatic form čuoll. view is that Jesus was " not an intellectually 46. “ To rise ... the third day.” “ Third” brilliant character, but an ethical religionist is no more emphatic in the original than who kept the Jewish law," and that the true “day." founder of Christianity, as it now exists, was 47. “ That repentance and remission of Paul. (Banner of Light Publishing Company, sins should be preached in his name among Boston.)
all nations." The Greek verb knpuxoņval, Seekers After God, by William Preston heading the clause, indicates that the emphaJohnston, is a book of sonnets, mostly upon sis begins on “preached ;" “all” is not individual characters. Generally correct in emphatic by itself apart from "nations." poetic form, little more can be said of it than Imperfectly as the author's design is realthat it appropriately characterizes those whom ized, we still regard his work as likely to it commemorates. (John P. Morton & Co., help a very large class of persons, both in the Louisville, Ky.)
pulpits and in the pews, to read much more intelligently than they at present do, especially Slicer, in line with Professor Royce, also not if they give heed to the sensible directions a pantheist, saying, “ The City of God’is of the Preface. The author properly warns God, while its citizens are free and finite all who use his book that its markings are individuals.” The fundamental principle intended as a guide only, and not to be used maintained by Mr. Slicer, as the common mechanically, but with all the natural play of ground both of science and religion, is that the voice in subordination to the intellect and . " there is but one energy, and all forces are the feelings. (Charles Reynolds, Middletown, modes of its manifestation.” We are not Conn.)
human yet, as Mr. Slicer repeatedly affirms. Five sermons preached by Dr. W. R. The use of religion is to humanize us, helpHuntington, of this city, at Wednesday noon ing to services during Lent, and related to each
Move upward, working out the beast, other both in theme and treatment, have been And let the ape and tiger die. published by Thomas Whittaker (New York) In this "regeneration from below upward” under the title Psyche: A Study of the Soul. Jesus leads, and forms the type of what a Dr. Huntington touches no subject upon human soul may attain to “ in moral coaleswhich he does not throw the light of his cence with the divine." He is the way, the singularly luc d and luminous thought. truth, and the life. “He has passed from
The Rev. Thomas R. Slicer, minister of being an imperial fact to being an imperative All Souls' (Unitarian) Church in New York, ideal.” In reading the two discourses on has published by request a series of dis- “ The Affirmation concerning Jesus "one cancourses given last winter upon The Great not avoid noticing that Mr. Slicer finds vital Affirmations of Religion. The sub-title de- truth in many a New Testament saying for scribes it as “ An Introduction to Real Relig- which a class of Unitarians have no use. ion, Not for Beginners, but for Beginners With less fervor than Stopford Brooke, and Again”-that is, for thoughtful minds in an more humor than James Martineau, we class eclipse of faith. It is a book to be com- him spiritually and intellec ually with them. mended to such as are "crying for the light” The aim of these discourses expresses itself amid intellectual clouds created by the con- in a sentence of a prayer which closes one of ficting currents of science and the creeds. them: “ Bring near unto us the knowledge It is thoroughly constructive, with few traces of thy Son, and let the Fatherhood of God of a controversial element, mainly in satirical so move our hearts that we shall abandon allusions. We shall not score Mr. Slicer for ourselves wholly to God in his Christ." his inability to see anything but unreason in (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.) Trinitarianism, which he chooses, unreason- Among the currents of spiritual power ably as we think, to regard as standing or generated by the remarkable life of Phillips falling with the so-called Athanasian Creed. Brooks, one of much public significance is the He goes far to make amends for it in saying, William Belden Noble Lectureship in Harvard as his fellow-Unitarian, Dr. Hedge, said long University. Among the students whom Dr. ago, that “ Athanasius was right when ... Brooks powerfully impressed was Noble, of he declared that Jesus was very God out of the class of 1885, a man of admirable characvery God.'” This, of course, is said from ter, equally fond of athletics and intellectual the point of view which regards ethical na- pursuits. After graduating, he studied for ture, whether human or divine, as the same the ministry in the Episcopal Theological nature in man and God, differing only as School at Cambridge until his health failed. finite and infinite. But Mr. Slicer will have Years of rest and travel ended in his death none of the phrase "mere man,” because in 1896. His wife, a kindred spirit, sought there is no such thing; the substance, or to continue the mission of her husband by underlying ground, the animating principle founding this lectureship in his name, “ to of all existence, is divine. Mr. Slicer's extend the influence of Jesus as the way, philosophy is monistic: all dualism is the the truth, and the life," for “ the perfection failure of philosophic courage.” He boldly of the spiritual man and the consecration by declares that “the Universe is a conscious the spirit of Jesus of every department of mind”-pantheistic, some object, yet in line human thought and activity.” The first with the saying of Principal Fairbairn, cer- course of lectures upon this foundation has tainly no pantheist, “ Nature is spirit.” “The just been published, entitled The Message of sum of being, whose name is God,” says Mr. Christ to Manhood. Seldom, if ever, is a