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thanked him for his gentle kindnesses that he had vouchsafed to brynge me to the speache of that man, whose munication he thoughte shoulde be to me pleasaunte and acceptable. And therewith I tourned me to Raphaell. And when wee hadde haylsed eche other, and had spoken these commune woordes, that bee customablye spoken at the first meting, and acquaintaunce of straungers, we went thence to my house, and there in my gardaine upon a bench covered with greene torves, we satte downe talkyng together. There he tolde us, how that after the departyng of Vespuce, he and his fellowes that taried behynde in Gulicke, began by litle and litle, throughe fayre and gentle speache, to wynne the love and favoure of the people of that countreye, insomuche that within shorte space, they dyd dwell amonges them, not only harmless, but also occupiyng with them verye familiarly. He tolde us also, that they were in high reputation and favour with a certayne great man (whose name and Countreye is nowe quite out of my remembraunce) which of his mere liberalitie dyd beare the costes and charges of him and his fyve companions. And besides that gave theim a trust ye guyde to conducte them in their journey (which by water was in botes, and by land in wagons) and to brynge theim to other Princes with verye frendlye commendations. Thus after manye dayes journeys, he sayd, they founde townes and Cities and weale publiques, full of people, governed by good and holsome lawes. For under the line equinoctiall, and on bothe sydes of the same, as farre as the Sonne doth extende his course, lyeth (quod he) great and wyde desertes and wildernesses, parched, burned, and dryed up with continuall and intollerable heate. All thynges bee hideous, terrible, lothesome, and unpleasaunt to beholde: All thynges out of fassyon and comelinesse, inhabited withe wylde Beastes and Serpentes, or at the leaste wyse, with people, that be no lesse savage, wylde, and noysome then the verye beastes theim selves be. But a little farther beyonde that, all thynges beginne by litle and lytle to waxe pleasaunte. softe, temperate, and gentle. The grounde covered with grene grasse. Lesse wildnesse in the beastes. At the last shall ye come agayne to people, cities and townes wherein is continuall entercourse and occupiyng of merchaundise and chaffare, not only among themselves and with theire Borderers, but

also with Merchauntes of farre Countreyes, bothe by lande and water. There I had occasion (sayd he) to go to many countreyes on every syde. For there was no shippe ready to any voyage or journey, but I and my fellowes were into it very gladly receyved. The shippes that thei founde first were made playn, flatte and broade in the botome, trough wise. The sayles were made of great russhes, or of wickers, and in some places of lether. Afterwarde thei founde shippes with ridged kyeles, and sayles of canvasse, yea, and shortly after, havying all thynges lyke oures. The shipmen also very experte and cunnynge, bothe in the sea and in the wether. But he said that he founde great favoure and frendship amonge them, for teachynge them the feate and the use of the lode stone. Whiche to them before that time was unknowne. And therfore they were wonte to be verye timerous and fearfull upon the sea. Nor to venter upon it, but only in the somer time. But nowe they have suche a confidence in that stone, that they feare not stormy winter: in so dooynge farther from care then daunger. In so muche, that it is greatly to be doubted, lest that thyng, throughe their owne folish hardinesse, shall tourne them to evyll and harme, which at the first was supposed shoulde be to them good and commodious. But what he tolde us that he sawe in everye countreye where he came, it were very longe to declare. Neither it is my purpose at this time to make rehersall therof. But peradventure in an other place I wyll speake of it, chiefly suche thynges as shall be profitable too bee knowen, as in speciall be those decrees and ordinaunces, that he marked to be well and wittely provided and enacted amonge suche peoples, as do live together in a civile policye and good ordre. For of suche thynges dyd wee buselye enquire and demaunde of him, and he likewise very willingly tolde us of the same. But as for monsters, bycause they be no newes, of them we were nothyng inquisitive. For nothyng is more easye to bee founde, then bee barkynge Scyllaes, ravenying Celenes, and Lestrigones devourers of people, and suche lyke great, and incredible monsters. But to fynde Citisens ruled by good and holsome lawes, that is an exceding rare, and harde thyng. But as he marked many fonde, and folisshe lawes in those newe founde landes, so he rehersed divers actes, and constitutions, whereby these oure Cities, Nations, Countreis, and Kyngdomes may take ex

The ayre



ample to amende their faultes, enormities of all sortes of people, but also for thadand errours. Wherof in another place (as vauncement of your self to a much welthier I sayde) I wyll intreate. Now at this time state and condition, then you be nowe in. I am determined to reherse onely that he To a welthier condition (quod Raphael) by tolde us of the maners, customes, lawes, and that meanes, that my mynde standeth cleane ordinaunces of the Utopians. But first I agaynst ? Now I lyve at libertie after myne wyll repete oure former communication by owne mynde and pleasure, whiche I thynke thoccasion, and (as I might saye) the drifte verye fewe of these great states and pieres wherof, he was brought into the mention of of realmes can saye. Yea, and there be that weale publique.

ynow of them that sue for great mens For, when Raphael had very prudentlye frendeshippes: and therfore thinke it no touched divers thyngs that be amisse, some great hurte, if they have not me, nor iii. or here and some there, yea, very many on

iii. suche other as I am. Well, I perceive bothe partes; and againe had spoken of playnly frende Raphael (quod I) that you suche wise lawes and prudente decrees, as be desirous neither of richesse, nor of power. be established and used, bothe here amonge And truly I have in no lesse reverence and us and also there amonge theym, as estimation a man of your mynde, then anye

so perfecte, and experte in the of theim all that bee so high in power and lawes, and customes of every severall authoritie. But you shall doo as it becomCountrey, as though into what place soever eth you: yea, and accordyng to this wishe came geast wise, there he had ledde al dome, to this high and free courage of yours, his life: then Peter muche mervailynge at if you can finde in your herte so to apthe man: Surely maister Raphael (quod poynt and dispose your selfe, that you mai he) I wondre greatly, why you gette you not applye your witte and diligence to the into some kinges courte. For I am sure profite of the weale publique, thoughe it be there is no Prince livyng, that wold not somewhat to youre owne payne and hynbe very glad of you, as a man not only draunce. And this shall you never so wel hable highly to delite him with your pro- doe, nor wyth so greate proffitte perfourme, founde Tearnyng, and this your knowledge as yf you be of some greate princes counsel, of countreis, and peoples, but also mete to and put into his heade (as I doubte not but instructe him with examples, and helpe him you wyl) honeste opinions, and vertuous with counsell. And thus doyng, you shall persuasions. For from the prince, as from bryng your selfe in a verye good case, and a perpetual wel sprynge, commethe amonge also be of habilitie to helpe all your frendes the people the floode of al that is good or and kinsfolke. As concernyng my frendes evell. But in you is so perfitte lernynge, and kynsfolke (quod he) I passe not greatly that withoute anye experience, and agayne for them. For I thinke I have sufficiently so greate experience, that wythoute anye doone, my parte towardes them already. lernynge you maye well be any kinges counFor these thynges, that other men doo not sellour. You be twyse deceaved maister departe from, untyl they be olde and syeke, More (quod he) fyrste in me, and agayne yea, whiche they be then verye lothe to in the thinge it selfe. For neither is in me leave, when they canne no longer keepe, the habilitye that you force upon me, and those very same thynges dyd I beyng not yf it wer never so much, yet in disquieting only lustye, and in good helth, but also in

myne owne quietnes I should nothing furthe floure of my youth, divide among my ther the weale publique. For first of all, frendes and kynsfolkes. Which I thynke the moste parte of all princes have more with this my liberalitie ought to holde them delyte in warlike matters and feates of chivcontented, and not to require nor to loke alrie (the knowlege wherof I neither have that besydes this, I shoulde for their sakes nor desire) than in the good feates of peace; geve myselfe in bondage unto kinges. and employe muche more study, how by

Nay, God forbyd that (quod Peter) it is right or by wrong to enlarge their dominnotte my mynde that you shoulde be in ions, than howe wel, and peaceablie to rule, bondage to kynges, but as a retainour to and governe that they have alredie. Morethem at your pleasure. Whiche surely I over, they that be counsellours to kinges, thinke is the nighest waye that you can every one of them eyther is of him selfe devise howe to bestowe your time frutefully, so wise in dede, that he nedeth not, or elles not onlye for the private commoditie of he thinketh himself so wise, that he wil your frendes and for the generall profite not allowe another mans counsel, saving that they do shamefully and flatteringly though stricken in age, yet bare he his bodye geve assent to the fond and folishe say- upright. In his face did shine such an inges of certeyn great men. Whose favours, amiable reverence, as was pleasaunte to bebicause they be in high authoritie with their holde, Gentill in communication, yet earnest, prince, by assentation and flatterie they and sage. He had great delite manye times labour to obteyne. And verily it is nat- with roughe speache to his sewters, to prove, urally geven to all men to esteme their but withoute harme, what prompte witte owne inventions best. So both the Raven and what bolde spirite were in every man. and the Ape thincke their owne yonge ones In the which, as in a vertue much agreinge fairest. Then if a man in such a company, with his nature, so that therewith were not where some disdayne and have despite at joyned impudency, he toke greate delectaother mens inventions, and some counte their tyon. And the same person, as apte and owne best, if among suche menne (I say) mete to have an administratyon in the weale a man should bringe furth any thinge, that publique, he dyd lovingly embrace. In his he hath redde done in tymes paste, or that speche he was fyne, eloquent, and pytthye. he hath sene done in other places; there the In the lawe he had profunde knowledge, in hearers fare as though the whole existima- witte he was incomparable, and in memory tion of their wisdome were in jeoperdye to wonderful excellente. These qualityes, which be overthrowen, and that ever after thei in hym were by nature singular, he by shoulde be counted for verye diserdes," un- learnynge and use had made perfecte. The les they could in other mens inventions kynge put muche truste in his counsel, the pycke out matter to reprehend, and find weale publyque also in a maner leaned unto fault at. If all other poore helpes fayle, hym, when I was there. For even in the then this is their extreame refuge. These chiefe of his youth he was taken from thinges (say they) pleased our forefathers schole into the courte, and there passed all and auncestours: wolde God we coulde be his tyme in much trouble and busines, beyng so wise as thei were: and as though thei had continually tumbled and tossed in the waves wittely concluded the matter, and with this of dyvers mysfortunes and adversities. And answere stopped every mans mouth, thei so by many and greate daungers he lerned sitte downe againe. As who should sai, it the experience of the worlde, whiche so were a very daungerous matter, if a man beinge learned can not easely be forgotten. in any pointe should be founde wiser then It chaunced on a certayne daye, when I sate his forefathers were. And yet bee we con- at his table, there was also a certayne laye tent to suffre the best and wittiest of their man cunnynge in the lawes of youre Realme. decrees to lye unexecuted: but if in any Who, I can not tell wherof takynge occasion, thing a better ordre might have ben taken, began diligently and earnestly to prayse that then by them was, there we take fast holde, strayte and rygorous justice, which at that findyng therin many faultes. Manye tymes tyme was there executed upon fellones, who, bave I chaunced upon such proude, leude, as he sayde, were for the moste parte xx. overthwarte and waywarde judgementes, yea, hanged together upon one gallowes. And, and once in England: I prai you Syr (quod seyng so fewe escaped punyshement, he I) have you ben in our countrey? Yea for- sayde he coulde not chuse, but greatly wonsoth (quod he) and there I taried for the der and marvel, howe and by what evil lucke space of ini. or v. monethes together, not it shold so come to passe, that theves neverlonge after the insurrection, that the Wes- theles were in every place so ryffe and so terne English men made agaynst their kyng, rancke. Naye, Syr, quod I (for I durst which by their owne miserable and pitiful boldely speake my minde before the Cardislaughter was suppressed and ended. In nal) marvel nothinge here at: for this the meane season I was muche bounde and

punyshment of theves passeth the limites of beholdynge to the righte reverende father, Justice, and is also very hurtefull to the John Morton, Archebishop and Cardinal of weale publique. For it is to extreame and Canterbury, and at that time also lorde cruel a punishment for thefte, and yet not Chauncelloure of Englande: a man, Mayster sufficient to refrayne and withhold men from Peter, (for Mayster More knoweth already thefte. For simple thefte is not so great that I wyll saye) not more honourable for an offense, that it owght to be punished with his authoritie, then for his prudence and death. Neither ther is any punishment so vertue. He was of a meane stature, and horrible, that it can kepe them from 1 dolts

stealynge, which have no other craft, wherby


to get their living. Therfore in this poynte, sickely faces, and patched cotes, will not not you onlye, but also the most part of the take them into service. And husbandmen world, be like evyll scholemaisters, which be dare not set them a worke: Knowynge wel readyer to beate, then to teache, their ynoughe that he is nothing mete to doe scholers. For great and horrible punish- trewe and faythful service to a poore man mentes be appointed for theves, whereas wyth a spade and a mattoke for small wages much rather provision should have ben made, and hard fare, whyche beynge deyntely and that there were some meanes, whereby they tenderly pampered up in ydilnes and pleasmyght get their livyng, so that no man ure, was wont with a sworde and a buckler shoulde be dryven to this extreme necessitie, by hys syde to jette through the strete with firste to steale, and then to dye. Yes (quod a bragginge loke, and to thynke hym selfe he) this matter is wel ynough provided for to good to be anye mans mate. Naye by already. There be handy craftes, there is saynt Mary sir (quod the lawier) not so. husbandrye to gette their livynge by, if they For this kinde of men muste we make would not willingly be nought. Nay, quod moste of. For in them as men of stowter I, you shall not skape so: for first of all, I stomackes, bolder spirites, and manlyer wyll speake nothynge of them, that come courages then handycraftes men and plowehome oute of the warres, maymed and lame, men be, doth consiste the whole powre, as not longe ago, oute of Blackeheath fielde, strength and puissaunce of oure army, when and a litell before that, out of the warres in we muste fight in battayle. Forsothe, sir, as Fraunce: suche, I saye, as put their lives well you myghte saye (quod I) that for in jeoperdye for the weale publiques or the warres sake you muste cheryshe theves. For kynges sake, and by reason of weakenesse surely you shall never lacke theves, whyles and lamenesse be not hable to occupye their you have them. No, nor theves be not the olde craftes, and be to aged to lerne new : most false and faynt harted soldiers, nor of them I wyll speake nothing, forasmuch as souldiours be not the cowardleste theves: so warres have their ordinarie recourse.

wel thees ii. craftes agree together. But this let us •considre those thinges that chaunce faulte, though it be much used amonge you, daily before our eyes. First there is a great yet is it not peculiar to you only, but comnumbre of gentlemen, which can not be con- men also almoste to all nations. Yet Fraunce tent to live idle themselves, lyke dorres, of besides this is troubled and infected with a that whiche other have laboured for: their much sorer plage. The whole royalme is tenauntes I meane, whom they polle and fylled and besieged with hiered souldiours in shave to the quicke, by reisyng their rentes peace tyme (yf that bee peace) whyche be (for this onlye poynte of frugalitie do they brought in under the same colour and preuse, men els through their lavasse and tense, that hath persuaded you to kepe these prodigall spendynge, hable to brynge theym- | ydell servynge men. For thies wyse fooles selfes to verye beggerye) these gentlemen, and verye archedoltes thought the wealthe of I say, do not only live in idlenesse them- the whole countrey herin to consist, if there selves, but also carrye about with them at were ever in a redinesse a stronge and their tailes a great flocke or traine of idle sure garrison, specially of old practised and loyterynge servyngmen, which never souldiours, for they put no trust at all in learned any craft wherby to gette their men unexercised. And therfore they must livynges. These men

as their

be forced to seke for warre, to the ende thei mayster is dead, or be sicke themselfes, be may ever have practised souldiours and cunincontinent thrust out of dores. For gentle- nyng mansleiers, lest that (as it is pretely men hadde rather keepe idle persones, then sayde of Salust) their handes and their sicke men, and many times the dead mans mindes through idlenes or lacke of exercise, heyre is not hable to mainteine so great a should waxe dul. But howe pernitious and house, and kepe so many serving men as his pestilente a thyng it is to maintayne suche father dyd. Then in the meane season they beastes, the Frenche men, by their owne that be thus destitute of service, either harmes have learned, and the examples of starve for honger, or manfullye playe the the Romaynes, Carthaginiens, Syriens, and theves. For what would you have them to of manye other countreyes doo manifestly do? When they have wandred abrode so declare. For not onlye the Empire, but also longe, untyl they have worne thredebare the fieldes and Cities of all these, by divers their apparell, and also appaired their helth, occasions have been overrunned and dethen gentlemen because of their pale and stroyed of their owne armies before hande



had in a redinesse. Now how unnecessary a thinge this is, hereby it maye appeare: that the Frenche souldiours, which from their youth have ben practised and inured in feates of armes, do not cracke nor advaunce themselfes to have very often gotte the upper hand and maistry of your new made and unpractised souldiours. But in this poynte I wyll not use many woordes, leste perchaunce I maye seeme to flatter you. No, nor those same handy crafte men of yours in cities, nor yet the rude and uplandish plowmen of the countreye, are not supposed to be greatly affrayde of your gentlemens idle servyngmen, unlesse it be suche as be not of body or stature correspondent to their strength and courage, or els whose bolde stomakes be discouraged throughe povertie. Thus you may see, that it is not to be feared lest they shoulde be effeminated, if thei were brought up in good craftes and laboursome woorkes, whereby to gette their livynges, whose stoute and sturdye bodyes (for gentlemen vouchsafe to corrupte and spill none but picked and chosen men) now either by reason of rest and idlenesse be brought to weakenesse: or els by to easy and womanly exercises be made feble and unhable to endure hardnesse. Truly howe so ever the case standeth, thys me thinketh is nothing avayleable to the weale publique, for warre sake, which you never have, but when you wyl your selfes, to kepe and mainteyn an unnumerable flocke of that sort of men, that be so troublesome and norous in peace, wherof you ought to have a thowsand times more regarde, then of warre. But yet this is not only the necessary cause of stealing. There is an other, whych, as I suppose, is proper and peculiar to you Englishmen alone. What is that, quod the Cardinal? Forsoth my lorde (quod 1) your shepe that were wont to be so meke and tame, and so smal eaters, now, as I heare save, be become so great devowerers and so wylde, that they eate up, and swallow downe the very men them selfes. They consume, destroye, and devoure whole fieldes, bowses, and cities. For looke in what partes of the realme doth growe the fynest, and therfore dearest woll, there noblemen, and gentlemen: yea and certeyn Abbottes, holy men no doubt, not contenting them selfes with the yearely revenues and profytes, that were wont to grow to theyr forefathers and predecessours of their landes, nor beynge content that they live in rest and pleasure nothinge profiting, yea much noyinge the

weale publique: leave no grounde for tillage, thei inclose al into pastures: thei throw doune houses: they plucke downe townes, and leave nothing standynge, but only the churche to be made a shepe-howse. And as thoughe you loste no small quantity of grounde by forests, chases, laundes, and parkes, those good holy men turne all dwellinge places and all glebeland into desolation and wildernes. Therfore that one covetous and unsatiable cormaraunte and very plage of his natyve contrey maye compasse aboute and inclose many thousand akers of grounde together within one pale or hedge, the husbandmen be thrust owte of their owne, or els either by coveyne and fraude, or by violent oppression they be put besydes it, or by wronges and injuries thei be so weried, that they be compelled to sell all: by one meanes therfore or by other, either by hooke or crooke they muste needes departe awaye, poore, selye, wretched soules, men, women, husbands, wives, fatherlesse children, widowes, wofull mothers, with their yonge babes, and their whole houshold smal in substance, and muche in numbre, as husbandrye requireth manye handes. Awaye thei trudge, I say, out of their knowen and accustomed houses, fyndynge no place to reste in. All their housholdestuffe, whiche is verye litle woorthe, thoughe it myght well abide the sale: yet beeynge sodainely thruste oute, they be constrayned to sell it for a thing of nought. And when they have wandered abrode tyll that be spent, what can they then els doo but steale, and then justly pardy be hanged, or els go about a beggyng. And yet then also they be caste in prison as vagaboundes, because they go aboute and worke not: whom no man wyl set a worke, though thei never so willyngly profre themselves therto. For one Shephearde or Heardman is ynoughe to eate up that grounde with cattel, to the occupiyng wherof aboute husbandrye manye handes were requisite. And this is also the cause why victualles be now in many places dearer. Yea, besides this the price of wolle is so rysen, that poore folkes, which were wont to worke it, and make cloth therof, be nowe hable to bye none at all. And by thys meanes verye manye be forced to forsake worke, and to geve them selves to idelnesse. For after that so much grounde was inclosed for pasture, an infinite multitude of shepe dyed of the rotte, suche vengeaunce God toke of their inordinate and unsaciable covetousness, sendinge amonge the shepe that

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