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pestiferous morrein, whiche much more oute these pernicyous abhominations, make justely shoulde have fallen on the shepe- a lawe, that they, whiche plucked downe masters owne heades. And though the num- fermes, and townes of husbandrie, sbal ber of shepe increase never so faste, yet reedifie them, or els yelde and uprender the the price falleth not one myte, because there possession therof to suche as wil go to the be so fewe sellers. For they be almooste all cost of buylding them anewe. Suffer not comen into a fewe riche mennes handes, these riche men to bie up al, to ingrosse, and whome no neade forceth to sell before they forstalle, and with their monopolie to kepe lust, and they luste not before they maye sell the market alone as please them. Let not so as deare as they luste. Now the same cause many be brought up in idelnes, let husbringeth in like dearth of the other kindes of

bandry and tillage be restored, let clothecattell, yea and that so much the more, workinge be renewed, that ther may be honbicause that after fermes plucked downe, est labours for this idell sort to passe their and husbandry decaied, there is no man that tyme in profitablye, whiche hitherto either passethe for the breadynge of younge stoore. povertie hath caused to be theves, or elles For these riche men brynge not up the yonge nowe be either vagabondes, or idel serving ones of greate cattel as they do lambes. But

men, and shortelye wilbe theves. Doubtles first they bie them abrode verie chepe, and onles you finde a remedy for these enormiafterward when they be fatted in their

ties, you shall in vaine advaunce your selves pastures, they sell them agayne excedynge of executing justice upon fellons. For this deare. And therefore (as I suppose) the justice is more beautiful in apperaunce, and whole incommoditie hereof is not yet felte. more flourishynge to the shewe, then either For yet they make dearth onely in those juste or profitable. For by suffring your places, where they sell. But when they shall

youthe wantonlie and viciously to be brought fetche them away from thence wheare they

up, and to be infected, even frome theyr be bredde faster then they can be broughte tender age, by litle and litle with vice: then up: then shall there also be felte greate

a goddes name to be punished, when they dearth, stoore beginning there to faile, where

commit the same faultes after being come the ware is boughte. Thus the unreasonable

to mans state, which from their youthe they covetousnes of a few hath turned that thing

were ever like to do: In this pointe, I praye to the utter undoing of your ylande, in the

you, what other thing do you, then make whiche thynge the chiefe felicitie of your

theves and then punish them? realme did consist. For this greate dearth of victualles causeth men to kepe as litle

3. A Discourse Upon International Relahouses, and as smale hospitalitie as they

tions, Happiness, and Reformers possible maye, and to put away their servauntes: whether, I pray you,

But yet, all this notwithstandinge, I can beggynge: or elles (whyche these gentell

by no meanes chaunge my mind, but that I bloudes and stoute stomackes wyll sooner set

must nedes beleve, that you, if you be distheir myndes unto) a stealing? Nowe to posed, and can fynde in youre hearte to amende the matter, to this wretched beg

followe some princes courte, shall with your gerye and miserable povertie is joyned good counselles greatlye helpe and further greate wantonnes, importunate superfluitie, the commen wealthe. Wherfore there is and excessive riote. For not only gentle

nothynge more apperteining to youre dewty, mennes servauntes, but also handicraft men: that is to saye, to the dewtie of a good man. yea and almooste the ploughmen of the For where as your Plato judgeth that weale countrey, with al other sortes of people, use publiques shall by this meanes atteyne permuche straunge and proude newefanglenes fecte felicitie, eyther if philosophers be in their apparell

, and to muche prodigall kynges, or elles if kynges geve themselves to riotte and sumptuous fare at their table. the studie of philosophie, how farre I praye Nowe bawdes, queines, whoores, harlottes, you, shall commen wealthes then be frome strumpettes, brothelhouses, stewes, and yet thys felicitie, yf philosophers wyll voucheanother stewes, wyne tavernes, ale houses, saufe to enstruct kinges with their good and tipling houses, with so manye noughtie, counsell? They be not so unkinde (quod lewde, and unlawfull games, as dyce, cardes, he) but they woulde gladlye do it, yea, tables, tennis, boules, coytes, do not all these manye have done it alreadye in bookes that sende the haunters of them streyghte a they have put furthe, if kynges and princes stealynge, when theyr money is gone? Caste would be willynge and readye to folowe

but a


good counsell. But Plato doubtlesse dyd all in this to make peace with the Englishwell foresee, oneless kynges themselves men, and with mooste suer and stronge woulde applye their mindes to the studye of bandes to bynde that weake and feable Philosophie, that elles they woulde never frendeshippe, so that they muste be called thoroughlye allowe the counsell of Philoso- frendes, and hadde in suspicion as enemyes. phers, beynge themselves before even from And that therfore the Skottes muste be their tender age infected, and corrupt with hadde in a readines, as it were in a perverse, and evill opinions. Whiche thynge standynge, readie at all occasions, in aunters Plato hymselfe proved trewe in kinge the Englishmen shoulde sturre never Dionyse. If I shoulde propose to any kyng | lytle, incontinent to set upon them. And wholsome decrees, doynge my endevoure to moreover previlie and secretlye (for openlie plucke out of hys mynde the pernicious it maye not be done by the truce that is originall causes of vice and noughtines, taken) privelie therefore I saye to make thinke you not that I shoulde furthewith muche of some Piere of Englande, that is either be driven awaye, or elles made a bannished hys countrey, whiche muste cleime laughyng stocke? Well suppose I were with title to the crowne of the realme, and affirme the Frenche kynge, and there syttinge in his hym selfe juste inherytoure thereof, that by counsell, whiles in that mooste secrete con- this subtill meanes they maye holde to them sultation, the kynge him selfe there beynge the kinge, in whome elles they have but presente in hys owne personne, they beate small truste and affiaunce.

Here I saye, their braynes, and serche the verye bottomes where so great and heyghe matters be in of their wittes to discusse by what crafte consultation, where so manye noble and and meanes the kynge maye styl kepe Myl- wyse menne counsell theyr kynge onelie to layne, and drawe to him againe fugitive warre, here yf I, selie man, shoulde rise up Naples, and then howe to conquere the and will them to tourne over the leafe, and Venetians, and howe to bringe under his learne a newe lesson, sayinge that my counjurisdiction all Italie, then howe to win the sell is not to medle with Italy, but to tarye dominion of Flaunders, Brabant, and of all styll at home, and that the kyngedome of Burgundie: with divers other landes, whose Fraunce alone is almooste greater, then that kingdomes he hath longe ago in mind and it maye well be governed of one man: so purpose invaded. Here whiles one counsel

that the kynge shoulde not nede to studye leth to conclude a legue of peace with the howe to gette more; and then shoulde proVenetians, so longe to endure, as shall be

pose unto them the decrees of the people that thought mete and expedient for their pur- be called the Achoriens, whiche be situate pose, and to make them also of their coun- over agaynste the Ilande of Utopia on the sell, yea, and besides that to geve them part south-easte side. These Achoriens ones made of the pray, whiche afterwarde, when they warre in their kinges quarrell for to gette have brought theyr purpose about after him another kingdome, whiche he laide their owne myndes, they maye require and claime unto, and avaunced hymselfe ryghte elayme againe. Another thinketh best to inheritoure to the crowne thereof, by the hiere the Germaynes. Another woulde have tytle of an olde aliaunce. At the last when the favoure of the Swychers wonne with they had gotten it, and sawe that they hadde money. Anothers advyse is to appease the even as muche vexation and trouble in puissaunte power of the Emperoures kepynge it, as they had in gettynge it, and majestie wyth golde, as with a moste pleas- that either their newe conquered subjectes aunte, and acceptable sacrifice. Whiles by sundrye occasions were makynge daylye another gyveth counsell to make peace wyth insurrections to rebell against them, or els the kynge of Arragone, and to restoore unto that other countreis were continuallie with him hys owne kyngedome of Navarra, as divers inrodes and forragynges invadynge full assuraunce of peace. Another commeth them: so that they were ever fighting either in with his five egges, and adviseth to hooke for them, or agaynste them, and never coulde in the kynge of Castell with some hope of breake up theyr campes: Seyng them selves affinitie or allyaunce, and to bringe to their in the meane season pylled and impoverparte certeine Pieers of his courte for greate ished: their money caried out of the realme: pensions. Whiles they all staye at the their own men killed to maintaine the glorye chiefeste doubte of all, what to do in the of an other nation: when they had no warre, meane time with Englande, and yet agree peace nothynge better then warre, by reason that their people in war had so inured them- coyne to lesse then it is worthe, when he selves to corrupte and wicked maners: that muste receive or gather any. For thus great they had taken'a delite and pleasure in rob- sommes shal be payd wyth a lytyl money, binge and stealing: that through man- and where lytle is due muche shal be reslaughter they had gathered boldnes to mis- ceaved. Another counselleth to fayne warre, chiefe: that their lawes were had in con- that when under this coloure and pretence tempte, and nothing set by or regarded : the kyng hath gathered greate aboundaunce that their king beynge troubled with the of money, he maye, when it shall please him, charge and governaunce of two kingdomes, make peace with greate solempnitie and could not nor was not hable perfectlie to holye ceremonies, to blinde the eyes of the discharge his office towardes them both: poore communaltie, as taking pitie and comseing againe that all these evelles and

passion forsothe upon mans bloude, lyke a troubles were endles: at the laste layde their loving and a mercifull prince. Another putheades together, and like faithfull and lov-, teth the kynge in remembraunce of certeine inge subjectes gave to their kynge free choise olde and moughteeaten lawes, that of longe and libertie to kepe styll the one of these two tyme have not bene put in execution, whıych kingdomes whether he would: alleginge that because no man can remembre that they he was not hable to kepe both, and that they were made, everie man hath transgressed. were mo then might well be governed of The fynes of these lawes he counselleth the halfe a king: forasmuche as no man woulde kynge to require: for there is no waye so be content to take him for his mulettour, | proffitable, nor more honorable, as the that kepeth an other mans moyles besydes whyche hathe a shewe and coloure of justice. his. So this good prince was constreyned Another advyseth him to forbidde manye to be content with his olde kyngedome and thinges under greate penalties and fines, to geve over the newe to one of his frendes.

specially suche thinges as is for the peoples Who shortelye after was violentlie driven out. profit not be used, and afterwarde to Furthermore if I shoulde declare unto them, dispence for money with them, whyche by that all this busie preparaunce to warre, this prohibition substeyne losse and damwherby so many nations for his sake should

mage. For by this meanes the favour of be broughte into a troublesome hurleiburley, the people is wonne, and profite riseth two when all his coffers were emptied, his treas- wayes. First by takinge forfaytes of them ures wasted, and his people destroied, should

whome covetousnes of gaynes hath brought at the length through some mischance be in daunger of this statute, and also by in vaine and to none effect: and that ther- sellinge privileges and licences, whyche the fore it were best for him to content him

better that the prince is, forsothe the deerer selfe with his owne kingedome of Fraunce, he selleth them: as one that is lothe to as his forfathers and predecessours did be- graunte to any private persone anye thinge fore him: to make much of it, to enrich it, that is against the proffite of his people. and to make it as flourisshing as he could, to “And therefore maye sel none but at an endevoure him selfe to love his subjectes, exceding dere pryce. Another giveth the and againe to be beloved of them, willingly kynge counsel to endaunger unto his grace to live with them, peaceably to governe them, the judges of the Realme, that he maye and with other kyngdomes not to medle, have them ever on his side, and that they seinge that whiche he hath all reddy is even maye in everye matter despute and reason ynoughe for him, yea and more than he can for the kynges right. Yea and further to well turne hym to: this myne advyse, maister call them into his palace and to require them More, how thinke you it would be harde there to argue and discusse his matters in and taken? So God helpe me, not very his owne presence. So there shal be no matthankefully, quod I. Wel, let us procede ter of his so openlye wronge and unjuste, then, quod he. Suppose that some kyng and wherein one or other of them, either because his counsel were together whettinge their he wyl have sumthinge to allege and objecte wittes and devisinge, what subtell crafte or that he is ashamed to saye that whiche is they myght invente to enryche the kinge with sayde alreadye, or els to pike a thanke with great treasures of money. First one coun- his prince, wil not fynde some hole open selleth to rayse and enhaunce the valuation to set a snare in, wherewith to take the of money when the kinge must paye anye: contrarie parte in a trippe. Thus whiles the and agayne to calle downe the value of judges cannot agree amonges them selfes,

reasoninge and arguing of that which is playne enough, and bringinge the manifest trewthe in dowte: in the meane season the Kinge maye take a fyt occasion to understand the lawe as shal moste make for his advauntage, whereunto all other for shame, or for feare wil agree. Then the Judges may be bolde to pronounce on the kynges side. For he that geveth sentence for the king, cannot be without a good excuse. For it shal be sufficient for him to have equitie on his part, or the bare wordes of the lawe, or a wrythen and wrested understandinge of the same, or els (whiche with good and just Judges is of greater force then all lawes be) the Kynges indisputable prerogative. To conclude, al the counsellours agre and consent together with the ryche Crassus, that no abundance of gold can be sufficient for a prince, which muste kepe and maynteyne an armie: furthermore that a kynge, thoughe he would, can do nothinge unjustlye. For all that all men have, yea also the men them selfes be all his. And that every man hath so much of his owne, as the kynges gentilnes hath not taken from hym. And that it shal be moste for the kinges advantage, that his subjectes have very lytle or nothinge in their possession, as whose savegarde doth herein consiste, that his people doe not waxe wanton and wealthie through riches and libertie, because where these thinges be, there mer be not wonte patiently to obeye harde, unjuste, and unlawefull commaundementes; whereas on the other part neade and povertie doth holde downe and kepe under stowte courages, and maketh them patient perforce, takynge from them bolde and rebellynge stomakes. Here agayne if I shoulde ryse up, and boldelye affirme that all these counselles be to the kinge dishonoure and reproche, whose honoure and safetye is more and rather supported and upholden by the wealth and ryches of his people, then by hys owne treasures: and if I should declare that the comminaltie chueseth their king for their owne sake, and not for his sake: to the intent, that through his laboure and studie they might al live wealthily sauffe from wronges and injuries: and that therfore the kynge ought to take more care for the wealthe of his people, then for his owne wealthe, even as the office and dewtie of a shepehearde is in that he is a shepherde, to feede his shepe rather then himselfe. For as towchinge this, that they thinke the defence

and mayntenaunce of peace to consiste in the povertie of the people, the thing it selfe sheweth that they be farre out of the waye. For where shal a man finde more wrangling, quarrelling, brawling, and chiding, then among beggers? Who be more desierous of newe mutations and alterations, then they that be not content with the present state of their lyfe? Or finallye who be bolder stomaked to bringe all in a hurlieburlye (therby trustinge to get some windfal) then they that have nowe nothinge to leese? And yf any Kyng were so smally regarded, and so lightly estemed, yea so behated of his subjectes, that other wayes he could not kepe them in awe, but onlye by open wronges, by pollinge and shavinge, and by bringinge them to beggerie, sewerly it were better for him to forsake his kingedome, then to holde it by this meanes: whereby though the name of a king be kepte, yet the majestie is lost. For it is againste the dignitie of a kynge to have rule over beggers, but rather over ryche and welthie men. Of this mynde was the hardie and couragius Fabrice, when he sayde, that he had rather be a ruler of riche men, then be ryche himselfe. And verelye one man to live in pleasure and wealth, whyles all other wepe and smarte for it, that is the parte, not of a kynge, but of a jayler. To be shorte as he is a folyshe phisition, that cannot cure his patientes disease, onles he caste him in an other syckenes, so he that cannot amend the lives of his subjectes, but be taking from them the wealthe and commoditie of lyfe, he muste nedes graunte that, he knoweth not the feate how to governe men. But let him rather amende his owne lyfe, renounce unhonest pleasures, and forsake pride. For these be the chiefe vices that cause hym to runne in the contempte or hatred of his people. Let him lyve of hys owne, hurtinge

Let him doe cost not above his power. Let him rest reyne wyckednes. Let him prevente vices, and take awaye the occasions of offenses by well orderynge hys subjectes, and not by sufferynge wickednes to increase afterward to be punyshed. Let hym not be to hastie in callynge agayne lawes, whyche a custome hathe abrogated: specially suche as have bene longe forgotten, and never lacked nor neaded. And let hym never under the cloke and pretence of transgression take suche fynes and forfaytes, as no Judge wyll suffre a private persone to take, as unjuste and ful of gile. Here if I

no man.

should brynge forth before them the lawe wolde say, her owne stage, and thereafter of the Macariens, whiche be not farre dis- orderynge and behavinge hereselfe in the taunt from Utopia: whose Kynge the daye playe that she hathe in hande, playethe her of hys coronation is bounde by a solempne parte accordingelye with comlyenes, utterothe, that he shall never at anye time have inge nothinge oute of dewe ordre and in hys treasure above a thousande pounde of fassyon. And this is the philosophye that golde or sylver: They saye a verye good you muste use. Or els whyles a commodye kynge, whiche toke more care for the wealthe of Plautus is playinge, and the vyle bondeand commoditye of his countrey, then for men skoffynge and tryffelinge amonge them thenriching of him selfe, made this lawe to selfes, yf you shoulde sodenlye come upon be a stop and barre to kinges from heaping the stage in a Philosophers apparrell

, and and hording up so muche money as might reherse oute of Octavia the place wherein impoveryshe their people. For he forsawe Seneca disputeth with Nero: had it not bene that this som of treasure woulde suffice to better for you to have played the domme supporte the kynge in battaile against his persone, then by rehersynge that, whych owne people, if they shoulde chaunce to served neither for the tyme nor place, to rebell: and also to maintein his warres have made suche a tragycall comedye or againste the invasions of his forreyn ene- gallymalfreye? For by bryngynge in other mies. Againe he perceived the same stocke stuffe that nothinge apperteynethe to the of money to be to litle and unsufficient to presente matter, you muste nedes marre and encourage and enhable him wrongfullye to pervert the play that is in hand, thoughe the take away other mens goodes: whyche was stuffe that you bringe be muche better. What the chiefe cause whie the lawe was made. part soever you have taken upon you, playe An other cause was this. He thought that that aswel as you can and make the best of by this provision his people shoulde not it: And doe not therefore disturbe and lacke

money, wherewith to mayneteyne their brynge oute of ordre the whole matter, dayly occupieng and chaffayre. And seynge bycause that an other, whyche is meryer and the kynge could not chewse but laye out and better cummethe to your remembraunce. So bestowe al that came in above the prescript the case standeth in a common wealthe, and some of his stocke, he thought he woulde so it is in the consultations of Kynges and seke no occasions to doe his subjectes in- prynces. Yf evel opinions and noughty perjurie. Suche a kynge shal be feared of evel suasions can not be utterly and quyte men, and loved of good men. These, and plucked out of their hartes, if you can not suche other informations, yf I shoulde use even as you wolde remedy vices, which use among men wholye inclined and geven to and custome hath confirmed: yet for this the contrarye part, how deaffe hearers thinke cause you must not leave and forsake the you shoulde I have? Deaffe hearers douteles common wealthe: you muste not forsake the (quod I). And in good faith no marveyle. shippe in a tempeste, because you can not And to be plaine with you, truelye I can not rule and kepe downe the wyndes. No nor allowe that suche communication shalbe used, you muste not laboure to dryve into their or suche counsell geven, as you be suere heades newe and straunge informations, shall never be regarded nor receaved. For whyche you knowe wel shalbe nothinge rehow can so straunge informations be profit- garded wyth them that be of cleane contrary able, or how can they be beaten into their mindes. But you must with a crafty wile headdes, whose myndes be allredye pre- and a subtell trayne studye and endevoure vented: with cleane contrarye persuasions ? youre selfe, asmuche as in you lyethe, to This schole philosophie is not unpleasaunte handle the matter wyttelye and handesomeamonge frendes in familiare communication, lye for the purpose, and that whyche you but in the counselles of kinges, where greate can not turne to good, so to order it that it matters be debated and reasoned with greate be not verye badde. For it is not possible authoritye, these thinges have no place. That for al thinges to be well, onles all men were is it whiche I mente (quod he) when I sayde good. Whych I thinke wil not be yet thies philosophye hadde no place amonge kinges. good many yeares. In dede (quod I) this schole philosophie hath not: whiche thinketh all thinges mete

4. Labor in Utopia for every place.But there is an other phil- Husbandrie is a Science common to them osophye more civile, whyche knoweth, as ye all in generall, bothe men and women, where

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