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reasoninge and arguing of that which is playne enough, and bringinge the manifest trewthe in dowte: in the meane season the Kinge maye take a fyt occasion to understand the lawe as shal moste make for his advauntage, whereunto all other for shame, or for feare wil agree. Then the Judges may be bolde to pronounce on the kynges side. For he that geveth sentence for the king, cannot be without a good excuse. For it shal be sufficient for him to have equitie on his part, or the bare wordes of the lawe, or a wrythen and wrested understandinge of the same, or els (whiche with good and just Judges is of greater force then all lawes be) the Kynges indisputable prerogative. To conclude, al the counsellours agre and consent together with the ryche Crassus, that no abundance of gold can be sufficient for a prince, which muste kepe and maynteyne an armie: furthermore that a kynge, thoughe he would, can do nothinge unjustlye. For all that all men have, yea also the men them selfes be all his. And that every man hath so much of his owne, as the kynges gentilnes hath not taken from hym. And that it shal be moste for the kinges advantage, that his subjectes have very lytle or nothinge in their possession, as whose savegarde doth herein consiste, that his people doe not waxe wanton and wealthie through riches and libertie, because where these thinges be, there mer be not wonte patiently to obeye harde, unjuste, and unlawefull commaundementes; whereas on the other part neade and povertie doth holde downe and kepe under stowte courages, and maketh them patient perforce, takynge from them bolde and rebellynge stomakes. Here agayne if I shoulde ryse up, and boldelye affirme that all these counselles be to the kinge dishonoure and reproche, whose honoure and safetye is more and rather supported and upholden by the wealth and ryches of his people, then by hys owne treasures: and if I should declare that the comminaltie chueseth their king for their owne sake, and not for his sake: to the intent, that through his laboure and studie they might al live wealthily sauffe from wronges and injuries: and that therfore the kynge ought to take more care for the wealthe of his people, then for his owne wealthe, even as the office and dewtie of a shepehearde is in that he is a shepherde, to feede his shepe rather then himselfe. For as towchinge this, that they thinke the defence

and mayntenaunce of peace to consiste in the povertie of the people, the thing it selfe sheweth that they be farre out of the waye. For where shal a man finde more wrangling, quarrelling, brawling, and chiding, then among beggers? Who be more desierous of newe mutations and alterations, then they that be not content with the present state of their lyfe? Or finallye who be bolder stomaked to bringe all in a hurlieburlye (therby trustinge to get some windfal) then they that have nowe nothinge to leese? And yf any Kyng were so smally regarded, and so lightly estemed, yea so behated of his subjectes, that other wayes he could not kepe them in awe, but onlye by open wronges, by pollinge and shavinge, and by bringinge them to beggerie, sewerly it were better for him to forsake his kingedome, then to holde it by this meanes: whereby though the name of a king be kepte, yet the majestie is lost. For it is againste the dignitie of a kynge to have rule over beggers, but rather over ryche and welthie men. Of this mynde was the hardie and couragius Fabrice, when he sayde, that he had rather be a ruler of riche men, then be ryche himselfe. And verelye one man to live in pleasure and wealth, whyles all other wepe and smarte for it, that is the parte, not of a kynge, but of a jayler. To be shorte as he is a folyshe phisition, that cannot cure his patientes disease, onles he caste him in an other syckenes, so he that cannot amend the lives of his subjectes, but be taking from them the wealthe and commoditie of lyfe, he muste nedes graunte that, he knoweth not the feate how to governe men. But let him rather amende his owne lyfe, renounce unhonest pleasures, and forsake pride. For these be the chiefe vices that cause hym to runne in the contempte or hatred of his people. Let him lyve of hys owne, hurtinge

Let him doe cost not above his power. Let him rest reyne wyckednes. Let him prevente vices, and take awaye the occasions of offenses by well orderynge hys subjectes, and not by sufferynge wickednes to increase afterward to be punyshed. Let hym not be to hastie in callynge agayne lawes, whyche a custome hathe abrogated: specially suche as have bene longe forgotten, and never lacked nor neaded. And let hym never under the cloke and pretence of transgression take suche fynes and forfaytes, as no Judge wyll suffre a private persone to take, as unjuste and ful of gile. Here if I should brynge forth before them the lawe of the Macariens, whiche be not farre distaunt from Utopia: whose Kynge the daye of hys coronation is bounde by a solempne othe, that he shall never at anye time have in hys treasure above a thousande pounde of golde or sylver: They saye a verye good kynge, whiche toke more care for the wealthe and commoditye of his countrey, then for thenriching of him selfe, made this lawe to be a stop and barre to kinges from heaping and hording up so muche money as might impoveryshe their people. For he forsawe that this som of treasure woulde suffice to supporte the kynge in battaile against his owne people, if they shoulde chaunce to rebell: and also to maintein his warres againste the invasions of his forreyn enemies. Againe he perceived the same stocke of money to be to litle and unsufficient to encourage and enhable him wrongfullye to take away other mens goodes: whyche was the chiefe cause whie the lawe was made. An other cause was this. He thought that by this provision his people shoulde not lacke money, wherewith to mayneteyne their dayly occupieng and chaffayre. And

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seynge the kynge could not chewse but laye out and bestowe al that came in above the prescript some of his stocke, he thought he woulde seke no occasions to doe his subjectes injurie. Suche a kynge shal be feared of evel men, and loved of good men. These, and suche other informations, yf I shoulde use among men wholye inclined and geven to the contrarye part, how deaffe hearers thinke you shoulde I have? Deaffe hearers douteles (quod I). And in good faith no marveyle. And to be plaine with you, truelye I can not allowe that suche communication shalbe used, or suche counsell geven, as you be suere shall never be regarded nor receaved. For how can so straunge informations be profitable, or how can they be beaten into their headdes, whose myndes be allredye prevented: with cleane contrarye persuasions ? This schole philosophie is not unpleasaunte amonge frendes in familiare communication, but in the counselles of kinges, where greate matters be debated and reasoned with greate authoritye, these thinges have no place. That is it whiche I mente (quod he) when I sayde philosophye hadde no place amonge kinges. In dede (quod I) this schole philosophie hath not: whiche thinketh all thinges mete for every place. But there is an other philosophye more civile, whyche knoweth, as ye

wolde say, her owne stage, and thereafter orderynge and behavinge hereselfe in the playe that she hathe in hande, playethe her parte accordingelye with comlyenes, utteringe nothinge oute of dewe ordre and fassyon. And this is the philosophye that you muste use. Or els whyles a commodye of Plautus is playinge, and the vyle bondemen skoffynge and tryffelinge amonge them selfes, yf you shoulde sodenlye come upon the stage in a Philosophers apparrell, and reherse oute of Octavia the place wherein Seneca disputeth with Nero: had it not bene better for you to have played the domme persone, then by rehersynge that, whych served neither for the tyme nor place, to have made suche a tragycall comedye or gallymalfreye? For by bryngynge in other stuffe that nothinge apperteynethe to the presente matter, you muste nedes marre and pervert the play that is in hand, thoughe the stuffe that you bringe be muche better. What part soever you have taken upon you, playe that aswel as you can and make the best of it: And doe not therefore disturbe and brynge oute of ordre the whole matter, bycause that an other, whyche is meryer and better cummethe to your remembraunce. So the case standeth in a common wealthe, and so it is in the consultations of Kynges and prynces. Yf evel opinions and noughty persuasions can not be utterly and quyte plucked out of their hartes, if you can not even as you wolde remedy vices, which use and custome hath confirmed: yet for this cause you must not leave and forsake the common wealthe: you muste not forsake the shippe in a tempeste, because you can not rule and kepe downe the wyndes. No nor you muste not laboure to dryve into their heades newe and straunge informations, whyche you knowe wel shalbe nothinge regarded wyth them that be of cleane contrary mindes. But you must with a crafty wile and a subtell trayne studye and endevoure youre selfe, asmuche as in you lyethe, to handle the matter wyttelye and handesomelye for the purpose, and that whyche you can not turne to good, so to order it that it be not verye badde. For it is not possible for al thinges to be well, onles all men were good. Whych I thinke wil not be yet thies good many yeares.

4. Labor in Utopia Husbandrie is a Science common to them all in generall, bothe men and women, where

in they be all experte and cunning. In this condition of bondemen. Whiche nevertheles they be all instructed even from their youth: is almooste everye where the lyfe of workepartelie in their scholes with traditions and men and artificers, saving in Utopia. For preceptes, and partlie in the countrey nighe they dividynge the daye and the nyghte into the citie, brought up as it were in playinge, xxiii. juste houres, appointe and assigne not onely beholding the use of it, but by onelye sixe of those houres to woorke; iii occasion of exercising their bodies practis- before noone, upon the whiche they go ing it also. Besides husbandrie, whiche (as streighte to diner: and after diner, when I saide) is common to them all, everye one they have rested two houres, then they of them learneth one or other several and worke iii. houres and upon that they go to particular science, as his owne proper crafte. supper. Aboute eyghte of the cloke in the That is most commonly either clothworking eveninge (countinge one of the clocke at in wol or flaxe, or masonrie, or the smithes the firste houre after noone) they go to craft, or the carpenters science. For there bedde: eyght houres they geve to slepe. All is none other occupation that any number the voide time, that is betwene the houres to speake of doth use there. For their gar- of worke, slepe, and meate, that they be mentes, which throughoute all the Ilande be suffered to bestowe, every man as he liketh of one fashion (savynge that there is a dif- best him selfe. Not to thintent that they ference betwene the mans garmente and the shold mispend this time in riote or slouthwomans, betwene the maried and the un- fulnes: but beynge then licensed from the maried) and this one continueth for ever- laboure of their owne occupations, to bestow more unchaunged, semely and comelie to the the time well and thriftelye upon some other eye, no lette to the movynge and weldynge science, as shall please them. For it is a of the bodye, also fytte both for wynter and solempne custome there, to have lectures summer: as for these garmentes (I saye) daylye early in the morning, where to be every familie maketh their owne. But of presente they onely be constrained that be the other foresaide craftes everye man learn- namelye chosen and appoynted to learninge. eth one.

And not onely the men, but also Howbeit a greate multitude of every sort the women. But the women, as the weaker of people, both men and women go to heare sort, be put to the easier craftes: as to lectures, some one and some an other, as worke wolle and flaxe. The more laborsome everye mans nature is inclined. Yet, this sciences be committed to the men. For the notwithstanding, if any man had rather mooste part every man is broughte up in his bestowe this time upon his owne occupation, fathers crafte. For moste commonlye they (as it chaunceth in manye, whose mindes be naturallie therto bente and inclined. But rise not in the contemplation of any science yf a mans minde stande to anye other, he liberall) he is not letted, nor prohibited, but is by adoption put into a familye of that is also praysed and commended, as profitable occupation, which he doth most fantasy. to the common wealthe. After supper they Whome not onely his father, but also the bestow one houre in playe: in summer in magistrates do diligently loke to, that he be their gardens: in winter in their commen put to a discrete and an honest householder. halles: where they dine and suppe. There Yea, and if anye person, when he hath they exercise themselves in musike, or els in learned one crafte, be desierous to learne honest and wholsome communication. Dicealso another, he is likewyse suffred and per- playe, and suche other folishe and pernicious mitted.

games they know not. But they use ij. When he hathe learned bothe, he occupieth games not much unlike the chesse. The one whether he wyll: onelesse the citie have is the battell of numbers, wherein one nummore neade of the one then of the other. bre stealethe awaye another. The other is The chiefe and almooste the onelye offyce wherin vices fyghte with vertues, as it were of the Syphograuntes is, to see and take in battel array, or a set fyld. In the which hede, that no manne sit idle: but that everye game is verye properlye shewed, bothe the one applye hys owne craft with earnest striffe and discorde that vices have amonge diligence. And yet for all that, not to be themselfes, and agayne theire unitye and wearied from earlie in the morninge, to late concorde againste vertues: And also what in the evenninge, with continuall worke, like vices be repugnaunt to what vertues: with labouringe and toylinge beastes. For this what powre and strength they assaile them is worse then the miserable and wretched openlye: by what wieles and subtelty they assaulte them secretelye: with what helpe mens laboure, then ij. of the workemen and aide the vertues resiste, and overcome themselfes doo: yf all these (I saye) were the puissaunce of the vices: by what craft sette to profytable occupatyons, you easethey frustrate their purposes: and finally lye perceave howe lytle tyme would be by what sleight or meanes the one get- enoughe, yea and to muche to stoore us with teth the victory. But here least you be all thinges that maye be requisite either for deceaved, one thinge you muste looke more necessitie, or for commoditye, yea or for narrowly upon. For seinge they bestowe pleasure, so that the same pleasure be trewe but vi. houres in woorke, perchaunce you and natural. And this in Utopia the thinge maye thinke that the lacke of some neces- it selfe makethe manifeste and playne. For sarye thinges hereof maye ensewe. But there in all the citye, with the whole conthis is nothinge so.

For that smal time is treye, or shiere adjoyning to it scarselye not only enough but also to muche for the 500. persons of al the whole numbre of men stoore and abundance of all thinges, that and women, that be neither to olde, nor to be requisite, either for the necessitie, or weake to worke, be licensed and distcharged commoditie of life. The which thinge you from laboure. Amonge them be the Siphoalso shall perceave, if you weye and con- grauntes (whoe thoughe they be by the sider with your selfes how great a parte lawes exempte and privileged from labour) of the people in other contreis lyveth ydle. yet they exempte not themselfes: to the First almost all women, whyche be the intent that they may the rather by their halfe of the whole numbre: or els if the example provoke other to worke. The same women be somewhere occupied, there most vacation from labour do they also enjoye, commonlye in their steade the men be ydle. to whome the people persuaded by the Besydes this how greate, and howe ydle commendation of the priestes, and secrete a companye is there of preystes, and re- election of the Siphograuntes, have geven a lygious men, as they cal them? put thereto perpetual licence from laboure to learninge. al ryche men, speciallye all landed men, But if any one of them prove not accordwhich comonlye be called gentilmen, and inge to the expectation and hoope of him noble men.

Take into this numbre also conceaved, he is forthwith plucked backe theire servauntes: I meane all that flocke to the company of artificers.

And conof stoute bragging russhe bucklers. Joyne trarye wise, often it chaunceth that a handito them also sturdy and valiaunte beggers, eraftes man doth so earnestly bestowe his clokinge their idle lyfe under the coloure of vacaunte and spare houres in learninge, and some disease or sickenes. And trulye you throughe diligence so profyteth therin, that shal find them much fewer then you thought, he is taken from his handy occupation, and by whose labour all these thinges are promoted to the company of the learned. wrought, that in mens affaires are Oute of this ordre of the learned be chosen daylye used and frequented. Nowe con- ambassadours, priestes, Tranibores, and syder with youre selfe, of these fewe that finallye the prince him selfe. Whome they doe woorke, how fewe be occupied in neces- in theire olde tonge cal Barzanes, and by sarye woorkes. For where money beareth a newer name, Adamus. The residewe of all the swinge, there many vaayne and su- the people being neither ydle, nor yet ocperfluous occupations must nedes be used, cupied about unprofitable exercises, it may to serve only for ryotous superfluite, and be easely judged in how fewe houres how unhonest pleasure. For the same multitude muche good woorke by them may be doone that now is occupied in woork, if they were and dispatched, towardes those thinges that devided into so fewe occupations as the I have spoken of. This commodity they necessarye use of nature requyreth; in so have also above other, that in the most greate plentye of thinges as then of neces- part of necessarye occupations they neade sity woulde ensue, doubtles the prices not so much work, as other nations doe. wolde be to lytle for the artifycers to mayn

For first of all the buildinge or repayringe teyne theire livinges. But yf all these, that of houses asketh everye where so manye be nowe busied about unprofitable occu- mens continual labour, bicause that the unpations, with all the whole flocke of them thrifty heire suffereth the houses that his that lyve ydellye and slouthfullye, whyche father buylded in contyneuaunce of tyme consume and waste everye one of them to fall in decay. So that which he myghte more of these thinges that come by other have upholden wyth lytle coste, hys sue


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cessoure is constreyned to buylde it agayne plentye of all thinges beinge among them, a newe, to his great charge.

they doo sometymes bringe forthe an intymes also the howse that stoode one man numerable companye of people to amend the in muche moneye, another is of so nyce hyghe wayes, yf anye be broken. Many and soo delycate a mynde, that he settethe times also, when they have no suche woorke nothinge by it. And it beynge neglected, to be occupied aboute, an open proclamation and therefore shortelye fallynge into ruyne, is made, that they shall bestowe fewer houres he buyldethe uppe another in an other in worke. For the magistrates doe not exerplace with no lesse coste and chardge. But cise theire citizens againste theire willes in amonge the Utopians, where all thinges be unneadefull laboures. For whie in the insett in a good ordre, and the common wealthe stitution of that weale publique, this ende is in a good staye, it very seldom chaunceth, onelye and chiefely pretended and mynded, that they cheuse a newe plotte to buyld an that what time maye possibly be spared house upon. And they doo not only finde from the necessarye occupacions and affayres spedy and quicke remedies for present of the commen wealth, all that the citizeins faultes: but also prevente them that be shoulde withdrawe from the bodely service like to fall. And by this meanes their to the free libertye of the minde, and garhouses continewe and laste very longe with nisshinge of the same. For herein they suplitle labour and smal reparations: in so pose the felicitye of this liffe to consiste. much that this kind of woorkmen somtimes have almost nothinge to doo. But that they

5. And the Pursuit of Happiness" be commaunded to hewe timbre at home, They dispute of the good qualityes of the and to square and trimme up stones, to the sowle, of the body, and of fortune. And intente that if anye woorke chaunce, it may

whether the name of goodnes maye be apthe spedelier rise. Now, syr, in theire ap- plied to all these, or onlye to the endoweparell, marke (I praye you) howe few mentes and giftes of the soule. They reason woorkmen they neade. Fyrste of al, whyles of vertue and pleasure. But the chiefe and they be at woorke, they be covered homely principall question is in what thinge, be it with leather or skinnes, that will last vii. one or moe, the felicitye of man consistethe. yeares. When they go furthe abrode they But in this poynte they seme almooste to caste upon them a cloke, whych hydeth the muche geven and enclyned to the opinion of other homelye apparel. These clookes them, which defende pleasure, wherein they through out the whole Iland be all of one determine either all or the chiefyste parte coloure, and that is the natural coloure of of mans felicitye to reste. And (whyche is the wul. They therefore do not only spend more to bee marveled at) the defense of this much lesse wullen clothe then is spente in soo deyntye and delicate an opinion, they other contreis, but also the same standeth fetche even from their grave, sharpe, bytter, them in muche lesse coste. But lynen clothe and rygorous religion. For they never disis made with lesse laboure, and is therefore pute of felicity or blessednes, but they joine hadde more in use. But in lynen cloth onlye unto the reasons of Philosophye certeyne whytenesse, in wullen only clenlynes is re- principles taken oute of religion: wythoute garded. As for the smalnesse or finenesse the whyche to the investigation of trewe of the threde, that is no thinge passed for. felicitye they thynke reason of it selfe weake And this is the cause wherfore in other and unperfecte. Those principles be these places iii. or v. clothe gownes of dyvers and such lyke. That the soule is immortal, coloures, and as manye silke cootes be not and by the bountiful goodnes of God enoughe for one man. Yea and yf he be of ordeined to felicitie. That to our vertues the delicate and nyse sorte x. be to fewe: and good deades rewardes be appointed after whereas there one garmente wyl serve a man this life, and to our evel deades punishmooste commenlye ij. yeares. For whie mentes. Though these be perteyning to reshoulde he desyre moo? Seinge yf he had ligion, yet they thincke it mete that they them, he should not be the better hapte or shoulde be beleved and graunted by profes covered from colde, neither in his apparel of reason. But yf these principles were conanye whitte the comlyer. Wherefore, seingedempned and dysanulled, then without anye they be all exercysed in profitable occupa- delaye they pronounce no man to be so tions, and that fewe artificers in the same folish, whiche woulde not do all lis diligence craftes be sufficiente, this is the cause that and endevoure to obteyne pleasure be ryght

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