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gone, and the substance of Christ's body come into its room, then the accidents of bread do exist without a şub. ject, which is most absurd and contradictory to reason. We perceive by our senses, such a colour, taste, and figure: it cannot be the body of Christ, that is of such a colour, taste, and figure : and if there be no other substance in the room that hath these accidents, hence it follows, that it is nothing which hath this colour, taste, and figure; and that in the sacrament, there is a white nothing, a sweet nothing', a loaf of nothing, a piece of nothing, which is a ridiculous absurdity. Nothing is more evident unto reason, than that the substance of the bread remaineth unchanged, while the accidents remain unchanged.
Arg. 2. If the bread in this sacrament be turned into the real body of Christ, then either there are so many bodies of Christ as there are pieces of bread eaten in all sacraments, or else they are all one and the same body. 1. It cannot be that there should be so many bodies of Christ as there are pieces of bread eaten in all sacraments; because, first, Christ would then be a monster with many thousands, yea, millions of bodies. Second, ly, It would lie in the power of any minister to make as many bodies of Christ as he pleased, or that God should be bound to work a miracle every time the bread is consecrated. Thirdly, This cannot consist with Christ's uniiy. Fourthly, None of Christ's bodies, but one, would be the body which was born of the Virgin Mary, and that died upon the cross. Fifthly, All these bodies, but the one he hath in heaven, would be without a soul, and so altogether insufficient to save the soul, or to cunfer any spiritual life or grace by the feeding upon them in the sacrament. Therefore it cannot be that there should be so many bodies of Christ as there are pieces of bread eaten in all sacraments. 2. Neither can it be one and the same body of Christ which the bread in the sacrament is turned into : for then it would follow, first, That Christ's body is both visible and invisible ; visible in heaven, and invisible in the sacrament. Secondly, That one and the same body of Christ is present in divers places at the same time, in heaven, and in divers places of the earth, and to say that one and the same body, which is circumscribed by one place, is at the same time present in a thousand other places, is abhorrent unto all reason ; and it is in effect to say, It is where it is not, and it is not where it is, which is an absurd contradiction. If Christ's body be in heaven, it is not in the sacrament: if it be in the sacrament, it is not in heaven. Christ's body is not divided, and so by parts in one place, and in another at the same time; neither is Christ's body infinite, and so present in divers places together, as God is present; for then his body would cease to be a body : therefore Christ's body cannot be in divers places together; therefore being in heaven, it is not present in the sacrament.
Arg. 3. If the bread in the sacrament be turned into the real body of Christ, then, after the eating of it, either it returneth to heaven (which it cannot do, because it is there already): or else it remaineth with them that eat it; and if so, then Christ's body in part would be turned into the substance of our bodies; and if we are wicked, when these same bodies are raised, it would be tormented forever in hell : part also of Christ's body would go into the draught, and be subject to corruption : either of which to affirm is most horribly blasphemous: Therefore the popish tenet of transubstantiation is to be abominated by all Christians.
Arg. 4. If the bread in this sacrament were turned into the real body of Christ, both the nature and end of the sacrament would be destroyed : the nature of the sacrament is to be a sign, the end of it is to be a remembrance of Christ; both which suppose Christ's body to be absent, which this sacrament is a sign and remembrance of, whereas if the bread were turned into Christ's body, it would be present.
Arg. 5. It is bread which is eaten in this sacrament, and not the body of Christ; and so it is termed by the apostle. 1 Cor. xi. 26, As often as ye eat this bread, (not this body of Christ.) Verse 27, Whosoever shall eat this bread unworthily, &c. Verse 28, Let a man examine himself, and so let himn eat of that bread. And if it be bread which is eaten in this sacrament, surely the bread is not turned into the real body of Christ.
Q. 16. But are not the words of our Saviour plain in his institution of this sacrament, This is my body? and would he have said 'it, had not the bread been turned into his real body
A. If all scripture-expressions besides were to be understood literally, then there would be some reason that this expression should be so understood too; but we frequently find figurative expressions in the scripture, and that concerning Christ. 1. Cor. x. 4, That rock was Christ. Eph. ii. 20, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone. Is Jesus Christ therefore turned into a rock or stone? In the same sense as in the Jewish sacrament the Paschal lamb is called the passover, the bread in the Christian sacrament is called the body of Christ; the Paschal lamb could in no proper sense be the passover, which was the action of the angel in passing over the houses of the Israelites, when he destroyed the first born of the Egyptians. What absurdity is it to say, that the Paschal lamb was turned into this action of the angel! Surely a present substance could not be turned into an accident or action which was long before ; but it was a sign or commemoration of that action : so the bread in this sacrament is not properly the body of Christ, and so one body turned into another without its accident; but the bread is a sign of the body of Christ, and a commemoration of Christ's body which was crucified for us.
Q-17. But cannot God, by his infinite power, turn the bread into the real body of Christ ? and if he can do it, why may we not believe that he really doth it, when Christ saith, This is my body?
A. Although God, by his infinite power, can do all things which are possible unto true power, yet we may safely say that God cannot do any thing which implieth imperfection and weakness, such as to make contradictions true, and to introduce ridiculous absurdities, and blasphemous consequences; which he should do, if he should turn the bread in the sacrament, but without the transmutation of its accidents, into the real body of Christos
Q. 18. How do the bread and wine in this sacrament represent the body and blood of Christ?
A. The bread and wine in this sacrament do represent the body and blood of Christ, in that, as the bread and wine do nourish, strengthen, and refresh the body, and satisfy the natural appetite ; so the body and blood of Christ, received in this sacrament, do nourish, strengthen, and refresh the soul, and satisfy the spiritual appetite.
Q. 19. What is represented by the actions of the minister, in the taking the bread and breaking it, and taking the cup, and giving both unto the people?
A. By the actions of the minister, in taking the bread and breaking it, and iaking the cup, and giving both unto the people, is represented God's taking his Son, and giving him to be broken and crucified upon the cross for us, and withal, his giving him in this sacrament unto us to be our Redeemer and Saviour.
Q. 20. What is represented by the actions of the people, in receiving the bread and wine, and feeding upon them?
A. By the actions of the people, in receiving the bread and wine, and feeding upon them, is represented their receiving of Jesus Christ, given to them by the Father, and feeding upon him in the sacrameni.
Q. 21. Do all that receive this sacrament partake really of the body and blood of Christ, with the benefits of the new covenant ?
A. None but worthy receivers do receive and partake really of the body and blood of Christ, with the benefits of the new covenant.
Q. 22. How do worthy receivers really partake of the body and blood of Christ, with all his benefits ?
A. The worthy receivers do partake really of the body and blood of Christ, with all his benefits : 1. Not after a corporal and carnal manner, and by conjunction of his real body and blood unto their body, as meat and drink is really joined unto them in their eating and drinking thereof. But, 2. It is by faith that Christ's body and blood is really, but spiritually, joined unto their souls ; and the virtue and efficacy, the fruits and benefits of his death are applied by them, whereby they receive spiritual nourishment and growth in grace. i Cor. x. 16, The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the commun. ion of the blood of Christ? The bread whic've break is it not the communion of the body of Christ?
Q. 23. How do believers receive spiritual nourishment and growth in grace, in and by this sacrament?
A. Believers receive spiritual nourishment and growth in grace, in and by this sacrament, 1. As they draw virtue from Christ's death, for the crucifying of the flesh, for mortifying and purging away sin, which doth hinder their spiritual nourishment and growth. 2. As the Lord doth convey by his Spirit, and they do receive in this sacrament by faith, fe:ther supplies of his grace, which, by his death, he hath purchased for them, and which, in his covenant of grace (whereof this sacrament is a seal) he hath promised unto them.
Q. 24. What is the end of this sacrament of the Lord's supper?
A. The end of this sacrament of the Lord's supper, is the showing forth of Christ's death, by the receiving of which, Christians do publicly own, and give testimony of their belief in, and hopes of salvation by a crucified Lord. I Cor. xi. 26, For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he
Q. 97. What is required to the worthy receiving of the Lord's supper?
A. It is required of them that would worthily partake of the Lord's supper, that they examine themselves of their knowledge to discern the Lord's body, and their faith to feed upon him ; of their repentance, love, and new obedience; lest coming unworthily, they eat and drink judgment to themselves.
Q. 1. What is it to receive the Lord's supper worthily ?
A. 1. To receive the Lord's supper worthily, is not to receive it meritoriously, as if we were to bring any merit or worth of our own thereunto; for so none can be worthy of Christ, or any of his benefits. 2. We receive the Lord's supper worthily, when we receive it with due