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Which lets go by some sixteen years, and makes her LEON.
Do not draw the curtain ! As she liv'd now.
Paul. No longer shall you gaze on't, lest
your LEON. As now she might have done,
fancy So much to my good comfort, as it is
May think anon it moves. Now piercing to my soul. O, thus she stood, LEON.
Let be! let be! Even with such life of majesty (warm life, Would I were dead, but that, methinks, already— As now it coldly stands) when first I woo'd her! What was he that did make it ?-See, my
lord ! I am asham'd, -does not the stone rebuke me,- Would you not deem it breath'd ? and that those For being more stone than it ?—0, royal piece,
veins There's magic in thy majesty ; which has Did verily bear blood ? My evils conjur’d to remembrance; and
Masterly done! From thy admiring daughter took the spirits, The very
life seems warm upon her lip. Standing like stone with thee !
Leon. The fixure of her eye has motion in't, PER.
And give me leave; As we are mock'd with art ! And do not say 't is superstition that
I'll draw the curtain ; I kneel, and then implore her blessing.–Lady, My lord's almost so far transported that Dear queen, that ended when I but began,
He'll think anon it lives. Give me that hand of yours to kiss.
0, sweet Paulina, Paul.
think so twenty years together! The statue is but newly fix'd, the colour's
No settled senses of the world can match Not dry.
The pleasure of that madness. Let't alone ! Cam. My lord, your sorrow was too sore laid on, Paul. I am sorry, sir, I have thus far stirr'd Which sixteen winters cannot blow away, So many summers dry: scarce any joy
I could afflict
further. Did ever so long live; no sorrow,
Do, Paulina! But kill'd itself much sooner.
For this affliction has a taste as sweet Pol.
Dear my brother, As any cordial comfort.—Still, methinks, Let him that was the cause of this have power There is an air comes from her! What fine To take off so much grief from you as he
chisel Will piece up in himself.
Could ever yet cut breath? Let no man mock me, Paul. Indeed, my lord,
For I will kiss her. If I had thought the sight of my poor image
Good my lord, forbear ! Would thus have wrought you (for the stone is The ruddiness upon her lip is wet ;(1) mine)
You 'll mar it, if you kiss it; stain your own I'd not have show'd it.
With oily painting. Shall I draw the curtain ?
Let be! let be!
What was he that did make it?-)
feeling of disappointment he first beholds the " so much wrinkled" statue, and gradually becomes impressed, amazed, enthralled, til at length, borne along by a wild, tumultuous throng of indefinable sensations, he reaches that grand climax where, in delirious rapture, he clasps the figure to his bosom and faintly murmurs,
“O, she's warm !” must appear consummate. Mr. Collier and his annotator, however, are not satisfied. To them the eloquent abruption,
“ — but that, methinks, already
What was he that did make it?" is but a blot, and so, to add "to the force and clearess of the speech of Leontes," they stem the torrent of his passion in midstream and make bim drivel out,
“Would I were dead, but that, methinks, already
I am but dead, stone looking upun stone."! Can anything be viler? Conceive Leontes whimpering of himself as "dead," just when the thick pulsation of his heart could have been heard i and speaking of the statue as a "stone" at the very moment when, to his imagination, it was flesh and blood! Was it thus Shakespeare wrought? The insertion of such a line in such a place is absolutely monstrous, and implies, both in the forger and the utterer, an entire incompetence to appreciate the finer touches of his genius. But it does more, for it betrays the most discreditable ignorance of the current phraseology of the poet's time. When Loontes says,-
“Would I were dead, but that, methinks, already" Mr. Collier's annotator, and Mr. Collier, and all the advocates of the intercalated line, assume him to mean,—“I should desire to die, only that I am already dead or holding converse with the dead;" 'whereas, in fact, the expression, "Would I were dead," &c. is neither more nor less than an imprecation, equivalent to—"Would I may die,” &c.; and the king's real meaning, in reference to Paulina's remark, that he will think anon it moves, is, “May I die, if I do not think it moves already.” In proof of this, take the following examples, which might easily be multiplied a hundred-fold, of similar forms of speech :
and, would I might be dead, If I in thought-" &c.
The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act IV. Sc. 4.
“Would I had no being, If this salute my blood a jot."
Henry VIII. Act II. Sc. 3. “ The gods rebuke me, but it is tidings To wash the eyes of kings."
Antony and Cleopatra, Act V. Sc. 1.
Summer's Last Will and Testament.
Walker," Act II Sc. 6.
Ben Joxson's Tale of a Tub, Act II. Sc. 1.
LEON. No, not these twenty years !
Though yet she speak not. Mark a little while.PER.
So long could I Please you to interpose, fair madam ; kneel, Stand by, a looker-on.
And pray your mother's blessing.–Turn, good Paul. Either forbear,
lady; Quit presently the chapel, or resolve you
Our Perdita is found. For more amazement. If you can behold it, [Presenting PERDITA, who kneels to HERMIONE, I'll make the statue move; indeed, descend
You gods, look down, And take you by the hand: but then you'll think And from your sacred vials pour your graces (Which I protest against) I am assisted
Upon my daughter's head ! Tell me, mine own, By wicked powers.
Where hast thou been preserv'd ? where liv'd ? LEON, What you can make her do,
how found I am content to look on: what to speak,
Thy father's court? for thou shalt hear that I,I am content to hear; for 't is as easy
Knowing by Paulina that the oracle To make her speak as move.
Gave hope thou wast in being,—have preserv’d PAUL.
It is requir'd
Myself, to see the issue. You do awake your faith. Then all stand still ; Paul.
There's time enough for that: Or * those that think it is unlawful business Lest they desire, upon this push, to trouble I am about, let them depart.
Your joys with like relation.-Go together, LEON.
You precious wiriners all ; your exultation No foot shall stir.
Partake* to every one. I, an old turtle, PAUL. Music, awake her, strike ! Will wing me to some wither'd bough, and there
[Music. My mate, that 's never to be found again, ’T is time; descend; be stone no more; approach; Lament till I am lost. Strike all that look upon with marvel! Come; LEON.
O, peace, Paulina ! I'll fill your grave up: stir; nay, come away ;
Thou shouldst a husband take by my consent, Bequeath to Death your numbness, for from him As I by thine a wife : this is a match, [mine; Dear Life redeems you.—You perceive she stirs ; And made between's by vows. Thou hast found
[HERMIONE slowly descends from the pedestal. But how, is to be question’d,—for I saw her, Start not; her actions shall be holy as
As I thought, dead; and have, in vain, said You hear my spell is lawful: do not shun her,
many Until you see her die again; for then
prayer upon her grave. I'll not seek far You kill her double. Nay, present your
hand : (For him, I partly know his mind) to find thee When she was young you woo'd her; now in age Àn honourable husband.—Come, Camillo, Is she become the suitor !
And take her by the hand :—whose worth and LEON. O, she's warm !
[Embracing her. Is richly noted; and here justified If this be magic, let it be an art
By us, a pair of kings.—Let's from this place.Lawful as eating.
What !- look upon my brother : —both your POL. She embraces him !
pardons, CAM. She hangs about his neck !
That e'er I put between your holy looks If she pertain to life, let her speak too.
My ill suspicion.-- This your son-in-law, Pol. Ay, and make 't manifest where she has And son unto the king, whom heavens directing, liv'd,
Is troth-plight to your daughter.-Good Paulina, Or how stol'n from the dead !
Lead us from hence, where we may leisurely Paul.
That she is living,
Each one demand, and answer to his part Were it but told you, should be hooted at
Perform'd in this wide gap of time, since first Like an old tale ; but it appears she lives, We were dissever'd: hastily lead away. [Exeunt.
(*) old text, On. a Partake-] That is, participate.
b — whose worth and honesty, &c.] "Whose” refers to Camillo, not to Paulina.
• What !- look upon my brother :-) This unfolds a charming
and delicate trait of action in Hermione ; remembering how sixteen sad years agone her innocent freedoms with Polixenes had been misconstrued, and keenly sensible, even amidst the joy of her present restoration to child and husband, of the bitter penalty they had involved, she now turns from him, when they meet, with feelings of mingled modesty and apprehension.
(1) SCENE II.
Upon his palm?] By “virginalling," Leontes meant that Hermione was tapping or fingering on the hand of Polixenes, in the manner of a person playing on the “Virginals." This instrument, which, with the spinet and harpsichord, Mr. Chappell tells us was the precursor of the modern pianoforte, was stringed, and played on with keys, formerly called jacks :
" Where be these rascals that skip up and down,
Ram Alley, or Merry Tricks, Act IV. Sc. I. It was of an oblong shape, somewhat resembling a small square pianoforte, and, from the repeated mention of it in books of Shakespeare's age, as well as long afterwards, must have been in general vogue among the opulent. The name, as Nares supposed, was most probably derived from its being chiefly used by young girls.
(2) SCENE II.- Are you moud, my lord I] In Greene's novel, the theme of which, it will be seen from our extracts, Shakespeare pretty closely followed, except in the repulsive catastrophe, the scene of action is reversed; Pandosto (Leontes) being King of Bohemia, and Egistus (Polixenes) King of Sicilia. After describing the visit paid by the latter to Pandosto, and the "honest familiarity," which sprang up between him and Bellaria (Hermione), the novelist proceeds to expatiate on the effects of this familiarity upon the mind of Pandosto:
“He then began to measure all their actions, and to misconstrue of their too private familiaritie, judging that it was not for honest affection, but for disordinate fancy, so that hee began to watch them more narrowly to see if he coulde gette any true and certaine proofe to confirme his doubtfull suspition. While thus he noted their lookes and gestures and suspected their thoughtes and meaninges, they two seely soules, who doubted nothing of this his treacherous intent, frequented daily eache others companie, which drave him into such a franticke passion, that he beganne to beare a secret hate to Egistus and a lowring countenance to Bellaria ; who marveiling at such unaccustomed frowns, began to cast beeyond the moone, and to enter into a thousand sundrie thoughtes, which way she should offend her husband : but finding in her selfe a cleare conscience ceassed to muse, until such time as she might find fit opportunitie to demaund the cause of his dumps. In the meane time Pandostoes minde was so farre charged with jealousy, that he did no longer doubt, but was assured, (as he thought) that his friend Egistus had entered a wrong pointe in his tables, and so had played him false play." (3) SCENE. II.
I'll do't, my lord. LEON. I will seem friendly, as thou hast advis'd me.) Compare the corresponding circumstances as related in the novel :-“Devising with himself a long time how he might best put away Egistus without suspition of treacherous mur
der, hee concluded at last to poyson him; which opinion pleasing his humour, he became resolute in his determination, and the better to bring the matter to passe he called unto him his cupbearer, with whom in secret he brake the matter, promising to him for the performance thereof to geve him a thousande crownes of yearely revenues.
“His cupbearer, eyther being of a good conscience or willing for fashion sake to deny such a bloudy request, began with great reasons to perswade Pandosto from his determinate mischief, showing him what an offence mur. ther was to the Gods; how such unnaturall actions did more displease the heavens than men, and that causelesse cruelty did sildome or never escape without revenge : he layd before his face that Egistus was his friend, a king, and one that was come into his kingdome to confirme a league of perpetuall amitie betwixt them ; that he had and did shew him a most friendly countenance ; how Egistus was not onely honoured of his owne people by obedience, but also loved of the Bohemians for his curtesie, and that if he now should without any just or manifest cause poyson him, it would not onely be a great dishonour to his majestie, and a meanes to sow perpetuall enmity between the Sycilians and the Bohemians, but also his owne subjects would repine at such treacherous cruelty. These and such like perswasions of Franion (for so was his cupbearer called) could no whit prevaile to diswade him from his devellish enterprize, but remaining resolute in his determination (his fury so fired with rage as it could not be appeased with reason), he began with bitter taunts to take up his man, and to lay before him two baites, preferment and death; saying that if he would poyson Egistus he would advance him to high dignities; if he refused to doe it of an obstinate minde, no torture should be too great to requite his disobedience. Franion, seeing that to perswade Pandosto any more was but to strive against the strcame, consented as soone as an opportunity would give him leave to dispatch Egistus; wherewith Pandosto remained some. what satisfied, hoping now he should be fully revenged of such mistrusted injuries, intending also as soon as Egistus was dead to give his wife a sop of the same sawse, and so be rid of those which were the cause of his restles sorrow."
(4) SCENE II. — Come, sir, away! [Exeunt.] The betrayal of the king's jealous design is thus related in the story :-“Lingring thus in doubtfull feare, in an evening he went to Egistus lodging, and desirous to breake with him of certaine affaires that touched the king, after all were commanded out of the chamber, Franion made manifest the whole conspiracie which Pandosto had devised against him, desiring Egistus not to account him a traytor for bewraying his maisters counsaile, but to thinke that ho did it for conscience : hoping that although his maister, inflamed with rage or incensed by some sinister reportes or slanderous speeches, had imagined such causelesse mischiefe, yet when time should pacifie his anger, and try those talebearers but flattering parasites, then he would count him as a faithfull servant that with such care had kept his maisters credite. Egistus had not fully heard Franion tell forth his tale, but a quaking feare possessed all his limnes, thinking that there was some treason wrought, and that Franion did but shaddow his craft with these false colours : wherefore he began to waxe in choller,
and saide that he doubted not Pandosto, sith he was his friend, and there had never as yet beene any breach of amity. He had not sought to invade his lands, to conspire with his enemies, to disswade his subjects from their allegiance; but in word and thought he rested his at all times : he knew not therefore any cause that should moove Pandosto to seeke his death, but suspected it to be a compacted knavery of the Bohemians to bring the king and him to oddes.
“Franion staying him in the middst of his talke, told him that to dally with princes was with the swannes to sing against their death, and that if the Bohemians had intended any such mischiefe, it might have beene better brought to passe then by revealing the conspiracie ; therefore his Majestie did ill to misconstrue of his good
meaneng, sith his intent was to hinder treason, not to become a traytor; and to confirme his promises, if it pleased his Majestie to fly into Sicilia for the safegarde of his life, hee would goe with him, and if then he found not such a practice to be pretended, let his imagined treacherie be repayed with most monstrous torments. Egistus hearing the solemne protestations of Franion, begann to consider that in love and kingdomes neither faith nor lawe is to bee respected, doubting that Pandosto thought by his death to destroy his men, and with speedy
to invade Sicilia. These and such doubtes throughly weyghed he gave great thankes to Franion, promising if hee might with life returne to Syracusa, that he would create him a duke in Sycilia, craving his counsell how hee might escape out of the countrie."
that although he might sufficiently requite his wives falshood with the bitter plague of pinching penury, yet his minde should never be glutted with revenge till he might have fit time and opportunity to repay the treachery of Egistus with a totall injury. But a curst cow hath oftentimes short hornes, and a willing minde but a weake arme ; for Pandosto, although he felt that revenge was a spurre to warre, and that envy alwaies proffereth steele, yet he saw that Egistus was not onely of great puissance and prowesse to withstand him, but had also many kings of his alliance to ayde him if neede should serve, for he married the Emperours daughter of Russia." -Pandosto. The Triumph of Time, 1588.
(1) SCENE I.
Adieu, my lord :
I trust I shall.) “Whereupon he began to imagine that Franion and his wife Bellaria had conspired with Egistus, and that the fei vent affection shee bare him was the onely meanos of his secret departure; in so much that incensed with rage he commaundes that his wife should be carried straight to prison untill they heard further of his pleasure. The guarde, unwilling to lay their hands one such a vertuous princesse and yet fearing the kings fury, went very sorrowfull to fulfill their charge. Comming to the queenes lodging they found her playing with her yong sonne Garinter, unto whom with teares doing the mes. sage, Bellaria, astonished at such a hard censure and finding her cleere consceence a sure advocate to pleade in her cause, went to the prison most willingly, where with sighes and teares shee past away the tịme till she might come to her triall.
“But Pandosto, whose reason was suppressed with rage and whose unbridled follie was incensed with fury, seeing Franion had bewrayed his secrets, and that Egistus might well be rayled on, but not revenged, determined to wreake all his wrath on poore Bellaria. He therefore caused a generall proclamation to be made through all his realme that the queene and Egistus had, by the help of Franion, not only committed most incestuous adultery, but also had conspired the kings death : whereupon the traitor Franion was fled away with Egistus, and Bellaria was most justly imprisoned. This proclamation being once blazed through the country, although the vertuous disposition of the queene did halfe discredit the contents, yet the suddaine and speedy passage of Egistus, and the secret departure of Franion, induced them (the circumstances throughly considered) to thinke that both the proclamation was true, and the king greatly injured : yet they pittyed her case, as sorrowful that so good a ladye should be crossed with such adverse fortune. But the king, whose restlesse rage would remit no pitty, thought
(2) SCENE III.—Poor thing, condemn'd to loss /] In the novel, as in the play, the unhappy queen, while in prison, gives birth to a daughter, which the king at first determines shall be burnt, but being diverted from this bloody purpose by the remonstrance of his nobles, he resolves to set the hapless infant adrift upon the sea :-"The guard left her in this perplexitie, and carried the child to the king, who quite devoide of pity commanded that without delay it should bee put in the boat, having neither saile nor other [rudder ?] to guid it and so to be carried into the midst of the sea, and there left to the wind and wave as the destinies please to appoint. The very ship-men, seeing the sweete countenance of the yong babe, began to accuse the king of rigor, and to pity the childs hard fortune ; but feare constrayned them to that which their nature did abhorre, so that they placed it in one of the ends of the boat, and with a few greene bows made a homely cabben to shrowd it as they could from wind and weather. Having thus trimmed the boat they tied it to. a ship and so haled it into the mayne sea, and then cut in sunder the coarde ; which they had no sooner done, but there arose a mighty tempest, which tossed the little boate so vehemently in the waves that the ship men thought it could not continue long without sincking ; yea, the storm grew so great, that with much labour and perill they got to the shoare."
(1) SCENE II.-Look for no less than death.] “ But leaving the childe to her fortunes, againe to Pandosto, who not yet glutted with sufficient revenge desired which way he should best increase his wives calamitie. But first assembling his nobles and counsellors, hee called her for the mire reproch into open court, where it was objected against her that she had committed adulterie with
Egistus, and conspired with Franion to poyson Pandosto her husband, but their pretence being partely spyed, she counselled them to flie away by night for their better safety. Bellaria, who standing like a prisoner at the barre, feeling in herselfe a cleare conscience to withstand her false accusers, seeing that no lesse than death could pacifie her husbands wrath, waxed bolde and desired that she might have lawe and justice, for mercy shee neyther craved nor hoped for; and that those perjured wretches which had falsely accused her to the king might be brought before her face to give in evidence. But Pandosto, whose rage and jealousie was such as no reason nor equitie could appease, tolde her, that for her accusers they were of such credite as their wordes were sufficient witnesse, and that the sodaine and secret flight of Egistus and Franion confirmed that which they had confessed; and as for her, it was her parte to deny such a monstrous crime, and to be impudent in forswearing the fact, since shee had past all shame in committing the fault : but her state countenaunce should stand for no coyne, for as the bastard which she bare was served, so she should with some cruell death be requited.”—Pandosto. The Triumph of Time, 1588.
divine essence knew al secrets, gave answere that she was guiltie, she were content to suffer any torment wero it never so terrible. The request was so reasonable that Pandosto could not for shame deny it, unlesse he would bee counted of all his subjects more wilfull than wise: he therefore agreed that with as much speede as might be there should be certaine Embassadores dispatched
to the Ile of Delphos, and in the meane season he commanded that his wife should be kept in close prison.”
(3) SCENE II.-And the king shall live without an heir, if that which is lost be not found.] The answer of the oracle in the play is almost literally the same as that in the tale :
" THE ORACLE. “Suspition is no proofe : Jealousie is an unequal judge : Bellaria is chast : Egistus blameless : Franion a true subject: Pandosto treacherous: His babe innocent, and the king shall live long without an heire, if that which is lost be not founde."
(2) SCENE II.
Your honours all,
A pollo be my judge !] Tle extracts here given will show that in most of the incidents connected with the arraignment of the queen, the great dramatist varies but little from the story. He has made one important change, however, without which we should have lost the finest scene in the play ; for in the novel the unfortunate lady, overcome with grief for the death of her eldest child, expires in the public court shortly after the response of the oracle is declared.
“The noble men which sate in judgement said that Bellaria spake reason, and intreated the king that the accusers might be openly examined and sworne, and if then the evidence were such as the jury might finde her guilty, (for seeing she was a prince she ought to be tryed by her peeres) then let her have such punishment as the extremitie of the law will assigne to such malefactors. The king presently made answere that in this case he might and would dispence with the law, and that the jury being once panneld they should take his word for sufficient evidence, otherwise he would make the proudest of them repent it. The noble men seeing the king in choler were all whist; but Bellaria, whose life then hung in the ballaunce, fearing more perpetual infamie than momentarie death, told the king if his furie might stand for a law that it were vaine to have the jury yeeld their verdict; and therefore she fell downe upon her knees, and desired the king that for the love he bare to his young sonne Garinter, whome she brought into the world, that hee would graunt her a request; which was this, that it would please his majestie to send sixe of his noble men whom he best trusted to the Isle of Delphos, there to enquire of the oracle of Apollo whether she had committed adultery with Egistus or conspired to poyson him with Franion and if the god Apollo, who by his
(4) SCENE III.—They have scared away two of my best sheep, if anywhere I have them, 'tis by the sea-side, browzing of ivy.] This is one of the instances, proving that Shakespeare had the novel before him while composing his drama, in which the identical expression of the original is transferred to the copy. After recounting how the babe, which had been left to the mercies of the “gastfull seas,' “floated two whole daies without succour, readie at every puffe to bee drowned in the sea, till at last the tempest ceased and the little boate was driven with the tyde into the coaste of Sycilia, where sticking uppon the sandes it rested,” the novelist proceeds to tell that, “It fortuned a poore mercenary sheepheard that dwelled in Sycilia, who got his living by other mens flockes, missed one of his sheepe, and thinking it had strayed into the covert that was hard by, sought very diligently to find that which he could not see, fearing either that the wolves or eagles had undone him (for he was so poore as a sheepe was halfe his substance), wandered downe toward the sea cliffes to see if perchaunce the sheepe was browsing on the sea ivy, whereon they greatly doe feede ; but not finding her there, as he was ready to returne to his flocke hee heard a child crie, but knowing there was no house nere, he thought he had mistaken the sound and that it was the bleatyng of his sheepe. Wherefore looking more narrowely, as he cast his eye to the sea, he spyed a little boate, from whence, as he attentively listened, he might heare the cry to come. Standing a good while in a maze, at last he went to the shoare, and wading to the boate, as he looked in he saw the little babe lying al alone ready to die for hunger and colde, wrapped in a mantle of scarlet richely imbrodered with golde, and having a chayne about the necke."
(1) SCENE II. - Trol-my-dames.) A game more anciently known as “Pigeon-holes," because the balls were driven through arches on the board resembling the apertures in a dove-cote. It is mentioned in a treatise, quoted by Farmer, on “ Buckstone Bathes ;"-"The ladyes, gentle woomen, wyves, maydes, if the weather be not agreeable, may have in the ende of a benche eleven holes made, intoo the which to troule pummits, either wyolent or softe, after their own discretion : thé pastyme troule in madame is termed;" and an illustration, showing the board and mode of play, will be found prefixed to Emblem No. II. in Quarles' “Emblems,” 1635, which begins :
"Prepost'rous fool, thou troul'st amiss;
Thou err'st; that's not the way, 'tis this." (2) SCENE II.-An ape-bearer.) In explanation of a passage in Massinger's play of “The Bondman,” Act III. Sc. 3, Gifford has an amusing note on the excellence displayed by our ancestors in the education of animals :"Banks's horse far surpassed all that have been brought up in the academy of Mr. Astley; and the apes of these days are mere clowns their progenitors. The apes of Massinger's time were gifted with a pretty smattering of politics and philosophy. The widow Wild had one of them : * He would come over for all my friends, but was the dog