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Enter Priests, &c., in procession ; the corpse of

OPHELIA, LAERTES and Mourners following;
KING, QUEEN, their Trains, &c.

The queen, the courtiers ! Who is that they follow?
And with such maimed rites! This doth betoken,
The corse they follow did with desperate hand
Fordo itsa own life: 't was of some estate :
Couch we awhile, and mark.

[Retiring with HORATIO. LAER. What ceremony else ? Ham.

That is Laertes, A very noble youth: mark. LAER.

What ceremony else? 1 PRIEST. Her obsequies have been as far

enlarg'd As we have warrantise : her death was doubtful; And, but that great command o’ersways the order, She should in ground unsanctified have lodg'd Till the last trumpet; for charitable prayer, Shards, flints, and pebbles, should be thrown on

Her maiden strewments, and the bringing home Of bell and burial.

LAER. Must there no more be done? 1 PRIEST.

No more be done ! We should profane the service of the dead, To sing * a requiem, and such rest to her, As to peace-parted souls. LAER.

Lay her i' the earth ; And from her fair and unpolluted flesh May violets spring !—I tell thee, churlish priest, A ministring angel shall my sister be, When thou liest howling. Ham.

What, the fair Ophelia ! QUEEN. Sweets to the sweet : farewell !

[Scattering flowers. I hop'd thou shouldst lave been my Hamlet's wife; I thought thy bride-bed to have deck'd, sweet

maid, And not thave strew'd thy grave. LAER.

0, treble woe + Fall ten times treble on that cursed head, Whose wicked deed thy most ingenious sense Depriv'd thee of !-Hold off the earth a while, Till I have caught her once more in mine arms :

[Leaps into the grave.

her :

[blocks in formation]

(t) First folio, Oh terrible woer.

a — its own life:) So the undated quarto; the other early editions have, it own life.”

b – crants,-) “Crants” are crowns = coronæ, or garlands. 1

390

(*) First folio, sage. The folio reads, “ Rites.

you, sir;

Now pile your dust upon the quick and dead, Make Ossa like a wart! Nay, an thou 'lt mouth,
Till of this flat a mountain you have made, I'll rant as well as thou.
To o'er-top old Pelion, or the skyish head

QUEEN.

This is mere madness, Of blue Olympus.

And thus a while the fit will work on him ; Ham. [Advancing.1 What is he whose grief* Anon, as patient as the female dove, Bears such an emphasis ? whose phrase of sorrow When that her golden couplets are disclos’d, Cónjures the wand'ring stars, and makes them His silence will sit drooping." stand

Ham.

Hear
Like wonder-wounded hearers ? This is I, What is the reason that you use me thus ?
Hamlet the Dane ! (Leaps into the grave. I lov'd you ever : but it is no matter;
LAER.
The devil take thy soul ! Let Hercules himself do what he

may,
[Grappling with him.

The cat will mew, and dog will have his day. Ham. Thou pray’st not well.

[Exit. I pr’ythee, take thy fingers from my throat; KING. I pray you, good Horatio, wait upon For † though I am not splenitive and rash,

him.

[Exit HORATIO. Yet have I something in me dangerous,

Strengthen your patience in our last night's speech ; Which let thy wiseness fear :' away thy hand !

[To LAERTES. KING. Pluck them asunder!

We'll put the matter to the present push.QUEEN.

Hamlet, Hamlet ! Good Gertrude, set some watch over your son.Hon.I Good my lord, be quiet.

[Exit QUEEN. [The Attendants part them, and they This

grave shall have a living monument: come out of the grave. An hour of quiet shortly shall we see ; HAM. Why, I will fight with him upon this Till then, in patience our proceeding be. [Exeunt.

theme,
Until my eyelids will no longer wag.
QUEEN. O, my son ! what theme?

SCENE II.-A Hall in the Castle.
Ham. I lov'd Ophelia ; forty thousand brothers
Could not, with all their quantity of love,

Enter HAMLET and HORATIO.
Make up my sum.- - What wilt thou do for her ?
KING. O, he is mad, Laertes.

Ham. So much for this, sir : now let me see QUEEN. For love of God, forbear him.

the other ;Ham. Come, show me what thou ’lt do :

You do remember all the circumstance ? Woo't weep ? woo't fight ? woo't fast ?ß woo't tear HOR. Remember it, my lord ? thyself ?

Ham. Sir, in my heart there was a kind of Woo't drink up eisel ? a eat a crocodile ?

fighting, I'll do't.-Dost thou come here to whine ? That would not let me sleep: methought I lay To outface me with leaping in her grave ?

Worse than the mutines in the bilboes.' Rashly, Be buried quick with her, and so will I;

And prais’d* be rashness for it, __let us know, And, if thou prate of mountains, let them throw Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well, Millions of acres on us, till our ground,

When our dear plots do pall; and that should Singeing his pate against the burning zone,

teach us,

(*) First folio, praise.

(*) First folio, griefes.
(1) First folio, Gen.

(+) First folio, Sir.
(3) First folio omits, woo't fast !

a — drink up eisel?] The question whether Hamlet speaks here of a river (the Yssell, Issell, or Isel, has been suggested), or proposes the more practical exploit of drinking some nauseous potion, eisel of old being used for wormwood and for vinegar, has been fiercely disputed. Those who believe that risel means a river, lay much stress on the addition, up; but Gifford, in a note on the phrase, “Kills them all up," ("Every Man in his Humour, Act IV. Sc. 5,) has satisfactorily disposed of this plea :--"--off, out, and up, are continually used by the purest and most excellent of our old writers after verbs of destroying, consuming, eating, drinking, &c. : to us, who are less conversant with the power of language, they appear, indeed, somewhat like expletives; but they undoubtedly contributed something to the force, and something to the roundness of the sentence. There is much wretcbed criticism on a similar expression in Shakespeare, Woo't drink up eisel?' Theobald gives the sense of the passage in a clumsy note; Hanmer, who had more taste than judgment, and more judgment than knowledge, corrupts the language as usual [he reads, "Wilt drink up Nile?']; Steevens gaily perverts the sense;

and Malone, with great effort, brings the reader back to the meaning which poor Theobald had long before excogitated."

b His silence will sit drooping.) In the folio this speech is assigned to the King!

C- bilboes.) An instrument of torture, consisting of a bar of iron with fetters attached, used formerly for the punishment of sailors, and supposed to have been named from Bilboa, in Spain.

d And prais'd be rashness for it,-) We think, with Tyrwhitt, that Rashly should be joined in construction with-in the dark grop'd I to find out them, and the passage therefore distributed and read as follows:

"Rashly
(And prais'd be rashness, for it lets us know,
Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well,
When our dear plots do pall; and that should teach us,
There's a divinity that shapes our ends,
Rough-hew them how we will;-

HOR. That is most certain)
Ham. Up from my cabin," &c.

upona

There's a divinity that shapes our ends,

Folded the writ up in form of the other; Rough-hew them how we will,

Subscrib'd it; gave't the impression; plac'd it HOR. That is most certain.

safely, Ham. Up from my cabin,

The changeling never known. Now, the next day My sea-gown scarf'd about me, in the dark Was our sea-fight; and what to this was sequent Grop'd I to find out them : had

my
desire;

Thou know'st already.
Finger'd their packet; and, in fine, withdrew HOR. So Guildenstern and Rosencrantz go to 't.
To mine own room again : making so bold,

Ham. Why, man, they did make love to this My fears forgetting manners, to unseal

employment : Their grand commission; where I found, Horatio, - They are not near my conscience ; their defeat O, royal knavery !-an exact command,

Does by their own insinuation grow:
Larded with many several sorts of reason, 'Tis dangerous when the baser nature comes
Importing Denmark's health, and England's too, Between the pass and fell-incensed points
With, ho! such bugs and goblins in my life, Of mighty opposites.
That, on the supervise, no leisure bated,

HOR,

Why, what a king is this ! No, not to stay the grinding of the axe,

Ham. Does it not, think'st thee, stand me now My head should be struck off. HOR. Is 't possible ? He that hath kill'd my king, and whor'd my

mother; Ham. Here's the commission; read it at more Popp'd in between the election and my hopes ; leisure.

Thrown out his angle for my proper life, But wilt thou hear me how I did proceed ? And with such cozenage—is't not perfect conHor. Ay, beseech you.

science, Ham. Being thus be-netted round with vil- To quit him with this arm ? and is 't not to be lainies,-*

damn’d, Ere I could make a prologue to my brains,

To let this canker of our nature come
They had begun the play,—I sat me down ; In further evil ?
Devis'd a new commission ; wrote it fair :-

Hor. It must be shortly known to him from I once did hold it, as our statists do,

England,
A baseness to write fair, and labour'd much What is the issue of the business there.
How to forget that learning ; but, sir, now

Ham. It will be short: the interim is mine; It did me yeoman's service—wilt thou know And a man's life's no more than to say, One. The effects of what I wrote ?

But I am very sorry, good Horatio, Hor.

Ay, good my lord. That to Laertes I forgot myself; Ham. An earnest conjuration from the king, - For by the image of my cause I see As England was his faithful tributary ;

The portraiture of his : I'll courto his favours : As love between them as the palm should flourish; But, sure, the bravery of his grief did put me As peace

should still her wheaten garland wear, Into a towering passion. And stand a commao 'tween their amities;

HOR.

Peace! who comes here? And many

such like as's of great charge, That on the view and know of these contents, Without debatement further, more or less,

Enter OSRIC.
He should the bearers put to sudden death,
Not shriving-time allow'd.

Osr. Your lordship is right welcome back to Hor.

How was this seald ? Denmark.
Ham. Why, even in that was heaven ordinant;f Ham. I humbly thank you, sir.—Dost know
I had

my
father's signet in my purse,

this water-fly? Which was the model of that Danish seal :

Hor. No, my good lord.

&

(*) Old text, villaines. (+) First folio, ordinate. a Rough-hew-] Farmer's assertion that these words were merely technical, and referred to the making skewers, has never, we believe, been contradicted ; a striking proof, so, how much the commentators on Shakespeare have yet to learn from our early literature. To rough-hew meant to plan or scheme, or do anything in the rough. Thus Florio interprets " Abbozzare," to rough-hew or cast any first draught, to bungle up ill-favouredly: and Baret, in his Alvearie, says, "To cut out grossely: to hew rough." "It is rough hewed, or squared out, or it is begun.".

b- such bugs and goblins in my life, -] “With such causes of error, rising from my character and designs."-Johnson.

c And stand a comma'tween thcir amities;] Johnson thinks this not incapable of explanation,-"The comma is the note of con

(*) First folio, sement.

(+) First folio, debate. nection and continuity of sentences; the period is the note of abruption and disjunction." To us it is much easier to believe that

comma ” is a typographical slip than that Shakespeare should have chosen that point as a mark of connection; at the same time, having no faith in the substitution, cement, by Hanmer, or commere, by Warburton, or co-mere (a boundary-stone), by Singer, we leave the text as it stands in the old copies, simply suggesting the possibility of "comma" being a misprint for co-mate.

d Does it not, think'st thee, stand me now upon-] Equipollent to, Is it not, think you, incumbent on me!

e r'll court his favours :) A correction due to Rowe; the folio, in which alone the speech is found, reading, "lle count his favours," &c.

Ham. Thy state is the more gracious ; for 't is OsR. Of Laertes ? a vice to know him. He hath much land, and HOR. His purse is empty already; all's golden fertile ; let a beast be lord of beasts, and his crib

words are spent. shall stand at the king's mess. 'Tis a chough; Ham. Of him, sir. but, as I say,* spacious in the possession of dirt. Osr. I know you are not ignorant

Osr. Sweet lord, if your lordshipt were at leisure, Ham. I would you did, sir ; yet, in faith, if I should impart a thing to you from his majesty. you did, it would not much approve me. Well, sir.o

Ham. I will receive it with all diligence of Osr. You are not ignorant of what excellence spirit. Put your bonnet to his right use; 't is for Laertes is— the head.

Ham. I dare not confess that, lest I should Osr. I thank your lordship, 't is very hot. compare with him in excellence; but to know a

Ham. No, believe me, 't is very cold ; the wind man well were to know himself. is northerly.

Osr. I mean, sir, for his weapon ; but in the Osr. It is indifferent cold, my lord, indeed. imputation laid on him by them, in his meeda he's

Ham. Methinks it is very sultry and hot for my unfellowed. complexion.

Ham. What's his weapon ? Osr. Exceedingly, my lord ; it is very sultry,- Osr. Rapier and dagger. as 't were,–I cannot tell how.-But, my lord, his Ham. That's two of his weapons : but, well. majesty bade me signify to you, that he has laid a Osr. The king, sir, hath waged with him six great wager on your head: sir, this is the matter. Barbary horses: against the which he has* imponed, Ham. I beseech you, remember

as I take it, six French rapiers and poniards, with [HAMLET moves him to put on his hat. their assigns, as girdle, hangers, and+ so: three of Osn. Nay, in good faith ; for mine ease, in good the carriages, in faith, are very dear to fancy, very faith. Sir, here is newly come to court, Laertes : responsive to the hilts, most delicate carriages, and believe me, an absolute gentleman, full of most of

very

liberal conceit. excellent differences, of very soft society and great Ham. What call you the carriages ? showing : indeed, to speak feelingly of him, he is HOR. I knew you must be edified by the marthe card or calendar of gentry, for you shall find gent ere you had done.' in him the continent of what part a gentleman Osr. The carriages, sir, are the hangers. would see.

Ham. The phrase would be more germans to the Ham. Sir, his definement suffers no perdition in matter, if we could carry cannon by our sides : I you ;-though, I know, to divide him inventorially would it might be hangers till then. But, on : would dizzy the arithmetic of memory; and yet six Barbary horses against six French swords, but yaw neither, in respect of his quick sail

. But, their assigns, and three liberal-conceited carriages : in the verity of extolment, I take him to be a soul that's the French bet against the Danish. Why of great article ; and his infusion of such dearth is this imponed, as you call it? and rareness, as, to make true diction of him, his Osr. The king, sir, hath laid, that in a dozen semblable is his mirror; and who else would trace passes between you and him, he shall not exceed him, his umbrage, nothing more.

you three hits ; he hath laid onf twelve for nine ; Osr. Your lordship speaks most infallibly of and it would come to immediate trial, if your him.

lordship would vouchsafe the answer. Ham. The concernancy, sir ?—why do we wrap Ham. How if I answer No? the gentleman in our more rawer breath?

Osr. I mean, my lord, the opposition of your Osr. Sir ?

Hor. Is 't not possible to understand in anotherb HAM. Sir, I will walk here in the hall ; if it tongue? You will do't, sir, really.

please his majesty,—'tis the breathing time of day Ham. What imports the nomination of this with me, let the foils be brought; the gentleman gentleman ?

person in trial.

willing, and the king hold his purpose, I will win (*) First folio, saw. (t) First folio, friendship.

(*) First folio omits, has. (+) First folio, or.

(1) First folio, He hath one. (8) First folio, that. 2 – and yet but yaw neither, in respect of his quick sail.] This is not in the folio nor in the quarto of 1603. In the other quartos, keep pace with them. except that of 1604, we have "raw" for "yaw," though the latter b- in another tongue?] Should we not read with Johnson, is shown by the context to be unquestionably the poet's word. To “in a mother tongue?" or " in's mother tongue?" yaw is to stagger and vacillate, as a ship sometimes does, instead c Well, sir.) The whole of the dialogue beginning, "—Sir, here is of going due on. Mr. Dyce, of course, adopts "yaw," but con- newly come to court,” &c. down to the above words, inclusive, is ceiving " yet," often written “yt," to be a misprint for it, he reads " -- and it, but yaw neither," &c. which we must admit our in

meed-) Merit, excellence. ability to understand. “ Yet" certainly is suspicious, but the word he's unfellowed.] This and the preceding speech are not in displaced we have always thought was wit, not it, and the drift of Hamlet's jargon to be this:-his qualifications are so numerous, f I knew you must be edified, &c.] Omitted in the folio. and so far surpass all ordinary reckoning, that memory would 8 - more german-) More akin. grow giddy in cataloguing, and wit be distanced in attempting to

omitted in the folio.

the folio.

for him if I can ; if not, I'll gain nothing but my be now, 'tis not to come: if it be not to come, it shame and the odd hits.

will be now; if it be not now, yet it will come: the Osr. Shall I re-deliver you e'en so ?

readiness is all: since no man has aught of what Ham. To this effect, sir; after what flourish he leaves, what is't to leave betimes ? your nature will.

Osr. I commend my duty to your lordship.

Ham. Yours, yours. [Exit Osric.] He does well to commend it himself; there are no tongues Enter KING, QUEEN, LAERTES, Lords, Osric, and else for's turn.*

Attendants, with foils, &c. Hor. This lapwing runs away with the shell on his head.

KING. [Taking LAERTES by the hand.] Come, Ham. He did comply* with his dug, before he

Hamlet, come, and take this hand from me. sucked it. Thus hast he (and manyř more of the

HAM. [TO LAERTES.] Give me your pardon, same bevy, that, I know, the drossy age dotes on)

sir : I've done you wrong; only got the tune of the time, and outward habit

But pardon't, as you are a gentleman. of encounter; a kind of yesty collection, which carries them through and through the most fanned

This presence knows, and you must needs have

heard, and winnowed opinions ;and do but blow them to

How I am punish'd with a* sore distraction. their trials, the bubbles are out.

What I have done,

That might your nature, honour, and exception,
Enter a Lord.

Roughly awake, I here proclaim was madness.
Was't Hamlet wrong'd Laertes ? Never, Hamlet :

If Hamlet from himself be ta'en away,
LORD. My lord, his majesty commended him to And when he's not himself does

wrong Laertes, you by young Osric, who brings back to him, that

Then Hamlet does it not, Hamlet denies it. you attend him in the hall : he sends to know if Who does then ? His madness; if't be so, your pleasure hold to play with Laertes, or that Hamlet is of the faction that is wrong'd; you will take longer time.

His madness is

poor
Hamlet's

enemy: Ham. I am constant to my purposes; they fol- Sir, in this audience, low the king's pleasure : if his fitness speaks, mine Let my disclaiming from a purpos'd evil is ready, now or whensoever, provided I be so able Free me so far in your most generous thoughts,

That I have shot mine arrow o'er the house, LORD. The king, and queen, and all, are coming And hurt my brother.t down,

LAER.

I am satisfied in nature, Ham. In happy time.

Whose motive, in this case, should stir me most LORD. The

queen
desires

you to use some gentle To my revenge: but in my terms of honour entertainment to Laertes before you fall to play. I stand aloof; and will no reconcilement, Ham. She well instructs me. [Exit Lord.

Till by some elder masters, of known honour, Hor. You will lose this wager, my lord. I have a voice and precedent of peace, Ham. I do not think so; since he went into

To keep my name ungor'd. But till that France, I have been in continual practice ; I shall

time, win at the odds. But thou wouldst not think how

I do receive your offer'd love like love, ill all'sg here about my heart : but it is no matter. And will not wrong it. HOR. Nay, good my lord,

Ham.

I do embrace it freely ; Ham. It is but foolery; but it is such a kind of And will this brother's wager frankly play.gain-giving, as would perhaps trouble a woman. Give us the foils.-Come on. Hor. If your mind dislike anything, obey it :|| I LAER.

Come, one for me. will forestal their repair hither, and say you are HAM. I'll be your foil, Laertes; in mine ignonot fit.

Ham. Not a whit, we defy augury; there's a Your skill shall, like a star i'the darkest night, special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it

Stick fiery off indeed.

as now.

rance

(*) First folio, tongue.

(+) First folio, had. (1) First folio, mine.

(8) First folio, how all heere. (II) First folio omits, it. He did comply with his dug,-) Was ceremonious, or played the courtier with his dug.

b - the most fanned and winnowed opinions ;) A lection proposed by Warburton; the quartos having—"Most prophane and

(*) First folio omits, a.

(+) First folio, Mother.

(1) First folio, ungorg'd. trennowed (and trennowned) opinions;" and the folio, “most fond and winnowed opinions," &c.

c Exit Lord.) From the entrance of this character to his exit, the text is not found in the folio.

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