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painter, could not have made him so ill, though | Than twenty silly ducking observants, they had been but two hours at the trade.* That stretch their duties nicely.

Čorn. Speak yet, how grew your quarrel ? Kent. Sir, in good sooth, * in sincere verity, Osw. This ancient ruffian, sir, whose life I have Under the allowance of your grand † aspect, spar'd,

Whose influence, like the wreath of radiant fire At suit of his grey beard,

On flickering # Phæbus' front, KENT. Thou whoreson zed! thou unnecessary CORN.

What mean'st by this ? letter !—My lord, if you will give me leave, I will Kent. To go out of my dialect, which you tread this unbolted villain into mortar, and daub discommend so much. I know, sir, I am no the wall of a jakes with him.-Spare my grey flatterer: he that beguiled you in a plain accent, beard, you wagtail ?*

was a plain knave ; which, for my part, I will not CORN. Peace, sirrah !

be, though I should win your displeasure to entreat You beastly knave, know you no reverence ? me to 't.

Kent. Yes, sir, but anger hath a privilege. CORN. What was the offence you gave him ? CORN. Why art thou angry ?


I never gave


any : KENT. That such a slave as this should wear a It pleas’d the king his master very late, sword,

[these, | To strike at me, upon his misconstruction ; Who wears no honesty. Such smiling rogues as When he, conjunct, and flattering his displeasure, Like rats, oft bite the holy cords a-twain

Tripp'd me behind ; being down, insulted, rail'd, Which are too intrinse t’unloose : smooth every And put upon him such a deal of man, passion

That worthied him, got praises of the king That in the natures of their lords rebels ;

For him attempting who was self-subdu'd

; Bring + oil to fire, snow to the colder moods ; And, in the fleshment of this dread || exploit, Renege, $ affirm, and turn their halcyon beaks Drew on me here again. With every galeg and vary of their masters,

KENT. None of these rogues and cowards, Knowing nought, like dogs, but following, But Ajax is their fool. A plague upon your epileptic visage !


Fetch forth the stocks, ho ! Smile you my speeches, as I were a fool ?

You stubborn ancient knave, you reverend bragGoose, if I had you upon Sarum plain,

gart, I'd drive ye cackling home to Camelot. (1)

We'll teach you CORN. What, art thou mad, old fellow ?


Sir, I am too old to learn : Glo. How fell you



Call not your stocks for me : I serve the king ; KENT. No contraries hold more antipathy, On whose employment I was sent to you: Than I and such a knave.

You shall do small respect, s show too bold malice Corn. Why dost thou call him knave? What's Against the grace and person of my master, his offence ? ||

Stocking his messenger. KENT. His countenance likes me not.


Fetch forth the stocks ! CORN. No more, perchance, does mine, nor his, As, I have life and honour, there shall he sit till

noon !

[night too. KENT. Sir, 'tis my occupation to be plain ; REG. Till noon ! till night, my lord ; and all I have seen better faces in my time,

KENT. Why, madam, if I were your father's dog, Than stands on any shoulder that I see

You should not use me so. Before me at this instant.


Sir, being his knaye, I will. CORN.

This is some fellow, CORN. This is a fellow of the self-same colour Who, having been prais'd for bluntness, doth affect Our sister speaks of.-Come, bring away the stocks. A saucy roughness, and constrains the garb

[Stocks brought in. Quite from his nature: he cannot flatter, he

Glo. Let me beseech your grace not to do so : An honest-mind and plain,—he must speak truth! His fault is much,' and the good king his master An they will take it, so; if not, he's plain. [ness Will check him for't: your purpos'd low correction These kind of knaves I know, which in this plain- Is such, as basest and contemned'st ** wretches, Harbour more craft and more corrupter ends, For pilferings and most common trespasses

nor hers.

(*) First folio, two yeares oth' trade. (+) First folio, Being. (1) First folio, Rerenge.

($First folio, gall. (1) First folio, What is his fault ? a Spare my grey beard, you wagtail?] An acute stroke of nature: Kent in his rage forgets it was his life, not his beard, which the fellow pretended to have spared.

b Quite from his nature:) His is here used for the impersonal its.

(*) First folio, faith.

(+) First folio, great. (1) First folio, licking.

($) First folio, compact. (11) First folio, dead.

() First folio, respects. (**) Old text, temnest, corrected by Capell. c His fault is much,-) This speech is abridged in the folio, which reads,

" Let me beseech your Grace, not to do so, The King his master needs must take it ill."


Are punish'd with : the king must take it ill,
That he's so slightly valu’d in his messenger,
Should have him thus restrain'd.

I'll answer that.
Reg. My sister may receive it much more worse,
To have her gentleman abus’d, assaulted,
For following her affairs.—Put in his legs.—

[KENT is put in the stocks. Come, my good* lord ; away.

[Exeunt all but GLOUCESTER and KENT. Glo. I am sorry for thee, friend ; 'tis the duke's

pleasure, Whose disposition, all the world well knows, Will not be rubb’d nor stopp’d: I'll entreat for thee. KENT. Pray do not, sir : I have watch'd and

travell’d hard ; Some time I shall sleep out, the rest I'll whistle.

A good man's fortune may grow out at heels :
Give you good morrow!
Glo. [Aside.] The duke's to blame in this;
't will be ill taken.

Exit. Kent. Good king, that must approve the com

mon saw, Thou out of heaven's benediction com'st To the warm sun !! Approach, thou beacon to this under globe, That by thy comfortable beams I may Peruse this letter !—Nothing almost sees miracles, But misery ;-I know 't is from Cordelia ; Who hath most fortunately been inform’d Of my obscured course, and she'll find time From this enormous state-seeking, to give Losses their remedies. — All weary and o'er


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(*) First folio omits, good. a For following her affairs, -Put in his legs.-) Aline not found in the folio.

Thou out of heaven's benediction com'st

To the warm sun!] This "common saw" we meet with in Heywood's “Dialogues on Proverbs,"

“ In your running from him to me, ye runne

Out of God's blessing into the warme sunne." It is found also in Howell's collection of English Proverbs in his Dictionary, 1660, and there explained, -"He goes out of God's blessing to the warm sun, viz. from good worse." The application, we must suppose, is to Lear's quitting one daughter only to meet more inhospitable treatment from another.

I know 't is from Cordelia ;
Who hath most fortunately been inform’d
of my obscured course, and she'll find time
From this enormous state-seeking, to give

Losses their remedies.) Some editors have gone so far as to degrade this passage altogether from the text: Steevens and others conjecture it to be made up from fragments of Cordelia's letter. We agree with Malone that it forms no part of that letter, but are opposed to his notion that “two half lines have been lost between the words state and seeking." The slight change of " she'll" for shall, -the ordinary reading being, "-- and shall find time," &c.-appears to remove much of the difficulty; hat occa ed by the corrupt words, "enormous state-seeking," will some day probably find an equally facile remedy.

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Take vantage, heavy eyes, not to behold

Kent. (Waking.] Hail to thee, noble master ! This shameful lodging.

LEAR. Ha! Mak’st thou this shame thy pastime? Fortune, good night; smile once more; turn thy


No, my lord. wheel !

[Sleeps. Fool. Ha, ha! he wears cruela garters! Horses

are tied by the heads, dogs and bears by the neck, monkeys by the loins, and men by the legs :

when a man is* over-lusty at legs, then he wears SCENE III.-A Wood.

wooden nether-stocks. Enter EDGAR.

LEAR. What's he, that hath so much thy place

mistook, Edg. I heard myself proclaim'd ;

To set thee here? And, by the happy hollow of a tree,


It is both he and she,–
Escap'd the hunt. No port is free; no place, Your son and daughter.
That guard, and most unusual vigilance,

Does not attend my taking. Whiles I may scape,

KENT. Yes. I will preserve myself : and am bethought

LEAR. No, I say ! To take the basest and most poorest shape,

KENT. I say, yea. That ever penury, in contempt of man,

LEAR. No, no ; they would not.' Brought near to beast: my face I'll grime with KENT. Yes, they have. filth;

LEAR. By Jupiter, I swear, no ! Blanket my loins; elf all my hair* in knots ;a Kent. By Juno, I swear, ay. And with presented nakedness out-face

LEAR. They durst not do’t; The winds and persecutions of the sky.

They could not, would not do't; 'tis worse than The country gives me proof and precedent

murder, Of Bedlam beggars,(2) who, with roaring voices, To do upon respect such violent outrage : Strike in their numb'd and mortified bare arms Resolve me, with all modest haste, which way Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary ; Thou mightst deserve, or they impose, this usage, And with this horrible object, from low farms, Coming from us. Poor pelting villages, sheep-cotes, and mills, KENT.

My lord, when at their home Sometime with lunatic bans, sometime with prayers, I did commend your highness' letters to them, Enforce their charity.--Poor T'urlygood /(3) poor Ere I was risen from the place that show'd Tom!

My duty kneeling, came there a reeking post, That's something yet ;-Edgar I nothing am. Stew'd in his haste, half breathless, panting +


From Goneril, his mistress, salutations ;
Deliver'd letters, spite of intermission,

Which presently they read : on whosef contents, SCENE IV.—Before Gloucester's Castle. KENT

They summon’d up their meiny, 8 straight took in the Stocks.

horse ;

Commanded me to follow, and attend
Enter LEAR, Gentleman, and Fool.

The leisure of their answer; gave me cold looks : LEAR. 'Tis strange that they should so depart And meeting here the other messenger, from home,

Whose welcome I perceiv'd had poison'd mine, And not send back my messenger."

(Being the very fellow which of late GENT.

As I learn'd, Display'd so saucily against your highness) The night before there was no purpose in them Having more man than wit about me, drew; Of this remove.

He rais'd the house with loud and coward cries :

(*) Pirst folio, haires. (1) First folio, Messengers. a — elf all my hair in knots ;] “ Hair thus knotted was vulgarly supposed to be the work of elves and fairies in the night. So in 'Romeo and Juliet,' Act I. Sc. 4,

- plats the manes of horses in the night; And bakes the elf-locks in foul sluttish hairs,

Which, once untangled, much misfortune bodes.'-STEEVENS.

b - pelting villages,-) That is, paltry, pedling villages. c Poor Turlygood! poor Tom!] So Dekker, in his " Bell-man of London," says of an Abraham-man,”—“ He calls himselfe by

(*) First folio omits, is. () First folio, painting.

(1) First folio, those. the name of poore Tom, and comming neere any body cries out, Poore Tom is a-cold."

d - cruel garters!) The same quibble on cruel and crewel, i.e, worsted of which stockings, garters, &c., were made, is found in many of our old plays.

- nether-stocks.] Stockings were formerly called nether. stocks, and breeches over-stocks or upper- ks.

f No, no; they would not.) This and the next speech are not in the folio.

& They summon'd up their meiny,–] Meiny here signifies train or retinue.



Your son and daughter found this trespass worth
The shame which here it suffers.

Re-enter LEAR, with GLOUCESTER.
Fool. Winter’s not gone yet, if the wild geese
fly that way.

LEAR. Deny to speak with me? They are sick?

they are weary? Fathers that wear rags,

They have travelld all the night? Mere Do make their children blind;

But fathers that bear bags,

The images of revolt and flying off.
Shall see their children kind.

Fetch me a better answer.
Fortune, that arrant whore,


My dear lord,
Ne'er turns the key to the poor.- You know the fiery quality of the duke ;

How unremoveable and fix'd he is
But, for all this, thou shalt have as many


In his own course. for thy daughters, as thou canst tell in a year.

LEAR. Vengeance ! plague! death! confusion ! LEAR. O, how this mother swells up toward my

Fiery? what quality ? Why, Gloster, Gloster, heart !

I'd speak with the duke of Cornwall and his wife. Hysterica" passio,(4)—down, thou climbing sorrow,

Glo. Well

, my good lord, I have inform’d Thy element's below ! Where is this daughter ?

them so." KENT. With the earl, sir, here within.

LEAR. Inform'd them! Dost thou understand LEAR. Follow me not; stay here.

me, man? Gent. Made you no more offence but what you

Glo. Ay, my good lord. speak of?

LEAR. The king would speak with Cornwall; KENT. None.

the dear father How chance the king comes with so small a train ? +

Would with his daughter speak, commands her Fool. An thou hadst been set i' the stocks for

service : + that question, thou hadst well deserved it.

Are they inform'd of this ?-My breath and Kent. Why, fool ?

blood! Fool. We'll set thee to school to an ant, to

Fiery? the fiery duke ?--Tell the hot duke, that teach thee there's no labouring i' the winter. All

No, but not yet :—may be, he is not well : that follow their noses are led by their


Infirmity doth still neglect all office, blind men; and there's not a nose among twenty

Whereto our health is bound; we are not ourbut can smell him that's stinking. Let go thy

selves, hold when a great wheel runs down a hill, lest it

When nature, being oppress’d, commands the break thy neck with following it: I but the great

mind one that goes up the hill,ş let him draw thee after.

To suffer with the body: I'll forbear ; When a wise man gives thee better counsel, And am fall'n out witń my more headier will, give me mine again : I would have none but

To take the indispos’d and sickly fit knaves follow it, since a fool gives it.

For the sound man.—Death on my state! whereThat sir which serves and seeks for gain,


[Looking on KENT. And follows but for form,

Should he sit here? This act persuades me, Will pack when it begins to rain,

That this remotion of the duke and her And leave thee in the storm.

Is practice only. Give me my servant forth : But I will tarry; the fool will stay,

Go, tell the duke and’s wife I'd speak with And let the wise man fly:

them, The knave turns fool that runs away ;

Now, presently: bid them come forth and hear The fool no knave, perdy.


Or at their chamber door I'll beat the drum KENT. Where learned you this, fool ?

Till it cry sleep to death." Fool. Not i’ the stocks, fool.

Glo. I would have all well betwixt you. [Exit.

(*) Old copies, Historica. (1) First folio, number. (1) First folio omits, it.

(5) First folio, upward. & Winter's not gone yet, &c.] This speech is not found in the quartos. b-dolours-) See note (b), p. 18.

The knave turns fool that runs away;

The fool no knave, perdy.)
Johnson thought the sense would be mended if we read,

“ The fool turns knave that runs away;

The knave no fool, perdy."

(1) First folio, commands, tends, service. d Well, my good lord, &c.] This speech and Lear's rejoinder are found only in the folio.

e Is practice only.) Practice, it need hardly be repeated, meant artifice, conspiracy, &c.

f Till it cry sleep to death.) Till the clamour of the drum destroys or is the death of sleep. The line is usu given, however,

"Till it cry, Sleep to death !that is, till it cry out, awake no more, and this very possibly was the poet's idea.


LEAR. O me, my heart, my rising heart !—but, | knapp'd 'em o’the coxcombs with a stick, and down!

cried, Down, wantons, down : ’t was her brother, Fool. Cry to it, nuncle, as the cockneya did to that, in pure kindness to his horse, buttered his the eels when she put 'em i’ the paste alive; she hay.

2 - the cockney–). “Cockney," of old, bore more than one signification; as employed by Chaucer, in “The Reve's Tale," verse 4205,

And when this jape told another day,

I sal be hald a dal, a cokenay,"-
it plainly ineans an effeminate spoony. In Dekker's "Newes
from Hell," &c. 1602,— "'Tis not their fault, but our mothers',
our cockering mothers, who for their labour made us to be called

cockneys," it has the same import. According to Percy, whose
authority is the following couplet from the ancient ballad called
“ The Turnament of Tottenham,”.
At that feast were they served in

ich array;
Every five and five hal & cokenay,"-
It meant a cook or scullion; and that, perhaps, is the sense of the
word in the present place.

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