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Birs Nimrood,

Portrait of Thales,

Portrait of Pythagoras,

Aristarchus's Plan of Earth's distance from the Sun,

Eratosthenes's Plan of Earth's magnitude,

Portrait of Ptolemy,

System of Ptolemy,

Mars and Jupiter's Circuits,

System of Hipparchus, .

Ptolemy's Theory of Epicycles,

Cbelisk at Heliopolis,

Tail-piece,

Portraits of Copernicus, Keppler, and Galileo,

Initial Letter,

Motions of the Planeta, .

Portrait of Tycho Brahe,

1

6

8

9

9

11

12

12

13

13

15

16

17

17

21

22

System of Tycho,

Earth's motion on its axis,

Tycho Brahe's Observatory,

Refraction of the Atmosphere,

Uraniberg, or Castle of the Heavens,

Unequal velocity of the Planets,

Portraits of Halley, Newton, and Herschel,

Initial Letter,

Velocity of Light,

Greenwich Observatory,

Newton's Birthplace,

Newton's Theory of Attractions,

Newton's Theory of Centrifugal Force,

Room in which Newton was born, .

Halley's Tomb,

Aberration of the Stars,

42, 43

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Page

Tail-piece-Halley's Comet,

48

Illustrated Title--Astronomy,

49

Sun at Midnight at the North Cape,

51

Vertical and Horizontal Rays of the Sun,

Spots in the Sun,

65

Eclipses of the Sun,

68, 59

Annular Eclipse,

59

Corona encircling the Moon in a Solar Eclipse,

02

Zodiacal Light, .

62

Orbits of the Planets,

64

Transit of Mercury,

65

Orbit of Venus,

67

Physical constitution of Venus,

69

Vessels at Sea, shewing the Rotundity of the Earth, 70

Sycne, near Alexandria,

71

Translation of the Earth in space,

73

Orbit of the Earth, .

73

Precession of the Equinoxes,

74

Atmosphere of the Earth,

75

Tail-piece-Sunset,

75

Initial Letter—Moonlight, .

76

Phases of the Moon,

77

Eclipse of the Moon,

79

Uneven Surface of the Moon, .

83

Tail-piece-Moonlight at Sea,

88

Initial Letter,

89

Aspect of Mars,

91

Aspect of the Earth viewed from Mars,

91

Aspect of Jupiter,

95

Jupiter and his Satellites,

96

The Thames by Moonlight,

97

Saturn and his Rings,

98

Orbit of Saturn,

100

Phases of Saturn,

100

Rings of Saturn,

101

Comparative size of the Sun as seen from the Planets, 105

Relative bulk of the Planets,

106

Initial Letter,

108

Path of the Comet of 1680,

110

Tail of a Comet,

111

Comet of 1456, as seen at Constantinople,

115

Comet of 1835,

116

Fancied Forms of Comets, copied from a Celestial

Atlas of 1680,

116

Comet of 1744,

118

Schroeter and Bessel's Drawings of the Comet of 1807, 119

Comet of 1811, as seen at Winchester,

120

Comet of 1811,

121

Telescopic view of Encke's Comet,

122

Orbit of the Comet of 1832,

123

Comet of 1843, as seen on the Essequibo,

126

Various appearances of Halley's Comet in 1835, . 127

Initial Letter,

130

Meteoric Shower in Greenland,

138

Meteoric Shower at the Falls of Niagara,

139

Meteoric Shower on Lake Niagara,

140

Radiation of Meteors,

141

Orbit of Meteoric Shower of Nov. 13, 1833,

142

Initial Letter,

143

Mouth of the Dardanelles,

145

Banks of the Euphrates,

145

Constellations-

Aries,

149

Taurus, Gemini, Cancer,

150

Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius,

151

Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces,

152

The Pointers in Ursa Major,

153

Ursa Major moving round the Pole,

153

Orion,

154

Southern Cross,

155

Page

Initial Letter,

158

Herschel's Telescope,

100

Parallax,

161

Earth's distance from the Stars,

162

Initial Letter,

166

New Star observed in 1572,

167

Supposed Orbit of a temporary Star,

169

Variable Star observed in 1696,

170

Binary Stars,

173, 174

Theory of Double Stars,

174

Positions of Double Stars in different years,

175

Tail-piece-The Earth, .

179

Initial Letter,

180

Architecture of the Stellar Universe, .

181

Nebula in Hercules,

182

Nebula in Andromeda,

184

Pla ary and Double Nebula,

184

Crab Nebula,

187

Dumb-bell Nebula,

187

Spiral Nebula,

183

Tail-piece--Nebulæ,

192

Illustrated Title-Physical Geography,

193

Port of Sidon from the Sea,

194

Chart of the World,

195

Leuctra and Cape Matapan,

198

Mouth of the Bosphorus,

199

Initial Letter,

200

Mount Egmont in New Zealand,

201

Peter Botte Mountain,

202

Cotopaxi,

211

Mount Etna, from Syracuse,

213

Bolivian Plateau,

215

Mexican Plateau,

215

Plateau of Central Asia,

216

Initial Letter,

217

Defile of the Darial,

218

Glacier of the Rhone,

220

2:22

Dovedale,

Great Plain of the Caucasus,

224

Mount Kasibeck, and Steppes of the Caucasus,

225

Lake of Mandia,

226

Sand-storm in the Desert,

227

Ruins of Palmyra, from the Desert,

223

Llanos of Badajoz,

231

The Pyrenees from the Great Plain of Languedoc, 237

Initial Letter-Kirkdale Cave,

238

Jorullo, Mexico,

239

Cave of Fingal,

241

Peveril of the Peak's Castle, with the Mouth of the

Cave,

243

The Cupola Cavern,

244

Organ, Blue John Cavern,

249

Kirkdale Cave,

252

Kent's Cave, near Torquay,

253

Gailenreuth,

254

Section of Gailenreuth Cave,

255

Grotto del Cane,

256

Caverns of Dudley Castle,

257

Entrance to Odin's Mine,

258

Initial Letter-Fountain of Arethusa,

259

Castalian Spring on Mount Parnassus,

200

St Winifred's Well,

264

Intermittent Spring,

Artesian Well, .

266

Pool of Siloam,

267

The Great Geyser, Iceland,

Ebullient Spring,

Dripping Well, Knaresborough,

277

Initial Letter-Falls of Tivoli,

278

The Susquehanna,

281

346

.

Diagram of Atlantic Tides,
| Tie-vires around Great Britain,

Port of Egina,

Solvay Sands,

| Cronburg Castle, and Entrance to the Sound,

Sinope, on the Black Sea,

Straits of Gibraltar,

Initial Letter-Bass Rock,

The Valley of Chamouni after a Flood,

Barren Island,

Hotban Island,

Island of St Erstatia, West Indies,

Blocks of Coral,

Aurora Island, .

Dean's Island,

Banks of the Euphrates,

laitial Letter-Whitby Abbey,

Urdercliff, Isle of Wight,

Hob-Hole, Whitby,

The Needles, Isle of Wight,

Bay of Alexandria, .

Coast of Asia Minor, from the Isle of Samos,

Galf of Trieste,

Map of Coast of Baia,

Coat of Pozzuoli,

Plains of Kosova,

Initial Letter,
The Righi Pass,
Valley of the Adige,
Rhymer's Hill,
White Mountain, in the Alleghanies,
Plains of Thebes,
Extinct Volcano, Catecucaumene,
Fissures at Polistena,
Circular Hollows at Polistena,
Volcano of Orizaba,

Initial Letter-Balloon,
| A Calm at Sea, .

685

Tail-piece,

594

Initial Letter,

695

Esquimaux Hut,

597

Classical Heads,

602

Groups of Physiognomical Portraits, . 603, 604, 606

South-Sea Islanders,

010

Illustrated Title-Geology: Restoration of Ante-
diluvian Animals,

611

Limestone Rocks in the Gulf of Corinth,

612

Land-slip,

013

Castalian Spring,

614

Limestone Mountains on the Coast of Arcadia,

616

Granite Rocks of Meteora in Albania,

621

Cave of Jupiter, Ægina,

622

Lamination of Rocks,

625

Unstratified Rocks,

025-626

Basalt Columns,

626

Basalt Rocks on the Volant,

626

Titan's Piazza,

626

Stratified Rocks,

C27-630

347

848

349

353

854

855

365

356

857

359

363

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370

372

875

377

879

380

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Page Crich-hill, Derbyshire,

028 Section of the Jura Mountains,

630 Association of Stratified and Unstratified Rocks, 631—633 Interior of a Silver Mine,

034 Classification of Rocks,

638 Catenipora escharoides,

640 Sphænopteris Hæninghausi,

640 Encrinites moniliformis,

640 Ammonite Catena,

640 Turrilites costatus, and Mocesamus concentricus, 641 Skeleton of the Anoplotherium,

641 Skeleton of the Megatherium, .

641 Lurly on the Rhine,

643 Granite,

644 Ben Lomond, from the Lake,

646 Aiguille de Dru,

647 Disintegrated Granite,

648 Granite Veins,

649-650 Serpentine,

651 Positions of Trap,

652 | Basalts,

653-654 Grotte des Fromages,

653 Porphyry,

655 Needle Rocks, Isle of Wight,

656 Initial Letter,

657 Gneiss System,

658 Mica-schist System,

659 Mount Taygetus, from the Plains of Sparta,

660 Skiddaw Mountains,

663 Fossils from Spowdon,

665 Nereites Cambrensis,

666 Initial Letter-The Bone Well, Ludlow,

667 Hills near Brecon,

667 Silurian System of Rocks,

669 Vale of the Towy,

671 Trilobites,

671 Eye of the Trilobite,

672 The Stiper Stones,

673 Terebratulæ,

674 Old Lincoln Quarry, near Iron Bridge,

675 Euomphala,

675 Wenlock Limestone,

676 Ludlow Corals,

678 Wenlock Corals,

678 Remains of Fishes,

079 Palmer's Cairns, Ludlow,

680 Initial Letter-Trap Dyke, Brockhill, Worcester, 681 Old Red Sandstone, near Bristol Channel,

682 Vegetable Remains in Old Red Sandstone,

684 Scales of Fossil Fishes,

685 Tails of the Shark, Trout, and Wrasse,

CS6 Scales on head of Cephalaspis,

687 Coccosteus cuspidatus,

687 Pterichthys,

688 Initial Letter-Carboniferous System,

090 Mountain Limestone,

091 Section of the Crich-hill, Encrinal Limestone,

693 Orthoceras lateralis, and Bellerophon costatus,

C93 Teeth of the Hybodants and Megalichthys,

094 . Projection of Millstone Grit,

695 Section of the Bristol Coal-field,

698 Fault in Coal-field, .

698 Imaginary section before disturbance,

699 Section after disturbance,

609 Seam dipping, .

700

Page Turnpike Stair in Coal-mine,

700 Tropical Fern,

703 Annularia brevifolia, and Sphevopayllum dentatum, 703 Sigillariæ,

704 Section of a Coal-mine near Etienne,

704 Fossil Trees on the Bolton and Manchester Railway, 705 Stigmaria and Lepidodendron,

705 Calamites,

706 Tree in Craigleith Quarry,

706 Initial Letter--Caverns under Nottingham Castle, 707 Conifera and Cycadea,

709 Nottingham Castle,

710 Labrinthodon pachygnatus,

713 Foot-print and Rain-drops,

714 Tracks of the Chirotherium,

714 Slab of New Red Sandstone, with Foot-prints, 715 Dipterus,

716 Initial Letter-Limestone Ridges at Leuctra,

717 Shells of the Lias group,

719 Ammonites,

719 Belemnite,

720 Cidaris coronata, and Spatangus,

721 Restoration of Saurians and other Animals of the Lias,

724 Jaw of the Phascolotherium,

726 Astarte elegans,

726 Iguana cornuta,

729 Initial Letter,

731 Trigonia,

732 Spherulites and Hippurites,

733 Terebratula,

733 Spatangus,

735 Tail-piece,

736 Mount Parnassus,

737 Marls with Magnesite, .

738 London Basin,

741 Alum Bay, Isle of Wight,

742 Cerithium giganteum,

744 Animals of the Paris Basin,

745 Extinct Volcanoes of Auvergne,

746 Cama foliacea, Palmacites Lamanonis, Lymnea longiscala, and Balanus crassus,

748 Restoration and Lower Jaw of the Dinotherium, . 748 Murex alveolatus,

750 Initial Letter-Erratic Blocks in Massachusetts, . 751 Monument Mountain,

752 Tooth of the Mastodon,

754 Remains of a Salamander,

759 Drift near Cape Cod,

761 Rocking-stone, Fall River,

761 Block in Cornwall,

762 Broken Ledges of Slate,

763 Strata smoothed and striated by Drift,

764 Diluvial Formations seen from the Acropolis at Athens, 705 Cyclopean Remains, Mycene,

706 Plains of Mantinea, in Arcadia, Corals,

768 Coast of Northern Greece, from the Gulf of Corinth, 773 Temple of Jupiter Serapis, Section of a Terraced Valley, .

777 Chart and View of the Isle of Palma,

779, 780 Crater of Vesuvius in 1829,

781 Volcano of Jorullo,.

73 Descent of the Curral, Madeira,

18: Initial Letter--American Aloe,

78 Barren Island, Gulf of Bengal,

78

.

692

Various Tail-pieces, Vignettes, &c.

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These Maps have been constructed to show the sidereal hemisphere visible on the parallel of Greenwich, and being also adapted to the meridian of Greenwich, they are drawn on the plane of that horizon. To insure the greatest amount of accuracy, the stereographic projection has been made use of, because of all projections that occasions the least possible disarrangement of the relative position of the stars and of the angles they form one with another.

There is a difficulty in reducing a concave surface to a plane without distortion taking place somewhere, and in the projection here adopted a little compression will be found, gradually increasing from the horizon to the centre of the map. The constellations when at or near the zenith, will be found to be somewhat smaller than when at the extremities of the projection or near the horizon. Three, four, or five stars may appear in the heavens so as to form a group, and present to the observer the appearance of a triangle, a rhomboid, trapezium, or parallelogram, which figures are more correctly preserved by this projection than by any other which might have been made use of.

The difference between celestial and terrestrial maps should not be lost sight of. When a comparative observation is made between one of these maps and the heavens at any of the times given on the next page, the map should be held up in a vertical position, placing that part of the map downwards towards which the observer is directing his attention. For instance, if the stars in the south are to be examined, the person's faee must be turned that way, with the south or bottom of the map downwardls; if for the north, the map must be reversed, with the north or top of the map downwards, when a complete view of the heavens in either of those directions will be obtained. If for the east and west, the sides of the map are to be similarly held, corresponding with the aspect required.

The centre of each map represents the zenith, that part of the heavens which is exactly over the observer's head, and will answer equally well for any other place upon the same parallel of latitude, making the allowance of four minutes for each degree, east or west, sooner or later ; which shows that all persons living on the same parallel of latitude have in succession the same view of the starry concave. Another appearance would be presented if the observer were at either of the poles. Supposing there were inhabitants at the North Pole, to them one half of the firmament would never set, and the other half would never rise. The polar star would be their zenith, and appear quite stationary, with all the other stars in view revolving round it in circles. To such inhabitants the equator would be the horizon, and at whatever elevation a star Fas first seen in their winter, there it would remain, and appear to complete a circle at that elevation once in every twenty-four hours.

If there were inhabitants at the South Pole, they would be similarly situated with regard to stars in the southern hemisphere; they would never see the stars on the north side of the equator or northern hemisphere, nor would those in the southern hemisphere ever set to them.

To the inhabitants of the equator, the whole of the stars from pole to pole, rise and set perpendicularly 10 their horizon once in every twenty-four hours. As the equator has no parallel of latitude, so has its zenith no declination, because the celestial equator passes immediately over it in a line from east to west. If an observer moves towards either pole from the equator; for every degree of his progress his zenith will have just so many degrees of declination, and as many degrees can he see beyond the pole towards which he is advancing, and he will lose sight of the pole from which he is receding in the same proportion. For example, as the inhabitants of London are situated 511° from the equator northwards, their zenith is 5110 elevated above the celestial equator. As 511° is the distance from the zenith to the equator, it follows that 3840, must be seen by an inhabitant of London below the equator to make up the complement of the quadrant, or 90°. Between the zenith and the pole will be found 381°, requiring 511° beyond the pole to complete the other quadrant of 90°, thus together completing the hemisphere of 180°.

With these preliminary explanations a few words will explain the use of the maps.
Each map may be supposed to represent the heavens at the hours named. The dotted circle crossing

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