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Goargues patriot, a private gentleman of Gascony. The Spa. lawyers, divines, and other graduates ; who are hence Gown, niards having inbumanly massacred a colony of French- called men of the gown, or gownmen.
Gowrag. Gowa. men who had settled in Florida, Gourgues took a se- The gown is an ample sort of garment, worn over
vere revenge on them, an account of which is given the ordinary clothes, hanging down to the feet. It is
under the article FLORIDA. On his return he was re- fashioned differently for ecclesiastics and for laymen.
ceived with acclamations by his countrymen, but was At Rome they gave the name “virile gown,” toga
forbidden to appear at court. Queen Elizabeth invited virilis, to a plain kind of gown which their youth as.
him to command an English fleet against the Spaniards sumed when arrived at puberty. This they particu-
in 1593; but he died at Tours in his way to Eng. Jarly denominated prætexta. See Toga, PRÆTEXTA,
GOURNAY, a town of France, in the department
“ The remarkable dress of our British ancestors History of of Lower Seine, celebrated for its butter-market. Po- (Mr Whitaker observes), which continued very nearly Manpulation 2550. It is situated on the river Ept, in E. the same to the commencement of the last century
chester, Long. I. 47. N. Lat. 49. 29.
among the natives of Ireland, and has actually descend". 302. GOURNAY, Mary de Jars de, a lady celebrated for ed to the present among the mountaineers of Scotland, her learning, was the daughter of William de Jars, lord and is therefore rendered very familiar to our ideas, of Neufvi and Gournay. After the death of her father, carried in it an astonishing appearance to the Romans. she was patronised by Montaigne and Cardinal Riche. And it seems to have been equally the dress of the men lieu. To the daughter of the former she dedicated her and women among the nobles of Britain. But in a Nosegay of Pindus; and composed several other works, few years after the erection of the Roman British towns the most considerable of which is Les Avis. She died in the north, and in the progress of refinement among at Paris in 1685, aged 80. The critics are divided them, this ancient habit began to be disesteemed by the coneerning the reputation of this lady: by some she is chiefs of the cities, and looked upon as the badge of anstyled the Syren of France; others say her works should cient barbarism. And the growing prejudices were have been buried with her.
soon so greatly improved, that within 20 years only af-
GOUT. See MEDICINE Index.
ter the construction of the towns, the British sagum
GOWER, John, one of our most ancient English was actually resigned, and the Roman toga or gown
poets, was contemporary with Chaucer, and his inti- assumed by many of them.
mate friend. Of what family, or in what country he “ The gown, however, never became universal in
was born, is uncertain. He studied the law, and was Britain: and it seems to bave been adopted only by
some time a member of the society of Lincoln's-inn, the barons of the cities and the officers of the crown ;
where bis acquaintance with Chaucer began. Some and has therefore been transmitted to us as the robe of
have asserted that he was a judge ; but this is by no reverence, the ensign of literature, and the mantle of
means certain. In the first year of Henry IV, he be- magistracy. The woollen and plaided garments of the
came blind; a misfortune wbich he laments in one of chiefs having naturally superseded the leathern vestures
bis Latin poems. He died in the year 1402 ; and was of their clients, the former were still wore by the ge-
buried in St Mary Overie, which church he had re- nerality of the Britons; and they were retained by
built chiefly at his own expence, so that he most have the gentlemen of the country, and by the commonalty
lived in afluent circumstances. His tomb was magni- both in country and city. That this was the case,
ficently and curiously ornamented. It still remains, but appears evident from the correspondent conduct of the
bath been repaired in later times. From the collar of Gauls and Britons; who kept their Virgata Sagula
SS round the neck of his effigies, which lies upon the to the last, and communicated them to the Franks and
tomb, it is conjectured that he had been knighted. Saxons. The plaided drapery of the Britons still ap-
As to his character as a man, it is impossible, at this peared general in the streets of Manchester; and must
distance of time, to say any thing with certainty. have formed a striking contrast to the gown of the
With regard to his poetical talents, he was undoubt- chief, the dark mantle of Italy: and it and the orna-
edly admired at the time when he wrote, though a mented buttons on the shoulder are preserved among
modern reader may find it difficult to discover much us even to the present moment, in the parti-coloured
harmony or genias in any of bis compositions. He clothing and the tasseled shoulder knots of our foot-
wrote, i. Speculum meditantis, in French, in ten books.
There are two copies of this in the Bodleian library. In some universities physicians wear a scarlet gowd.
2. Vax clamantis, in Latin verse, in seven books. Pre. In the Sorbonne, the doctors were always in gowns and
served also in the Bodleian library, and in that of All- caps. Beadles, &c. wear gowns of two or more cow!
Souls. It is a chronicle of the insurrection of the lours.
commons in the reign of Richard II. 3. Confessio Among the French officers, &c. they distinguish those
amantis ; printed at Westminster by Caxon in 1493. of the short gown or robe; which are such as bave not
Lond. 1532, 1554. It is a sort of poetical system been regularly examined. They bave also barbers of
of morality, interspersed with a variety of moral tales. the short gown, who are such as are obliged to practise
Henrico IV, Printed in Chaucer's works, in an inferior way to those of the long robe.
There are likewise several historical tracts, in mano. Gown is also taken in the general for civil magistra-
script, written by our author, which are to be found tore, or the profession opposite to that of arms. In this
in different libraries; also some short poems printed in sense it was that Cicero said cedant arma toga.
GOWRAN, « boroughi town, in the county of
GOWN, Rose, a long upper garment, worn by Kikeany and province of Leinster, Freland. N. Lat.
Gowran 52. 34. W. Long. 7.0. It is governed by a portrieve, with his life prefixed, were published at Leyden in
Graal # recorder, and town clerk. Here are the ruins of an 1677, in 8vo. Graaf.
old church, also the handsome seat of the late Lord GRABE, John ERNEST, a very learned writer in Grace. Clifden; and three miles beyond Gowran the ruins of the beginning of the 18th century, a native of KonigsBallinabola castle.
berg, in Prussia. He was educated in the Lutheran GOYEN, JOHN Van, painter of landscapes, cattle, religion ; but the reading of the fathers led him into and sea pieces, was born at Leyden in 1596; and was doubts. He presented to the electoral consistory at for some time instructed by Isaac Nicholai, who was Sambia in Prussia a memorial containing his doubts. reputed a good painter; but afterwards he became the The elector gave orders to three eminent divines to an. disciple of Esaias Vandervelde, the most celebrated swer them. Their answers shook him a little in his reLandscape painter of his time. Van Goyen very soon solution of embracing the Roman Catholic religion ; rose into general esteem; and bis works are more uni- and one of them, Spener, advised him to go to Eng. versally spçead through all Europe than the works of land. He went; and King William gave him a penany other master, for he possessed an uncommon readi. sion, which was continued by Queen Anne. He was ness of hand and freedom of pencil. It was his con- ordained a priest of the church of England, and hostant pleasure and practice to sketch the views of vil- noured with
the degree of doctor of divinity by the uniJages and towns situated on the banks of rivers or versity of Oxford ; upon which occasion Dr George canals ; of the sea-ports in the Low Countries ; and Smalridge pronounced two Latin orations, which were sometimes of inland villages, where the scenes around afterwards printed. He wrote, 1. Spicelegium S. S. them appeared to bim pleasing or picturesque. Those Patrum, ut et Hereticorum sæculi post Christum na. be afterwards used as subjects for his future landscapes ; tum, 8vo. 2. An edition of the Septuagint, from the enriching them with cattle, boats, and figures in cha- Alexandrian manuscript in St James's library. 3. Notes racter, just as the liveliness of his imagination directed. on Justin, &c.; and other works, which are esteemed He understood 'perspective extremely well, and also by the learned. the principles of the chiaro-scuro; which branches of GRACCHUS, TIBERIUS, elected tribune of the knowledge enabled him to give his pictures a strong Roman people, demanded in the senate, in their name, and agreeable effect. He died in 1656, aged 60.- the execution of the Agrarian law; by which all per. His usual subjects were sea-pieces, or landscapes with sons possessing above 200 acres of land were to be deviews of rivers, enlivened with figures of peasants either prived of the surplus, for the benefit of the poor citiferrying over cattle, drawing their nets in still water, or zens, amongst whom an equal distribution of them was going to or returning from market. Sometimes he're. to be made. Having carried his plan into execution presented huts of boors on the banks of rivers, with by violent measures, he fell a victim to his zeal, being overhanging trees, and a beautiful reflection of their assassinated by his own party, 133 B. C. Caius his branches from the transparent surface of the waters. brother, pursuing the same steps, was killed by the These were the subjects of his best time, which he consul Opimius, 121 B. C. See (history of) ROME. generally marked with bis name and the
and the GRACE, among divines, is taken, 1. For the free high finished pictures of Van Goyen will be for ever love and favour of God, which is the spring and source estimable. But as he painted abundance of pictures, of all the benefits we receive from him. 2. For the some are sligbt, some too yellow, and some negligently work of the Spirit renewing the soul after the image of finished; tbough all of them have merit, being marked God; and continually guiding and strengtliening the with a free, expeditions, and easy pencil, and a light believer to obey bis will, to resist and mortify sin, and touch. His pictures frequently have a grayish cast; overcome it. which did not arise from any mismanagement of the GRACE is also used, in a peculiar sense, for a short tints, or any want of skill in laying on the colours ; prayer said before and after meat. but was occasioned by his using a colour called Haerlem The proofs of the moral obligation of this ceremony, blue, much approved of ai that time, though now en. drawn from different passages of the New Testament, tirely disused, because the artists found it apt to fade are so well known, that it is needless to insist on them into tbat grayish tint; and it hath also rendered the here. Some others, drawn from the practice of differpictures of this master exceedingly difficult to be clean- ent nations, and of very remote antiquity, may not be ed without injuring the finer touches of the finishing disagreeable to our readers. His best works are valued so highly in most parts of 1. Athenæus tells us, in lis Deipnosoph. lib. ii. that Europe, and especially in the Low Countries, that they in the famous regulation made by Ampbictyon king deservedly afford large prices, being ranked in Hol- of Athens with respect to the use of wine, both in saland with the pictures of Teniers; and at this time are crifices and at home, he required that the name of not easily procured, particularly if they are undamaged, Jupiter the Sustainer should be decently and reverently though his slighter performances are sufficiently com
The same writer, in lib. iv. p. 149.
quotes Hermeias, an author extant in his time, who GRAAF, REGNIER DE, a celebrated physician, born informs us of a people in. Egypt, inbabitants of the at Schoonhaven, in Holland, in 1641. He studied city of Naucratis, whose custom it was on certain oephysic in Prussia. He was educated in Leyden, where casions, after they had placed themselves in the usual he acquired great honour by publishing a treatise De posture of eating at the table, to rise again and kneel; Succo Pancreatico. He also published three pieces when the priest or precentor of the solemnity began upon the organs of generation, both male and female ; to chant a grace, according to a stated form amongst upon which subject he bad a controversy with Swam- them; and when that was over, they joined in the merdam. He died young, in 1673; and his works, meal in a solema sacrificial manner. Heliodorus has a
Grame. passage in his Æthiopics to the same purpose, that it was no particular name, though his relation is very accurate Grace.
the custom of the Egyptian philosophers to pour out and circumstantial; namely, that on certain special
Jibations and put up ejaculations before they sat down occasions, before " they took their meals, they placed
to meals. Porphyry, in his treatise De abstin. lib. iv. themselves in a proper decent order; when, lifting up
p. 408. gives a great character of the Samnean gymno. their hands and eyes to heaven, they prayed to God
sophists in Egypt for the strictness of their life: as one that he would be pleased to be propitious to them in the
article in their favour, he observes, that at the sounding use of those bis good creatures."
of a bell before their meals, which consisted only of From the Hebrew ritual it appears, that the Jews
rice, bread, fruits, and herbs, they went to prayers ; had their hymns and psalms of thanksgiving, not only
which being ended, and not before, the bell sounded after eating their passover, but on a variety of other
again, and they sat down to eating. In general this occasions, at and after meals, and even between their
was a religious usage or rite among the ancient Greeks; several courses and dishes; as when the best of their
and derived from yet older ages, if Clement of Alex. wine was brought upon the table, or their aromatic
andria rightly informs us. He mentions, that these confections, or the fruit of the garden, &c. On the
people when they met together to refresh thenselves day of the passover was sung Psalm cxiv. “ When
with the juice of the grape, sung a piece of music, in Israel came out of Egypt,” &c.
imitation of the Hebrew psalms, which they called a Aristæus bas a passage full on the present subject.
scholion. Livy, lib. xxxix. speaks of it as a settled “ Moses,” says he, “ commands that when the Jews
custom among the old Romans, that they offered sacrifice are going to eat or drink, the company should immedi.
and prayer to the gods at their meals and compotations. ately join in sacrifice or prayer.” Where Rabbi Elea-
But one of the fullest testimonies to our purpose is given zar (upon that author) met with this sentence, bas
by Quintilian, Declam. 301. Adisti mensam, says he, been controverted. But supposing it not be found
ad quam cum venire cæpimus, Deos invocamus; “ We in scriptis, it is sufficient for us to know that the Jews
approached the table (at supper together), and then did constantly practise this custom, upon the foundation
invoked the gods."
of an ancient and general tradition and usage. That
The Jesuit Trigautius, in his very elegant and in- the prophet Daniel gave thanks before meat, is evident
structive narrative of the Christian expedition of their from the Apocryphal book concerning Bel and the
missionaries into China, book i. p. 69. gives this ac. Dragon, where, ver. 38, 39, we find, that“ Daniel said,
count of the people there in the particular now under Thou hast remembered me, O God! neither bast thou
consideration. “ Before they place themselves for forsaken them who seek thee and love thee. So Daniel
partaking of an entertainment, the person who makes arose, and did eat.” Of this text Prudentia takes
it sets a vessel, either of gold, or silver, or marble, or notice in Cathemirin, hynin iv.
some such valuable material, in a charger full of wine,
which he holds with both his bands, and then makes a
His sumptis Danielis excitavit
In cælum faciem, cibeque fortis,
low bow to the person of chief quality or character at
the table. Then from the hall or dining-room, he
Amen reddidit, allelujah dirit.
The much-belov'd took the repast, goes into the porch or entry, where he again makes
And up to beav'n his eyes
a very low bow, and turning his face to the south,
By which refresh'd he sung aloud,
pours out this wine upon the ground as a thankful
oblation to the Lord of heaven. After this, repeat-
Amen, and allelujah to his God.
ing his reverential obeisance, he returns into the Where, by the way, it may be observed, that the poet
is a little mistaken in making the prophet give thanks The Turks pray for a blessing on their meat; and after meat; whereas, according to the test, he did it many more instances might be produced of infidels who before.. have constantly observed the like custom in some way GRACE, or Gracefulness, in the human character; an or other.
agreeable attribute, inseparable from motion as opposed 2. The fact, therefore, with respect to the heathen to rest, and as comprehending speech, looks, gesture, world, being thus evident, we proceed to the senti- and loco-motion. ments and behaviour of the Jews in this particular. As some motions are homely, the opposite to graceTheir celebrated historian Josephus, giving a detail of ful; it is to be inquired, with what motions is this the rites and customs of the Essenes, who were con- attribule connected ? No man appears graceful in a fessedly the strictest and most pious professors of the mask; and therefore, laying aside the expressions of the Jewish religion, has this remarkable passage to the pre- countenance, the other motions may be genteel, may sent purpose : “ The priest," says he," begs a blessing be elegant, but of themselves never are graceful. Á before they presume to take any nourishment; and it is motion adjusted in the most perfect manner to answer looked upon as a great sin to take or taste before." its end, is elegant; but still somewhat more is required Then follows the thanksgiving before meat: and “when to complete our idea of grace or gracefulness. the meal,” proceeds he, “ is over, the priest prays again; What this unknown more may be; is the nice point. and the company with bim bless and praise God as One thing is clear from what is said, that this more must their preserver, and the donor of their life and nourish- arise from the expressions of the countenance : and
from what expressions so naturally as from those which Philo, in his book De vita contemplativa, gives an indicate mental qualities, such as sweetness, benevolence, account of a body of men and women stricter than elevation, dignity? This promises to be a fair analysis : even the Essenes themselves. He distinguishes them by because of all objects mental qualities affect us the most;
Grace, and the impression made by graceful appearance upon three Graces, and Venus, who was their sister, as being Graces Græoes, every spectator of taste, is too deep for any cause purely daughter of Jupiter and Dione.
The Graces are always supposed to bave hold of Grafting.
The next step is, to examine what are the mental each other's hands, and never parted. They were
qualities, that in conjunction with elegance of motion, painted naked, to show that the Graces borrow nothing
produce a graceful appearance. Sweetness, cheerful- from art, and that they have no other beauties tban
ness, affability, are not separately sufficient, nor even what are natural.
in conjunction. Dignity alone, with elegant motion, Yet in the first ages they were not represented naked,
produces a graceful appearance; but still more graceful as appears from Pausanias, lib. vi. and lib. ix. who
with the aid of other qualities, those especially that are describes their temple and statues. They were of
the most exalted. See DIGNITY.
wood, all but their bead, feet, and hands, which were
But this is not all. The most exalted virtues may white marble. Their robe or gown was gilt: one of
be the lot of a person whose countenance has little ex- them held in her hand a rose, another a dye, and the
pression : such a person cannot be graceful. Therefore third a sprig of myrtle.
to produce this appearance, we must add another cir. GRACILIS, a muscle of the leg, thus called
cumstance, viz. an expressive countenance, displaying from its slender shape. See ANATOMY, Table of the
to every spectator of taste, with life and energy, every Muscles.
thing that passes in the miod.
GRACULA, the GRAKLE, a genus of birds be-
Collecting these circumstances together, grace may longing to the order of picæ. See ORNITHOLOGY
be defined, “ that agreeable appearance which arises Index.
from elegance of motion and from a countenance ex- GRACULUS. See CORVUS, ORNITHOLOGY Index.
pressive of dignity." Expressions of other mental GRADATION, in general, the ascending step by
qualities are not essential to that appearance, but they step, or in a regular and uniform manner.
heighten it greatly.
GRADATION, in Logic, a form of reasoning, other.
Of all external objects, a graceful person is the most
wise called SORITES.
GRADATION, in Painting, a gradual and insensible
Dancing affords, great opportunity for displaying change of colour, by the diminution of the tints and
grace, and haranguing still more. See Dancing, shades.
DECLAMATION, and ORATORY.
GRADATION, in Rhetoric, the same with CLIMAX.
But in vain will a person attempt to be graceful who GRADISKĀ, a strong town of Hungary in Scla-
is deficient in amiable qualities. A man, it is true, vonia, on the frontiers of Croatia, taken by the Turks
may form an idea of qualities he is destitute of; and, in 1691. It is seated on the river Save, in E. Long.
by means of that idea, may endeavour to express these 17. 55. N. Lat. 45. 38.
qualities by looks and gestures : but such studied ex- GRADISKA, a strong town of Italy, in a small island
pression will be too faint and obscure to be graceful. of the same name on the frontiers of Friuli, in E.
Act of GRACE, the appellation given to the act of Long. 13. 37. N. Lat. 46. 6. It is subject to the house
parliament 1696, c. 32. wbich allows prisoners for of Austria.
civil debts to be set at liberty, upon making oath that GRADO, a strong town of Italy, in a small island
they have not wherewithal to support themselves in of the same name, on the coast of Friuli, and in
prison, unless they are alimented by the creditors on the Austrian territory. E. Long. 13. 27. N. Lat.
whose diligences they were imprisoned, within ten days 45. 46.
after intimation made for that purpose.
GRADUATE, a person who has taken a degree in
Days of GRACE, three days immediately following the university. See DEGREE. .
the term of payment of a bill, within which the creditor GRÆVIUS, JOHN GEORGE, one of the most learn-
must protest it if payment is not abtained, in order to ed writers in the 27th century. In the 24th year of his
intitle bim to recourse against the drawer.
age, the elector of Brandenburg made him professor at
GRACE is also a title of dignity given to dukes, Doisbourg. In 1658, he was invited to Deventer to
archbishops, and in Germany to barons and other in succeed his former master Gronovius. In 1661, he
was appointed professor of eloquence at Utrecht; and
GRACES, GRATIÆ, Charities, in the heathen 12 years after he had the professorship of politics and
theology, were fabulous deities, three in number, who history conferred on him. He fixed his thoughts here,
attended on Venus. Their names are, Aglaia, Thalia, and refused several advantageous offers. He had,
and Euphrosyne ; i. e. shining, flourishing, and gay; or, however, the satisfaction to be sought after by divers
according to some authors, Pasithea, Euphrosyne, and princes, and to see several of them come from Germany
Ægiale. They were supposed by some to be the daugh- to study under him. He died in 1703, aged 71. His
ters of Jupiter and Eurynome the daughter of Oceanus; Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italia, &c. and
and by others, to be the daughters of Bacchus and other works, are well known.
GRAFTING, or ENGRAFTING, in Gardening, is
Some will bave the Graces to have been four; and the taking a shoot from one tree, and inserting it into
make them the same with the Horæ "hours", or rather another, in such a manner that both may unite closely
with the four seasons of the year. A marble in the and become one tree. By the ancient writers on
king of Prussia's cabinet represents the three Graces busbandry and gardening, this operation is called in.
in the usual manner, with a fourth seated and covered cision, to distinguisli it from inoculation or budding,
with a large veil, with the words underneath, Ad Sorores which they call inserere oculos.
IIII. But this groupe we may understand to be the Grafting bas been practised from the most remote
Grafting, antiquity; but its origin and invention is differently who went to the south were not so well furnished. Ho Graham
Grabam. related by naturalists. Theophrastus tells us, that a bird was for many years a member of the Royal Society, 0
having swallowed a fruit whole, cast it forth into a cleft to which he communicated several ingenious and im. Graham.
or cavity of a rotten tree; where mixing with some of portant discoveries ; and regarded the advancement of
the putrified parts of the wood, and being washed science more than the accumulation of wealth. He
with the rains, it budded, and produced within this died in 1751.
tree another tree of a different kind. This led the GRARAM'S Dyke. See ANTONINUS's Wall.
husbandman to certain reflections, from which soon GRAIN, corn of all sorts, as barley, oats, rye, &c.
afterwards arose the art of engrafting. For the dif- See CORN, WHEAT, &c.
ferent methods of performing this operation, see GAR- Grain is also the name of a small weight, the twen-
tieth part of a scrople in apothecaries weight, and the
GRAHAM, JAMES, Marquis of Montrose, was twenty-fourth of a pennyweight troy.
comparable to the greatest heroes of antiquity. He A grain-weight of gold-bullion is worth two-pence,
undertook, against almost every obstacle that could ter. and that of silver but half a farthing.
rify a less enterprising genius, to reduce the kingdom Grain also denotes the component particles of stones
of Scotland to the obedience of the king; and bis and metals, the veins of wood, &c. Hence cross-grain-
success corresponded to the greatness of the under- ed, or against the grain, means contrary to the fibres of
taking. By valour, he in a few months, almost effec- wood, &c.
tuated his desigo ; but, for want of supplies, was for- GRALLÆ, in Ornithology, is an order of birds
ced to abandon bis conquests. After the death of analogous to the bruta in the class of mammalia in the
Charles I. he made a second attempt, with a few men, Lindæan system. See ORNITHOLOGY.
but was immediately defeated by a numerous army. GRAMINA, GRASSES; one of the seven tribes or
As he was leaving the kingdom in disguise, he was natural families, into which all vegetables are distri-
betrayed into the hands of his enemy, by the lord buted by Linnæus in his Philosophia Botanica. They
Aston, his intimate friend. He was carried to his ex- are defined to be plants which have very simple leaves,
ecution with every circumstance of indignity that wan- a jointed stem, a husky calyx termed gluma, and a
ton cruelty could invent; and hanged upon a gibbet single seed. This description includes the several sorts
30 feet high, with the book of his exploits appended of corn as well as grasses. In Tournefort they con-
to his neck. He bore this reverse of fortune with bis stitute a part of the fifteenth class, termed apetali ; and
usual greatness of mind, and expressed a just scorn at in Linnæus's sexual method, they are mostly contained
and the insult of his enemies. We meet with in the second order of the third class, called triandria
many instances of valour in this active reiga ; but digynia.
Montrose is the only instance of heroism. He was ex- This numerous and natural family of the grasses bas
ecuted May 21, 1650. See BRITAIN, No 137, 138, engaged the attention and researches of several emi-
pent botanists. The principal of these are, Ray, Monti,
GRAHAM, Sir Richard, Lord Viscount Preston, eldest Micheli, and Linnæus.
son of Sir George Graham of Netherby, in Cumber. M. Monti, in his Catalogus stirpium agri Bononien-
land, Bart. was born in 1648. He was sent ambassa. sis gramina ac hujus modi affinia complectens, printed
dor by Charles II. to Louis XIV. and was master of at Bononia in 1719, divides the grasses from the dis-
the wardrobe and secretary of state under James II. position of their flowers, as Theophrastus and Ray have
But wben the revolution took place, he was tried and divided them before him, into three sections or orders.
condemned, on an accusation of attempting the resto- - These are, i. Grasses baving flowers collected in a
ration of that prioce ; though he obtained a pardon by spike. 2. Grasses having their flowers collected in a
the queen's intercession. He spent the remainder of panicle or loose spike. 3. Plants that in their babit
his days in retirement, and published an elegant trans- and external appearance are allied to the grasses.
lation of “ Boethius on the consolation of philosophy." This class would have been natural if the author bad
He died in 1695.
not improperly introduced sweet-rush, juncus, and ar-
GRAHAM, George, clock and watch-maker, the row-beaded grass, into the third section. Monti enu-
most ingenious and accurate artist in his time, was merates about 306 species of the grasses, which he re-
born in 1675. After his apprenticeship, Mr Tom: duces under Tournefort's genera; to these he has ad-
pion received him into his family, purely on account
ded tbree new genera.
of bis merit; and treated him with a kind of parental Scheuchzer in his Aristographia, published likewise
affection as long as he lived. Besides bis universally ac- in 1719, divides the grasses, as Monti, from the dis-
knowledged skill in his profession, he was a complete position of their flowers, into the five following sec-
mechanic and astronomer; the great mural arch in the tions : 1. Grasses with flowers in a spike, as phalaris,
observatory at Greenwich was made for Dr Halley, anthoxanthom, and frumentom. 2. Irregular grasses,
under his immediate inspection, and divided by his own as schænanthus, and cornucopiæ. 3. Grasses with
hand : and from this incomparable original, the best flowers growing in a simple panicle or loose spike, as
foreign instruments of the kind are copies made by reed and millet. 4. Grasses with flowers growing in
English artists. The sector by which Dr Bradley first a compound panicle, or diffused spike, as oats and
discovered two new motions in the fixed stars, was of poa. 5. Plants by their habit nearly allied to the
his invention and fabric: and when the French acade- grasses, as cypress-grass, scirpus, linagrostis, rush, and
micians were sent to the north to ascertain the figure scheuchzeria.
of the earth, Mr Graham was thought the fittest per- Scheuchzer has enumerated about four bundred spe.
son in Europe to supply them with instruments; those cies, which he describes with amazing exactness.