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WALL ON THE WEST SIDE OF ANTIOCH. A large part of the walls of ancient Antioch still remain, but authorities vary as to the circuit enclosed by them, which at present appears to be between four and five miles: this is much less, however, than the space assigned in ancient times. They run along the river on the north-west, ascend the steep hill on the south-west, run along its summits, and on the north-east run down the hill to the river: their aspect, on the crests and steep declivities of the mountain, is very strange as well as magnificent: these walls are from thirty to fifty feet high, fifteen feet thick, and flanked by numerous square towers: several portions are of the original walls erected under the Seleucidae, but it seems probable, from the quantity of Roman tiles found in many of the towers, and the mode of their disposition, that they are chiefly Roman work, and were erected by Justinian, after the town had been ruined by the Persians. Antioch has no good buildings: the houses are chiefly built of stone, pent-roofed, and covered with red tiles: the streets are narrow, with a raised pavement on each side for foot passengers: in summer, these streets are very close and hot; in winter, miry and miserable. It is a comfortless place for the stranger, unless he finds a welcome, of which there can be little doubt, in the house of Girgius Adeeb: then will his days pass without anxiety, mistrust, or discomfort, and he can enjoy at his ease the exquisite excursions without the walls: returning at the close of day from Daphne, the White lake, the dell of the Orontes, or the splendid mountains, he will find society at home, a circle gathered round the plentiful board, composed of Turk, Egyptian, and Frank—a few officers of Ibrahim's army, a missionary, or an artist: for the host's maxim is to please every one, whatever his faith or pretensions; and at Antioch this is no easy card to play. There is hardly another roof, similar to this of Girgius, to be found in the East: and among so bigoted and grossly ignorant a population as that of Antioch, his liberal conduct and sentiments would bring mischief on his head, but that Ibrahim Pasha, who, like his father the viceroy, is somewhat of a freethinker, is now the ruler. The Wall in the plate, on the west side of Antioch, is one of the most entire as well as interesting portions now remaining; and is thus described by an eminent traveller nearly a century since. "On the western side, this wall has resisted both time and earthquakes: it is exceedingly strong, and well built of stone, with beautiful square towers at equal distances. I am persuaded that this is the very wall built by Seleucus, and yet there is not the least breach in it, nor a sign of any: there were no battlements on the wall, but there was a walk on the top of it, and where there was any ascent, on the heights or steep places, steps were made on the top, so that they could go all round the city on the walls with the greatest ease." Since this was written, the earthquake has again done its work, and these walls are much ruined in many parts. The northern portion of the valley of the Orontes within the ancient walls is now filled with extensive gardens, planted with olive, mulberry, and fig-trees, and along the winding banks of the river, tall and slender poplars are seen. The bazaars are numerous, and contain a good supply of such articles as are in demand in the country about Antioch. The manufactures of the place are coarse pottery, cotton cloth, silk twist, leather, and saddlery. The language of the Mahometans at Antioch is generally Turkish: there are some Jewish families, whose situation, in the bosom of a most intolerant people, is not enviable: they have no synagogue, and must worship in secret, at each others' homes. Antioch was once famous among their nation for the right of citizenship, which Seleucus had given them in common with the Greeks: now, it is the love of trading and of gain, the ruling passion of all classes of this people since the fall of Jerusalem, that can alone make tolerable their residence here. Yet it is pitiable sometimes to see the Jew, in the distinguishing colour of his dress, walk along the streets with looks of suspicion or dejection. Who can tell, like the Hebrew, the bitterness of having no country, of never being able to say "it is mine own:" in every valley or mountain of the East, where there are wares and productions to be bought and sold, he will abide for a time: in the town and city he will dwell, and in the caravanserai make his home for a night, but not to depart next morn, like other travellers, to where the blue hills of his country, her songs, her joy and loveliness, shall meet him. They shall meet him no more for ever—till the veil shall be taken from his eyes, and the dark covering from his heart. I have seen the Jew on Mount Sinai, overcome and even transported with joy and pride, at the remembrance of the glory of his people, and the miracles of heaven on their behalf: there his feelings were wild and unfettered; no fear of the oppressor or scorner before his eyes: in Jerusalem he was another being—watched by the Turk, from whose jealousy he anxiously concealed all appearance of wealth; his own Moriah covered by the mosque of Omar, the sepulchres of his fathers trampled on, the sounds of festivity seldom heard in his dwelling, he often reaps in tears what he sows in dread. In St. Jean d'Acre, under the capricious Abdallah Pasha, the sword hung over him by a single thread; even in his own chambers he trembled at every noise in the street, wishing to escape, but not knowing whither; for in what Syrian city is the Jew held in honour, or free from the spoiler? His mildest and securest home was in Cairo, under the tolerant and liberal viceroy; there he dwelt in luxury, his commercial dealings extensive; his house, dress, attendants, those of a wealthy and prosperous man. Here, in Antioch, he dwells apart from his people; the ruinous city is to him like a living grave, in which he may be struck suddenly, being regarded by the multitude rather as a crawling reptile than one entitled to equal rights and mercies with themselves. If he wanders forth when the cares of the day are over, and the streets are forsaken, to such a scene as this, when the moon is on it, would it recall the memory of his own land?Alone upon the ruined wall Here hath the midnight found me, The deep blue midnight, like a pall Of solemn beauty round me! I sit not here—I sit not here, To list a bird or lover's song; Upon my cheek is sorrow's tear, And death's pale terrors round me throng. Not here, to watch the morning light Break on my spirit's agony; Morn wears not now the radiance bright It wore in Judah's land to me. How beautiful! how beautiful!By Jordan's vale and winding river, The clime that angel-whispers lull The land that I have left for ever. Samaria! thou art still my home, And thou ere long shalt be my grave: I know it—yet to thee I'll roam, There let me sleep, where sleep the brave. And if there lie o'er them and me A waste, and not a flower-decked sod, So let it be!—so let it be!If but the spirit rest with God. The neighbourhood of Antioch is peculiarly rich in medals and engraved stones: great numbers have been collected at different times, after the earth had been laid bare by heavy rains in winter; the most interesting are those of the Seleucidse, and next to them, those of the period of Julius Caesar and Augustus. Phenician coins are also found in great quantities. Antioch was often the scene of warlike operations during the Egyptian war: the first division of the Turkish army that arrived here, was followed, in the month of June, by the whole force of Husseyn: after a weary march of a month from Koniah, he came to Antioch, in order to fight Ibrahim as soon as possible, and take summary vengeance. The latter was in the mean time advancing on Aleppo, and, halting near the plain of Balbec, defeated the nine pashas of three tails, and their army of 30,000 men, in the battle of Homs. A great part of the fugitives retreated on Antioch, around whose walls and in its valley, 35,000 troops were now encamped, who had suffered severely, from their first arrival, from the want of provisions, the inhabitants everywhere refusing to aid them, or rather concealing their means of doing so. Husseyn left his camp, and made a rapid and vain movement on Aleppo, in order to save it from Ibrahim, and returned without effecting any thing; but Ibrahim sent a strong division of his force to Antioch, which arrived there just before the return of Husseyn, but was not suffered to remain in quiet possession of it. The Turkish pasha, with 20,000 men, attacked the Egyptians, and the conflict which ensued was one of the most desperate and sanguinary that occurred during the war, and perhaps the most brilliant on the side of the Turks. Fortune seemed at last to have turned in their favour, for Ibrahim's troops were forced to retire. On his subsequent and decisive victory in the pass of Bylan, Ibrahim entered Antioch, whose inhabitants willingly surrendered their town to him; and the people of the large district of Orpha, to the north, sent a deputation with their submission. Judging from all accounts, there was but one feeling of satisfaction throughout the country, at being delivered from the Turkish irregulars, who had every where committed the most frightful ravages. The heats around Antioch during the height of summer, the scanty

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