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of these things, his thin hands outspread, his pallid face upraised, he was the picture of a man going down with sorrow to his grave. His one robe and turban seemed to be all his store; yet he had lived in ease and comfort, and with few cares: the simple tenor of his life comprised in going to the mosque three times a day, the walk to the cemetery, perhaps, in the evening, or to the dwelling of a friend. The night had now come down on the plain, on the ruinous places of Payass; the solitude, as well as stillness of the scene was extreme, the fall of the wave on the shore of the beautiful bay alone came on the ear; the fancy fled to the past glory and excitement of this plain, where the empire of the world was lost and won, to the tumuli of chiefs, to the stream that then ran redly through the ranks. A melancholy feeling stole on the mind, for the place was unsafe, and had recently been the refuge of a famous chief of brigands. Is not the night-wind sighing O'er a lost field? Is there not blood—a silent voice replying— From spear and shield?Is not the sun departed West, with his train Of clouds that fled, like warriors, fiery-hearted— Would ye remain?I hear the ocean pealing, That all is o'er! And every echo, through the red plain stealing, Breathes of no more. Let not the spear be trusted,
Bright though it be: Like faith, the lover's faith, it can be rusted— Flee, wanderers, flee!The brigand alluded to was called the "Tyrant of Payass," and maintained here for some time a band who were the terror of the neighbouring country. The rocks and recesses of Mount Amanus afforded a secure place of concealment, whence to observe and pounce on their prey, whether it were a caravan, or a lonely party of travellers and merchants. He attacked the caravan boldly, slew or put its defenders to flight, and took possession of all its contents, which were conveyed to the ruinous places of Payass. Many a wild, bloody, and romantic feat is related of this chieftain, who held the surrounding district under contribution, and made this desolate place his strong-hold, where he lodged his captives and his booty. To reach Payass from Scanderoon by land, the traveller must pursue a circular direction until he reaches a ruined marble gateway, where the mountain descends in a gentle slope, covered with brushwood, to the sea. A road has been carefully made over this narrow pass, paved throughout, though steep. At sea, this gateway presents the appearance of two columns, and is called by sailors "Jonas's Pillars." Beyond these marble gates, the plain begins to widen immediately; and on the summit of a hill, about three hundred feet high, is the modern Turkish castle of Merkez, but it is now dismantled. Between Payass and the Issus, or Pinarus, are two villages: in winter this stream, which was of such importance in the battle between Darius and Alexander, is about forty-five feet in width, on a stony bed; it flows across the plain in a direction a little south of west, coming from the Amanus. About seven miles from the sea, on the western side of this plain, at the foot of a hill, are the ruins of a considerable town, in which may be traced many public buildings, and where an acropolis and aqueduct still exist in some perfection. This is probably the town of Nicopolis, which was first called Issus by the Macedonians, in honour of the victory gained there. To the west, the plain begins to narrow; near the sea, south of Issus, is a mound, called Kara Koi, composed of black lava pebbles, and having ruins of lava walls on its summit. In this plain are many ruins of former times, and remnants of forts and arches occur. To the north, a pass through the sandstone range is guarded by a gateway and tower of tilebrick ruins of a peculiar character, consisting of two masses of an imperfect obelisklike form. Half up this pass, about three hundred feet above the level of the sea, and where the pass is not five hundred feet in width, is an arch of elaborate workmanship; polygonal stones, fitted with great nicety, arranged in courses, and of the same height, and rather noble dimensions, built of limestone, and flanked by walls of angular masses of lava, closely fitted, and of the third era of Cyclopian architecture. It is well known that Cyrus, in the expedition of which Xenophon has given us so admirable an account, led his army by these passes. According to the narrative, "Cyrus made from the Pyramus, in two days' march, fifteen parasangs, and arrived at Issus, the last town of Cilicia, near the sea, a large city, rich and well situated, where he stayed three days. Hence Cyrus made, in one march, five parasangs to the gates of Cilicia and Syria. There were two fortresses, through which ran a river called Kersus, one hundred feet in breadth: the interval between them was three stadia, or 625 yards, through which it was not possible to force a way,—the pass being narrow, the fortresses reaching down to the sea, and above were inaccessible rocks. In both these fortresses stood the gates." The next most important texts are those of the historians of Alexander, who also invaded the East by the same road. Arrian says, "Darius crossed the mountain by the pass called the Amanian Gates, marched upon Issus, and thus placed himself in the rear of Alexander, who was ignorant of his movements. Next day he advanced to the Pinarus. When Alexander heard that Darius was in the rear, he did not think the account credible, but having ascertained its truth, he ordered his troops to refresh themselves, and allowed them to repose for the remainder of the night."