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Halisphragmuthosis. They afterwards beleagured them in their strong hold Avaris ; which seems to have been a walled province, containing no less than ten thousand square " Arouræ. Here they maintained themselves for a long space : but at last under Thumosis, the son of the former king, they were reduced to such straits, as to be glad to leave the 12

country. In the course of this history Manethon tells us, that the whole body of this people were called Ucsous, or as " Eusebius more truly expresses it, Txovrws, Ucousos. This term is analogous to Usiris, Uchoreus, and many other titles in Egypt; and undoubtedly means the Noble " Cusean. Manethon gives another interpretation; but owns, that Uc in the sacred language signified something

* Κατακλεισβηναι δ' εις τοπου, αρθρων έχοντα μυριων την περιμετρον Avæpov oroua TW TOWY. Joseph. cont. Ap. I. 1. p. 445. Avaris was the city Aur, the Cercasora of Grecian writers, at the apex of Delta. Abaris was properly Abarim, the city of the passage near the mountain of Arabia. These two places are continually confounded. Avaris was from 918, the city of Orus : Abaris from 739, so denominated from being situated in the passage into Upper Egypt, and guarding that pass. It was probably the same which was afterwards called Babylon. The two places were very Dear, which makes the mistake of more consequence.

** Manethon apud Josephum supre.
" Præp. Evang. 1. 10. p. 500.
14 See vol. I. p. 95.

Royal. Υκ καθ' Γεραν γλωσσαν βασιλεα σημαινει. Hence we may learn for certain, what was meant by the sacred language, and consequently, what was also the sacred character in Egypt: and be assured, that they were the antient Ethiopic, or Chaldaïc: for the original Ethiopia was no other than Chaldea. This writer adds, TIVES de 25y8r autes Apabas svar: but some say, that they were Arabians. This is a title of the same purport; for the Arabians were originally Cuthites, or Ethiopians. Hence the province of Cushan in Egypt, the same as the land of Goshen, was called the Arabian nome; which was the best of the land of Egypt. They were also styled Hellenes, Phænices, Auritæ; the last of which titles is of great consequence in the history and chronology of the country.

The people so called were the first who reigned in Egypt: and with them the history of that people must commence. Syncellus, who follows the an>tient Chronicle, in speaking of the dynasties in the 'Egyptian chronology, mentions the Auritæ as the first who reigned. Is Lięwa Cv JW Augstwy. They were the same as the 'Hinbeor, Semideï, who are placed in the same rank.

We are told by Manethon, that the whole

15 Syncellus. p. 51.

body of this people had the appellation of Royal Shepherds. But I should imagine, that this title was more particularly given to their kings; who, by Africanus and others, are styled the 16 Hellenic and Royal Shepherds. It was a mark of distinction which they borrowed from their ancestors in Babylonia ; among whom it seems to have been common. "7 It is remarkable, that the first tyrant upon earth masked his villainy under the meek title of a Shepherd. If we may credit the Gentile writers, it was under this pretext that Nimrod framed his opposition, and gained an undue sovereignty over his brethren. He took to himself the name of Orion, and Alorus; but subjoined the other abovementioned: and gave out that he was born to be a protector and guardian: or, as it is related from Berosus; "8 Tovde un eg EWÜTY λογον διαδεναι, ότι μιν τα λεω ΠΟΙΜΕΝΑ ο Θεος αποSE&Q. He spread a report abroad, that God had marked him out for a Shepherd to his people. Hence this title was assumed by other kings of the country, as may be seen in the

16 Εκκαιδεκατη δυνατεια Ποιμενες Ελληνες βασιλεις. Syncellus.



Ποιμενες οι βασιλεις λεγονται. . Scholia in Æschyli Persas, v. 74. I am the Lord, that saith of Cyrus, he is my Shepherd. Isaiah. c. 44. v. 28.

18 Abydenus apud Euseb. Chron. p. 5. VOL. IV.

19 Chaldaïc history : and from them it was bor. rowed by those of the family, who came into Egypt. It was a favourite appellation: and by this they may be traced, both here, and in every 20 settlement which they made. All their ancestors were esteemed of this profession; and most of their Gods were styled, Nopesci xai llosMeves, Pastors and Shepherds ; particularly Dionu sus, Orus, Pan, Zeuth, and Osiris. "An antient writer, alluding to the Cuthites in Egypt, and to their first king, styles the latter Telegonus, a foreigner ; one that came from a far country : and he describes him as the son of Orus, the Shepherd. 22 Sub Acherre, in Ægypto regnavit Telegonus,

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Αλωρον (ητοι Νεβρωδ) Ποιμενα. Δαως ποιμην. Abydenus. ibid. Aawvor florteve Basilevoui. Apollodorus. ibid. p. 5. 'I his title was probably borrowed from the church of God. The Deity seems from the most early times to have been represented as the Shepherd of his people. This was retained by those who were apostates from the truth. They gave it to the Gods, which they introduced ; and assumed it themselves. Many types and allusions were borrowed from the same quarter.

20 It obtained in Greece. Hence ITongumo Basileus. Lloberap, τοιμην, η βασιλευς. Ηesych. Ποιμανως, η βασιλευς. Scholia in Persas Æschyli. v. 241.

21 Eusebii Chron. Hieron. Interprete. p. 14. ** Syncellus expresses it Acheres. p. 155.

Acheres, like Uchorus, is probably a compound of Ach or Uch, and Heres; the great Sun.

Ori Pastoris filius. The name Acherres is a compound of Heres, pronounced Cheres, and Cherres, the Sun. Most of the primitive occurrences in Egypt are appropriated to the reigns of Apis, Orus, Vulcan, Timaus, the same as Tamus and Thamuz. These were all sacred titles, and did not relate to any particular king. For, notwithstanding the boasted antiquity, and the endless dynasties of the Egyptians, they had in reality no king of the country to whose time these facts could be referred. Their first monarchs were certainly the Cuthites styled Auritæ, who built the city Aur, called Avaris, in the land of Goshen, and nome of Heliopolis. Telegonus is above said to have been the offspring of a Deity : for it was usual for persons to be denominated the children of the God whom they worshipped. From hence it arose, that this foreigner was styled the son of Orus; and his people in like manner were called the Oritæ or Auritæ ; as I have mentioned before. They likewise esteemed themselves the offspring of Zeuth : and are said to have been the first after the Gods who reigned in Egypt. These Gods were no other than their principal ancestors; whose names were in aftertimes prefixed to the lists of their kings. Alexander the Great, in a very large letter to his mother Olympias, takes notice of this intelligence, which he had extorted from one of their priests. He

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