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P. clxxxviii. Note. This passage, &c.'* The Scripture here referred to, is full to the point, on the subject of the last remark. Had the saving grace of God at that time actually appeared, or been made mani. fest, to all men universally? or had it actually brought, or offered, salvation to all men? Or will it ever thus bring salvation to all men universally? Or is it only meant, that the salvation was made known to men, without distinction of nation, or rank in life, as the benefit of all who embraced it?

This grace of God not only offers salvation, but effects it. As it saves all, who receive it, from wrath and condemnation: so it likewise, effectually, teacheth us" that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we “ should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world.”

Looking for that blessed hope, " and the glorious appearing of the great God, and our “ Saviour Jesus Christ; who gave himself for us to re“ deem us from all iniquity, and to purify us unto him.

self, a peculiar people, zealous of good works.”+ P. clxxxix. 1. 7. To prove, &c.'! This view of

* " This passage is stronger in the original than in our translation, Errota ► Xep15 78 Dis ouTup!OS aos ev9ptus; it should have been translated, "the

grace of God, which bringeth (or offereth) salvation to all men, hath ap"peared.” Mr. Wakefield gives this construction.' † Tit. ii. 11–14.

'To prove that peace with God was now obtained for the whole human * species, through the precious blood of Christ, he represents Adam as "the “ figure of him that was to come,” that is, a type of Christ: he then de 'scribes the analogy between the first and second Adam, by declaring that

the former brought death upon all men, and the latter restored all to life; • that universal sin and condemnation were the consequence of Adam's dise obedience, and universal righteousness and pardon the effect of Christ's

obedience. " As by the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to “ condemnation, even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon “all men to justification of life; for as by one man's disobedience many were “ made sinners, so by the obedience of one, shall many be made righteous." ' The sin of Adam and the merits of Christ are here pronounced to be co

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the parallel between Adam and Christ, and the effects
of Adam's disobedience, and of the Saviour's obedience,
as drawn by the apostle, is given by many commenta-
tors: but it is liable to insurmountable objections;
especially it most clearly admits, that “the righteous-
“ness of one came upon all men to justification of
" life:" and how then can universal salvation be denied?
Indeed his Lordship's words, if rigorously interpreted,
might seem to admit this consequence: “Universal
' righteousness and pardon, the effect of Christ's obe.

dience.' But the passage itself plainly suggests another interpretation. “ If by one man's offence death reigned s by one: much more shall they, who receive abundance “ of grace,” (ow Tapiscelay the xxpotos,) and of the gift of “ righteousness, reign in life by One, Jesus Christ."* Here, not all men are spoken of, but they alone who, “ receive this abundant grace, and the gift of righteous

ness;” that is, true believers exclusively; for others do neither receive Christ, nor his grace, nor the “

righteousness,” or justification. The apostle appears to me, to contrast the loss sustained through Adam's fall, by all, who are in him, as his descendants by na. tural generation; with the vastly superior and additional advantages enjoyed, by all, who are “in Christ,” as true believers, by regeneration, and as partaking of his Holy Spirit. “ Of him are ye in Christ Jesus.”+ “ There is no condemnation to them, who are in Christ " Jesus, &c.”I " If any man be in Christ, he is a

gift of

extensive; the words applied to both are precisely the same; “ Judgment “ came upon all men,” “ the free gift came upon all men."_" Many were “ made sinners, * Many were made righteous."—Whatever the words * all men” and “ many” signify, when applied to Adam, they must signify the • same when applied to Christ. It is admitted, that in the former case the * whole human race is meant; and consequently in the latter case the whole « human race is also meant.' • Rom. v. 17. f 1 Cor. i. 30.

Rom. vii. 1. VOL. I.


new creature.'

."* As, however, this does not materially affect the argument, I shall not insist upon it. His Lordship, I am persuaded, does not intend univer. sal salvation; and to the universality of redemption, in the sense above explained, I do not object.

P. cxc. I. 15. Nay, we, &c.'t This argument is equally conclusive for universal salvation. How can grace much more abound; if the effects of Adam's sin extend to all, but final salvation is confined to a part only of mankind?' It therefore proves too much, which shows, that it is not conclusive. Grace much more abounds, to those who receive, by faith, the abundance of the grace and are in Christ Jesus; but “how shall “ they escape who neglect so great salvation?

P. cxci. 1. 4. When some, &c.'I It certainly was not the work of God, that those Jews should believe in Christ, concerning whom he had decreed, that they should not believe. Commentators indeed generally agree, that “the work of God,” in the text referred to, (being an answer to the question of the Jews, “ What “ shall we do, that we might work the works of God?") signifies, that work, or act of obedience, which God required of them, and would accept; and without which all other works would be rejected. " This is my be

• 2 Cor. v. 17. + Nay, we are even told, that " where sin abounded, grace did much

inore abound:"but how cap this be, if sin extends to all, and grace is .confined to a part only of mankind?'

# 'When some of the Jews asked Jesus, “What shall we do, that we “ might work the works of God?" . he answered, “ This is the work of God, “ that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.” If God had decreed that the * Jews should not believe, it could not have been said, that it was his work,

that they should believe on him whom he bath sent. Upon another occa. •sion Christ declared to them, “These things I say, that ye might be saved." • How could Christ endeavour to promote the salvation of men, in opposition • to the decree of his Father, whose will he came down from heaven to fulfil?'

Jobn vi. 27--29.

“ loved Son-Hear ye him:” " This is the work,” (most acceptable in the sight of God) “ that ye be. “ lieve on him, whom he hath sent."* There is how. ever, nothing said about these Jews, or the divine de. cree respecting them. It was their duty to believe, and had they truly believed, they would have been saved. “ These are revealed things, which are for us:” but who are, or who are not, decreed to salvation, is “a “ secret thing which belongs to God,” of which we can know nothing, except by the event. Did ministers,* who believe the doctrine of the divine decrees, really know what those decrees were; they could not consistently preach to those, concerning whom they knew it

was decreed, that they should not believe, in order that they might be saved:' but as they know nothing concerning this; they must adhere to the revealed truth and will of God; and, really loving all men with cordial good-will, and praying for the salvation of all, they must address them as sinners, and invite them to partake of salvation: and God will give what success to their la. bours, he sees good. It may, however, be said, that, if such decrees exist, our Lord knew what they were, though we do not. But, as Man and as a Preacher, he has left us an example, for our imitation. It may indeed be supposed, he knew, that some whom he addressed, were “ chosen unto salvation." Probably, Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea, were present, when he spake the words referred to. In general, he used proper means for the salvation of those who heard him.-But, supposing no such decree exists, how does this alter the case? Did not our Lord foreknow, who would, and who would not, believe? Who would, and who would not, be saved? In endeavouring to promote

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* the salvation of those,' who he foreknew would not be saved; he would have acted as much in opposition to his own foreknowledge; as, if a decree had existed, he would have acted in opposition to that decree. But, doubtless, in what he said and did, he did not act in opposition to either the one or to the other. As for us, we take it for granted, that God has some people, in our congregations, in the same sense, in which he had “ much people” at Corinth.* We are charged by the bishop when ordained priests, to seek for Christ's sheep • that are abroad, and for his children, who are in the * midst of this naughty world, that they may be saved * through Christ for ever.'t And we have no fear of being condemned for opposition to a secret decree, while diligently obeying a revealed and express command.

P. cxci. I. 19. · The Jews, &c.'I Had the Jews possessed a disposition to believe, their conversion would have been certain. But, . It is acknowledged, that man • has not the disposition, and consequently not the abili.

ty, to do what in the sight of God is good, till he is * influenced by the Spirit of God.'S Now this is the only thing, which renders any man's conversion impossible, except he be influenced by the Spirit of God: and why might not the divine decree respect this very point, namely, the producing, or the not producing, this disposition, in one who had it not, and could not have it, till influenced by the Spirit of God?'

P. cxcii. l. 3. “It was possible, therefore, for every one of the Jews, to abandon his wiekedness, and be

• Acts xviii. 10.

| Ordination service. + The Jews had a power of understanding and believing, and this cannot be réconciled with the doctrine of a divine decree, rendering their conver*sion impossible.'

& Refutation, p. 61.

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