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WAEN I bave learnt to read and spell,

The Holy Bible I must love;
And daily read, and mark it well,

It leads the soul to Hear'n above.
That Holy Book will teach me ever

All that I must try to be:-
And it tells me God will never

Suffer any sin in me.
It tells me I must watch and pray;

And always shun the smallest sin;
That ev'ry night, and ev'ry day,

With prayer and praises should begin.
It tells me I must love my brother,

Mild and gentle I must be;
And always do unto another

What I would have bim do to me.


'Tis there I learn my Saviour's lovc,

That made Him leave His bright abode : .. 'Tis there I read of Heav'u above,

Where holy angels dwell with God!



The sap in trees is the matter with which they are nourished, and resembles, in that respect, the chyle in the human system. This nutritive substance (the sap) is collected, by the roots, with those fibres which form their terminations, and which, as if they almost knew what they were doing, travel in every direction, with unerring skill, to seek those substances in the soil best qualified to supply the nourishment which it is their business to convey. The juice, or sap, thus extracted from the soil, is drawn up the tree by the efforts of vegetation, each branch and each leaf serving by its demand for nourishment, as a kind of forcing pump, to suck the juice .. .. On Trees.

303 up to the topmost shoot, to extend it to all the branches, and in a healthy tree, to the extremity of each shoot. The roots, in other words, are the providers of the aliment; the branches, shoots, and leaves, are the appetite of the tree, which induce it to consume the food thus applied to it. The resemblance holds good between the vegetable and animal world. If the roots of a tree are injured, or do not receive the necessary supply of nourishment the tree must perish like an animal unsupplied with food, whatever be the power of the appetite in the one case, and of the vegetation in the other, to con sume the nourishing substance if it could be prox cured. This is dying by hunger. If, on the other hand, the powers of vegetation are in any respect injured, and the tree, either from natural decline, or being much lopped, or from any other cause, ceases to supply those shoots and leaves which suck the sap up into the system, then the tree dies of a decay in the powers of digestion. · But the tree, like the animal, is not nourished by food alone; air is also necessary to it. If this be supplied in such extreme quantities as is usual in exposed situations, the trees will suffer from the action of the cold, like a man in a very severe season, where he has enough indeed of pure air, but where the cold that attends it, is more than his constitution will bear. In like manner, when placed in a situation where the air is kept out, both the vegetable and the animal would die from suffocation. But what does an animal do in such cases ? The animal, when exposed to an injurious degree of cold, seeks shelter; man, being often obliged to face the extremity of cold, supplies his want of warmth by artificial clothing; and the inferior animals, in very cold countries, are furnished by Providence with an additional thickness of furs, which would be useless in warmer regions.

Now trees, in a wonderful manner, seem to imi

vegetaituation will beart attendindeed every se from thien

tate the manners of men and other animals. As the object is to protect the sap-vessels which conduct the nourishment, and which vessels lie hetween the wood and the bark, the tree throws out a thick coating of bark to protect the sap-vessels. · Again, if an animal is in danger of being suffocated for want of vital air, it naturally goes to some opening, through which the air may come ; and, in the same state, man throws off part of his clothing. Now the trees do just the same. Look at a wood or plantation that has not been duly thinned : the trees which exist will be seen drawn up to poles, with narrow and scanty tops, endeavouring to make their way towards such openings to the sky as may bring them within the reach of light and air. If there are so many boughs above them as to prevent them getting through at the top, they will sicken and perhaps die; or, if their situation admits of it, they will twist themselves into strange shapes for the sake of getting a little air and light from the sides of the plantation. As men throw aside their garments when confined in a close situation, trees, under the same circumstances, have a thin bark, beautifully green and succulent, instead of that thick, coarse, protecting substance, which covers the sap-vessels of a tree which stands in an exposed situation. - See Quarterly Review.

: SHAVING, SMUGGLING, POACHING. A PERSON, not far from Torrington, had been waited on and shaved, by a certain barber, every day for twenty-one years, without coming to any regular settlement. The tradesman, thinking it time to wind up the account, carried in his bill, charging one penny per day, which amounted to 311. 188. 9de.

Shaving, Smuggling, Poaching 305 - We have frequently given hints on shaving, in the course of our work, for the purpose of exhorta ing young men to learn to shave themselves. The above anecdote from Torrington shews how much is saved by it; and a great deal more is saved by it in those villages where it is the bad custom to go to the public house on a Sunday morning, to be shaved by a man who is not a regular barber, but only a little more handy at this work than his awkward neighbours. A man who can shave himself will be likely to do it oftener, too, than if he depended on another, and thus will be a much neater and cleaner fellow for it :-and this sort of cleanliness of appearance leads to other good ways, and is generally ac, companied with other respectable, and agreeable, and considerate habits. A dirty slovenly fellow is seldom good for much in any way. He knows that he is not fit to be seen by respectable people, and therefore he is seldom to be found amongst them : he is generally in company with a tribe like himself; a set of fellows careless about all appearance and all character. They generally shun the day, and carry on their work by night. We do not say that every dirty man is a dishonest man, or that every clean looking man has a clean heart; for there have been good men who have been careless about their outward garb, and many a villain is seen in sleek at. tire; but still we cannot help connecting the idea of cleanliness of body with cleanliness of mind, and we do generally see that the wretched men, whose lives and practices are of the worst description, and who are brought as prisoners to our courts of justice, are an unwashed, unshaven, unwholesome looking set :-such are poachers and smugglers, and others whose livelihood is got by such dishonest deeds as shun the day, and require the night to cover them. But as we have mentioned smuggling and poaching, we take this opportunity of reminding those of our readers who are above the class of Cottagers, that, if poaching and smuggling be crimes, those who encourage them are partakers of the crime. We may, perhaps, think that calling these crimes by the names of poaching and smuggling, gives them a less criminal appearance than if they were called by their true name of stealing :-but, when the poacher goes by night, and kills those animals which another has bred at a great expence, and sells them, is hè not taking what does not belong to him? And when the smuggler keeps back from the nation that proportion of the price of an article which ought to go into the nation's treasury, does he not injure the nation in the same way as if he had broken open the doors of the treasury and taken out the same sum of money? We know the estimation in which the law holds the receivers of stolen goods ;-let those who purchase poached game, or smuggled goods, think what they are doing. Let them consider well, before they encourage crimes which shut many a man up in prison, and bring many to the gallows. We say nothing about the propriety or impropriety of the game laws, or the laws against smuggling; we are speaking to the consciences of those who poach and smuggle, as well as to those who encourage those crimes. We know very well that it is often said, Do what you will, and say what you will, and write what you will, these things will go on; there will be smuggling, and there will be poaching, and we cannot hinder it: if we don't buy these things, others will.” This is all very true,-there will be offences, but “woe unto that man by whom the offences come.” There will be careless, and thoughts less, and dishonest people in the world :—but, thanks be to God, there will be honest ones too; and it makes a very wide difference to us to WHICH of the two CLASSES we belong.


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