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the present year, 1828, there has been an increase of 19 per cent. more ;--therefore a greater mumber of commitments may fairly be expected, even though there be not a greater proportion of crime. It is to be feared, however, that notwithstanding this fair deduction, there is still, in the neighbourhood of London, a great increase of crime; and the committee has stated the following as among the probable causes of such increase ;-The low price of gin..

In consequence of the duties on spirituous liquors being lowered, much more of them has been consumed ; and the effects. are very lamentable. A remarkably intelligent officer, whose duty required him to be constantly observing what was going forward in the streets, was examined..

Question. “ What effect has the reduced price of gin had in your district ?"

Answer. “I think there is a great deal more drunkenness. I think it was one of the worst things ever done in the world ; if they had raised it a penny a gill, instead of falling it, it would have been a very good thing.”

This officer said that there was a great deal of drunkenness among people who were not thieves; the first days of the week you will always find somebody drunk. They spend their week's wages in drinking, and then go to work towards the end of the week.

- Another great cause of robberies appears to be, s parents neglecting their children."

There are schools in almost every part of London, and yet there are many parents who will not send their children to them; and there are numerous gangs of children in the parks and outskirts of the town, both on Sundays and other days, idling and gambling, and leading others into every kind of wickedness; and all this time their parents have no guard over them, and seem neither to know where they are, or what they are doing ;--it is wonderful

Oix the State of Crime in London, &c. - 393 what a quantity of wickedness is brought together and encouraged by the habit of frequenting the parks on a Sunday.

Perhaps nothing would be more likely to bring about an improvement in the morals of the people of this country than a regular observance of the Sabbath; and the high and the low must join in this endeavour, if they wish to see any good done in this way.

. It is strange that there are parents whose children have behaved ill at school, and yet they have seened rather to encourage them, than to check them in their wicked course,-and they have looked on with carelessness and indifference even if their children have so misbehaved as to make it necessary that they should be turned out of the school. There is good reason to believe that much has been done within these few years by the education of the poor, and that those who commit offences against the laws are very seldom those who have been long at these schools; but there is a great, deal still to be done. The infant schools will be a great help to the National schools; the children will thus get into good habits at a very early age ;-and they ought not only to begin earlier, but to go on longer. It is not, perhaps, possible, that the children of the poor should stay very long at school, they are wanted to work. But when they leave school, they should not lay aside their books, They have learned how to read at school ;—they should practice it when they have left school; and not only practice reading, but try to apply to themselves the directions which they read in their Bibles and other good books, so as to live by them. And parents should encourage them to do this at home; they should try to make their evenings at home pleasant to them. If the father goes to the alehouse or to the gin shop, there is not much good to be expected from the son. There are some parents who never send their children to school at all : many such in the close streets and alleys about London,-and these children are brought up in every kind of wickedness,—their own parents setting them the example. Now, if all these children could be got into a school and taught what was good, a very great change might be expected from such an experiment;- but the worse the parents are, the more unwilling will they be to have their children taught their duty, and trained up to a belief in the promises of religion, and in the practice of its duties. The more they want these things the less they get them. It is not, however, teaching children to read that will make them good,--they must be taught to understand that the use of reading is, that they may know the blessings of religion, and may guide their conduct by its rules. Religion must make a principal part of their education; and they must be taught that it is not merely reading and understanding the Bible that will keep them from the practice of wickedness. The reading of scripture will shew them what a Christian should be,_but they should be taught to feel that it is their duty, and that it will be their highest happiness, really to become Christians;-not only to know what is right, but to follow it. And this ought to be taught in the most kind and affectionate manner, as if the teacher himself felt how much the interest of his pupils now and for ever, depended upon their seeing and feeling and acting upon this conviction. And the teacher should let them see that he himself is deeply interested in those truths which he is desirous of teaching them ;-that he looks to the same promises, and is guided in his conduct and disposition by the same rules. If his own eternal interests are the influencing motives of his own actions he will be most glad to instil the same principles into the minds of those who are committed to his charge.

Admiral Penn's Advice to his Son.

395

ADMIRAL PENN’S ADVICE TO HIS SON.

OUR readers have heard of Admiral Penn,-a great naval commander in the time of Oliver Cromwell, and in the reign of Charles the Second. His son was the celebrated William Penn, who became a Quaker very early in life, and who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in North America. A short time before his death, the Admiral spoke thus to his son:

" Son William, I am weary of the world! I would not live over my days again, if I could command them with a wish ; for the snares of life are greater than the fears of death. This troubles me, that I have offended a gracious God. The thought of this has followed me to this day. Oh have a care of sin! It is that which is the sting both of life and death. Three things I commend to thee,

“ First, Let nothing in this world tempt you to wrong your conscience; so will you keep peace at home,-which will be a feast to you in a day of trouble.

« Secondly, Whatever you design to do, lay it justly, and time it seasonably; for that gives secu. rity and dispatch.

" Thirdly, Be not troubled at disappointments; for, if they may be remedied, do it: if they cannot, trouble is then yain. If you could not have helped it, be content; there is peace and profit in submitting to Providence, for afflictions are to make men wise. If you could have helped it, be not so much troubled, as anxious to receive instruction for another time.

• Live all in love. Shun all manner of evil, and I pray God to bless you all; and he will bless you all."—Soon afterwards the Admiral expired.

ON PROFANE SWEARING.

It shocks me much to hear the blest Supreme
Rudely appea”d to on each trifling theme.,,
Maintain your rank ;vulgarity despise;.
To SWEAR is neither brave, polite, por wise.
You would not swear upon the bed of death;
Reflect! your Maker now could stop your breath.

The excellent Mr. Howe, being at dinner with some persons of fashion, a gentleman expatiated largely in praise of King Charles I. introducing some harsh reflections upon others. Mr. Howe, observing that the gentleman mixed many oaths with his discourse, told him that, in his humble opinion, he had omitted a singular excellence in the character of that prince. The gentleman eagerly desired him to mention it, and seemed all impatience to know what it was. “It was this, Sir," said Mr. Howe: “ He was never heard to swear an oath in common conversation." The hint was as politely received as given; and the gentleman promised to break off the practice.

The same Mr. Howe, once conversing with a nobleman in St. James's Park, who swore profanely in his conversation, expressed great satisfaction in the thought that there is a God who governs the world, who will finally judge all according to their works: “ and who, my Lord," added Mr. Howe, “ will make a difference between him that sweareth, and him that feareth an oath." His Lordship immediately answered, “ I thank you, Sir, for your freedom; Í take your meaning, and shall endeavour to make a good use of it.” Mr. H. replied, “ I have reason to thank your Lordship for saving me the most difficult part of the discourse, which is the application."

Another time, passing two persons of quality; who were talķing with great eagerness, and damned each other repeatedly; Mr. H. said to them, taking off his hat in a respectful manner, “ I pray God save

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