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all that is predicted in those Psalms has been accomplished only by him. For it was He, who arose and had mercy upon Zion; it was He, who claimed as his own the dominion over all nations and islands. And why should John, after having affirmed, at the commencement of his Gospel, (e) that the Word was always God, have hesitated to attribute to Christ the majesty of God? And why should Paul have been afraid to place Christ on the tribunal of God, (p) after having so publicly preached his divinity, when he called him "God blessed for ever?" (y) And, to shew how consistent he is with himself on this subject, he says, also that "God was manifest in the flesh."(r) If he is "God blessed for ever," he is the same to whom this Apostle, in another place, affirms all glory and honour to be due. And he conceals not, but openly proclaims, that, "being in the form of God," he "thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but made himself of no reputation." (s) And, lest the impious might object, that he is a sort of artificial god, John goes farther, and affirms, that "This is the true God, and eternal life." (f) Although we ought to be fully satisfied by his being called God, especially by a witness who expressly avers that there are no more gods than one; I mean Paul, who says, "though there be that are called Gods, whether in heaven or in earth: to us there is but one God, of whom are all things." (v) When we hear, from the same mouth, that "God is manifested in the flesh," that "God hath purchased the Church with his own blood;" whv do we imagine a second God, whom he by no means acknowledges? And there is no doubt that all the pious were of the same opinion. Thomas, likewise, by publicly confessing him to be "his Lord and God," declares him to be the same true God whom he had always worshipped, (zv)
XII. If we judge of his divinity from the works, which the Scriptures attribute to him, it. will thence appear with increasing evidence. For when he said, that he had, from the beginning, continually co.operated with the Father, the Jews, stupid as they were about his other declarations,yet perceived,
(e) John i. 1, 14. ( p) 2 Cor. v. 10. (?) Rom. ix. 5j
(r) 1 Tim.iii. 16. (*) Philip, ii. 6. - (f) 1 John v. 20.
(w) 1 Cor. viii. 5, 6. (w) John xx. 28
that he assumed to himself Divine power; and, therefore, as John informs us, they "sought the more to kill him; because he not■ only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God." (x) How great, then, must be our stupidity, if we perceive not this passage to be a plain assertion of his divinity? To preside over the world, by his almighty providence, and to govern all things by the nod of his own power (which the Apostle attributes to him), (y) belongs exclusively to the Creator. And he participates with the Father, not only in the government of the world, but also in all other offices, which cannot be communicated to creatures. The Lord proclaims, by the Prophet, " I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions, for mine own sake." (z) According to this declaration, when the Jews thought that Christ committed an injury against God, by undertaking to forgive sins, (a) he not only asserted, in express terms, that this power belonged to him, but proved it by a miracle. We see, therefore,, that he hath not the ministry, but the power of remission of sins, which the Lord declares shall never be transferred from himself to another. Is it not the prerogative of God alone, to examine and penetrate the secret thoughts of the heart? Yet Christ possessed that power; which is a proof of his divinity.
XIII. But with what perspicuity of evidence does it appear in his miracles? Though I grant that the Prophets and Apostles performed miracles similar and equal to his, yet there is a considerable difference in this respect, that they, in their ministry, dispensed the favours of God, whereas his miracles were performed by his exertions of his own power. He sometimes, indeed, used prayer, that he might glorify the Father; but, in most instances, we perceive the manifest displays of his own power. And how should not he be the true author of miracles, who, by his own authority, committed the dispensation of them to others? For the Evangelists relate, that he gave his Apostles power to raise the dead, to heal the leprous, to cast out devils, &c. (b) And they performed that ministry in such a manner, as plainly to dktfbver, that the power pro.
(r) John v. 18. . (y) Heb. i. 3. (z) Isaiah xliii. 25.
(a) Matt. ix. 6. (A) Matt x. 8. Mark iii. 15.
afterwards in the whole Church, as Ananias testifies in the same book; "Lord, I have heard by many of this man, how much evil he hath done to thy saints—that call on thy name." (m) And to make it more clearly understood, that "all the fulness of the Godhead dwelleth bodily in Christ," the Apostle confesses that he had introduced among the Corinthians no other doctrine than the knowledge "of him, and that this had been the only subject of his preaching, (n) What a remarkable and important consideration is it, that the name of the Son only is preached to us, whereas God commands us to glory in the knowledge of himself alone? (o) Who can dare to assert that he is a mere creature, the knowledge of whom is our only glory? It must also be remarked, that the salutations prefixed to the epistles of Paul implore the same blessings from the Son as from the Father; whence we learn, not only that those things, which our heavenly Father bestows, are obtained for us bv his intercession, but that the Son, by a communion of power, is himself the author of them. This practical knowledge is unquestionably more certain and solid than any idle speculation. For then the pious mind has the nearest view of the Divine presence, and almost touches it, when it experiences itself to be quickened, illuminated, saved, justified and sanctified.
XIV. Wherefore the proof of the Deity of the Spirit must be derived principally from the same sources. There is no obscurity in the testimony of Moses, in the history of the creation, that the Spirit of God was expanded on the abyss or chaos; (p) for it signifies, not only that the beautiful state of the world which we now behold owes its preservation to the power of the Spirit, but that previously to its being thus adorned, the Spirit was engaged in brooding over the confused mass. The declaration of Isaiah bids defiance to all cavils; "And now the Lord God, and his Spirit hath sent me."(y) For the Holy Spirit is united in the exercise of supreme power in the mission of Prophets, which is a proof of his Divine majesty. But the best confirmation, as I have remarked, we shall derive from familiar experience. For what
On) Acts ix. 13, H. (n) 1 Cor. ii. 2. (e) Jer. ix. 24.
(p) Gen. i. 2. (9) Isaiah xlviii. 16.
the Scriptures ascribe to him, and what we ourselves learn bv the certain experience of piety, is not at all applicable to any creature. For it is he who, being universally diffused, sustains and animates all things in heaven and in earth. And this very thing excludes him from the number of creatures, that he is circumscribed by no limits, but transfuses through all his own vigorous influence, to inspire them with being life and motion; this is clearly a work of Deity. Again, if regeneration to an incorruptible life be more important and excellent than anv present life, what must we think of him from whose power it proceeds? But the Scripture teaches in various places, that he is the author of regeneration by a power not derived, but properly his own; and not of regeneration only, but likewise of the future immortality. Finally, to him, as well as to the Son, are applied all those offices which are peculiar to Deity. For he "searcheth even the deep things of God,"(r) who admits no creature to a share in his councils. He bestows wisdom and the faculty of speech: (s) whereas the Lord declares to Moses, that this can only be done by himself.(r) So through him we attain to a participation of God, to feel his vivifying energy upon us. Our justification is his work. From him proceeds power, sanctifi. cation, truth, grace, and every other blessing we can conceive: since there is but one Spirit, from whom every kind of gifts descends. For this passage of Paul is worthy of particular attention; "there are diversities of gifts, and there are differences of administrations, but the same spirit:) because it represents him, not only as the principle and source of them, but also as the author: which is yet more clearly expressed a little after in these words; "All these worketh that only and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will." For if he were not a subsistence in the Deity, judgment and voluntary determination would never be ascribed to him. Paul, therefore, very clearly attributes to the Spirit divine power, and thereby demonstrates him to be an hypostasis or subsistence in God.
XV. Nor does the Scripture, when it speaks of him, refrain
(r) 1 Cor. ii. 10,16. (t) 1 Cor. xii. 8.
(f) Exod. iv. 11. (u) 1 Cor. xii. 4, fee.