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instance consists of actions only. Rules are illustrated by examples;


Let me (my son) an ancient fact unfold, A great example drawn from times of old. POPE. Characters are illustrated by instances; Many instances may be produced from good authorities, that children actually suck in the several passions and depraved inclinations of their nurses.' STEELE. The best mode of instructing children is by furnishing them with examples for every rule that is laid down; the Roman history furnishes us with many extraordinary instances of self-devotion for their country.


continued metaphor when attributes, modes, and actions are applied to the objects thus figured, as in the allegory of sin and death in Milton; Virgil has cast the whole system of Platonic philosophy, so far as regards the soul of man, into beautiful allegories." ADDISON.

Figure, in Latin figura, from fingo to feign, signifies any thing painted or feigned by the mind; metaphor, in Greek ustapopa, from μstapépw to transfer, μεταφορά, μεταφέρω signifies a transfer of one object to another; allegory, in Greek aλnyopía, from axxos another thing, and αλληγορία, ἄλλος ayopeúw to relate, signifies the relation of something under a borrowed form; emblem, in Greek Eußanua, from ußáλw to impress, signifies the thing stamped on as a mark; symbol, from the Greek GuμBánλw to consider attentively, signifies the thing cast or conceived in the mind, from its analogy to represent something else; type, in Greek TUTOS, from TUTTO to strike or stamp, signifies an image of something that is stamped on something else.


Likeness between two objects, by which one is made to represent the other, is the common idea in the signification of these terms. Figure is the most general of these terms, comprehending every thing which is figured by means of the imagination; the rest are but modes of the figure. The figure consists either in words or in things generally: we may have a figure in expression, a figure on paper, a figure on wood or stone, and the like. It is the business of the imagination to draw figures out of any thing; The spring bears the same figure among the seasons of the year, that the morning does among the divisions of the day, or youth among the stages of life.' ADDISON. The metaphor and allegory consist of a representation by means of words only: the figure, in this case, is any representation which the mind makes to itself of a resemblance between objects, which is properly a figure of thought, which when clothed in words is a figure of speech: the metaphor is a figure of speech of the simplest kind, by which a word acquires other meanings besides that which is originally affixed to it; as when the term head, which properly signifies a part of the body, is applied to the leader of an army; No man had a happier manner of expressing the affections of one sense by metaphors taken from another than Milton.' BURKE. The allegory is a

The emblem is that sort of figure of thought by which we make corporeal objects to stand for moral properties: thus the dove is represented as the emblem of meekness, or the bee-hive is conceived to be the emblem of industry; The stork's the emblem of true piety.' BEAUMONT. The symbol is that species of emblem which is converted into a constituted sign among men; thus the olive and laurel are the symbols of peace, and have been recognized as such among barbarous as well as enlightened nations; I need not mention the justness of thought which is observed in the generation of these symbolical persons (in Milton's allegory of sin and death).' ADDISON. The type is that species of emblem by which one object is made to represent another mystically; it is, therefore, only employed in religious matters, particularly in relation to the coming, the office, and the death of our Saviour; in this manner the offering of Isaac is considered as a type of our Saviour's offering himself as an atoning sacrifice; All the remarkable events under the law were types of Christ.' BLAIR.


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Parable, in French parabole, Greek napaßon, from Tapaßá, signifies what is thrown out or set before one, in lieu of something which it resembles; allegory, v. Figure.

* Both these terms imply a veiled mode of speech, which serves more or less to conceal the main object of the discourse by presenting it under the appearance of something else, which accords with it in most of the particulars: the parable is mostly employed for moral purposes; the allegory in describing historical events.

The parable substitutes some other subject or agent, who is represented under a character that is suitable to the one referred to. In the allegory are introduced strange and arbitrary persons in the place of the real personages, or imaginary characteristics and circumstances are ascribed to real persons.

The parable is principally employed in the sacred writings; the allegory forms a grand feature in the productions of the eastern nations.


Simile and similitude are both drawn from the Latin similis like: the former signifying the thing that is like; the latter either the thing that is like, or the

* Vide Abbé Girard: "Parable, allegorie."

quality of being like in the former sense only it is to be compared with simile, when employed as a figure of speech or thought; every thing is a simile which associates objects together on account of any real or supposed likeness between them; but a similitude signifies a prolonged or continued simile.. The latter may be expressed in a few words, as when we say the god-like Achilles; but the former enters into minute circumstances of comparison, as when Homer compares any of his heroes fighting and defending themselves against multitudes to lions who are attacked by dogs and men. Every simile is more or less a comparison, but every comparison is not a simile: the latter compares things only as far as they are alike; but the former extends to those things which are different: in this manner, there may be a comparison between large things and small, although there can be no good simile; There are also several noble similes and allusions in the first book of Paradise Lost.' ADDISON. Such as have a natural bent to solitude (to carry on the former similitude) are like waters which may be forced into fountains. POPE. Your image of worshipping once a year in a certain place, in imitation of the Jews, is but a comparison, and simile non est idem." JOHNSON.


Likeness denotes the quality of being alike (v. Equal); resemblance, from resemble, compounded of re and semble, in French sembler, Latin simulo, signifies putting on the form of another thing; similarity, in Latin similaritas, from similis, in Greek quaños like, from the Hebrew on an image, denotes the abstract property of likeness.

Likeness is the most general, and at the same time the most familiar, term of the three; it respects either external or internal properties: resemblance respects only the external properties; similarity only the internal properties: we speak of a likeness between two persons; of a resemblance in the cast of the eye, a resemblance in the form or figure; of a similarity in age and disposition.

Likeness is said only of that which is actual; resemblance may be said of that which is apparent: the likeness consists of something specific; the resemblance may be only partial and contingent. A thing is said to be, but not to appear, like another; it may, however, have the shadow of a resemblance: whatever things are alike are alike in their essential properties; but they may resemble in a partial degree, or in certain particulars, but are otherwise essentially different. We are most like the Divine Being in the act of doing good; there is nothing existing in nature, which has not certain points of resemblance with something else. Similarity, or similitude, which is a higher term, is in the moral application, in regard to likeness, what resemblance is in the physical sense: what is alike has the same nature; what is similar has certain features of similarity: in this sense feelings are alike, senti

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Or else the comic muse Holds to the world a picture of itself. THOMSON. The image lies in the nature of things, and is more or less striking; The mind of man is an image, not only of God's spirituality, but of his infinity.' SOUTH. It is the peculiar excellence of the painter to produce a likeness; the withering and falling off of the leaves from the trees in autumn is a picture of human nature in its decline; children are frequently the very image of their parents.

A likeness is that which is to represent the actual likeness; but an effigy is an artificial or arbitrary likeness; 'I have read somewhere that one of the popes refused to accept an edition of a saint's works, which were presented to him, because the saint, in his

effigies before the book, was drawn without a beard.' ADDISON. It may be represented on wood or stone, or in the figure of a person, or in the copy of the figure. Artists produce likenesses in different manners: they carve effigies, or take impressions from those that are carved. Hence any thing dressed up in the figure of a man to represent a particular person is termed his effigy.

TO CONTRIVE, DEVISE, INVENT. Contrive, in French controuver, compounded of con and trouver, signifies to find out by putting together; devise, compounded of de and vise, in Latin visus seen, signifies to show or present to the mind; invent, in Latin inventus, participle of invenio, compounded of in and venio, signifies to come or bring into the mind.

To contrive and devise do not express so much as to invent: we contrive and devise in small matters; we invent in those of greater moment. Contriving and devising respect the manner of doing things; inventing comprehends the action and the thing itself; the former are but the new fashioning of things that already exist; the latter is, as it were, the creation of something new to contrive and devise are intentional actions, the result of a specific effort; invention naturally arises from the exertion of an inherent power: we require thought and combination to contrive or devise; ingenuity is the faculty which is exerted in inventing;

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My sentence is for open war; of wiles
More unexpert I boast not; them let those
Contrive who need, or when they need, not now.

The briskest nectar Shall be his drink, and all th' ambrosial cates Art can devise for wanton appetite, Furnish his banquet.


Architecture, painting, and statuary, were invented with the design to lift up human nature.' ADDISON. Contriving requires even less exercise of the thoughts than devising: we contrive on familiar and common occasions; we devise in seasons of difficulty and trial. A contrivance is simple and obvious to a plain understanding: a device is complex and far-fetched; it requires a ready conception and a degree of art.

Contrivances serve to supply a deficiency, or increase a convenience; devices are employed to extricate from danger, to remove an evil, or forward a scheme: the history of Robinson Crusoe derives considerable interest from the relation of the various contrivances, by which he provided himself with the first articles of necessity and comfort; the history of robbers and adventurers is full of the various devices by which they endeavour to carry on their projects of plunder, or elude the vigilance of their pursuers; the history of civilized society contains an account of the various inventions which have contributed to the enjoyment or improvement of mankind.


have also a similar distinction. These nouns, derived from the preceding verbs,

There is an exercise of art displayed in both these actions; but the former has most of ingenuity, trick, or cunning; the latter more of deduction and plain judgement in it. A device always consists of some invention or something newly made; a contrivance mostly respects the mode, arrangement, or disposition of things. Artists are employed in conceiving devices; men in general use contrivances for the ordinary con


A device is often employed for bad and fraudulent purposes; contrivances mostly serve for innocent purposes of domestic life. Beggars have various devices for giving themselves the appearance of wretchedness and exciting the compassion of the spectator. Those who are reduced to the necessity of supplying their wants commonly succeed by forming contrivances of which they had not before any conception. Devices are the work of the human understanding only; contrivances are likewise formed by animals.

Men employ devices with an intention either to deceive or to please others; As I have long lived in Kent, and there often heard how the Kentish men evaded the conqueror by carrying green boughs over their heads; it put me in mind of practising this device against Mr. Simper.' STEELE. Animals have their contrivances either to supply some want or to remove some evil; All the temples as well as houses of the Athenians were the effects of Nestor's (the architect) study and labor, insomuch that it was said, Sure Nestor will now be famous; for the habitations of gods, as well as men, are built by his contrivance.' STEELE.



Concert is either a variation of consort a companion, or from the Latin concerto to debate together; contrive, from contrivi, perfect of contero to bruise together, signifies to pound or put together in the mind so as to form a composition; manage, in French menager, compounded of the Latin manus and ago, signifies to lead by the hand.

There is a secret understanding in concerting; invention in contriving; execution in managing. There is mostly contrivance and management in concerting; but there is not always concerting in contrivance or management. Measures are concerted; schemes are contrived; affairs are managed.

Two parties at least are requisite in concerting, one is sufficient for contriving and managing. Concerting is always employed in all secret transactions; contrivance and management are used indifferently.

Robbers who have determined on any scheme of plunder concert together the means of carrying their project into execution; Modern statesmen are concerting schemes and engaged in the depth of politics, at the time when their forefathers were laid down



quietly to rest, and had nothing in their heads but dreams.' STEELE. Thieves contrive various devices to elude the vigilance of the police; When Cæsar was one of the masters of the mint, he placed the figure of an elephant upon the reverse of the public money: the word Cæsar signifying an elephant in the Punic language. This was artfully contrived by Cæsar; because it was not lawful for a private man to stamp his own figure upon the coin of the commonwealth." ADDISON. Those who have any thing bad to do manage their concerns in the dark; It is the great act and secret of Christianity, if I may use that phrase, to manage our actions to the best advantage." ADDISON.

Those who are debarred the opportunity of seeing each other unrestrainedly, concert measures for meeting privately. The ingenuity of a person is frequently displayed in the contrivances by which he strives to help himself out of his troubles. Whenever there are many parties interested in a concern, it is never so well managed as when it is in the hands of one individual suitably qualified.

DESIGN, PURPOSE, INTEND, MEAN. Design, from the Latin designare, signifies to mark out as with a pen or pencil; purpose, like propose, comes from the Latin proposui, perfect of propono, signifying to set before one's mind as an object of pursuit; intend, in Latin intendo to bend towards, signifies the bending of the mind towards an object; mean, in Saxon maenen, German, &c. meinen, is probably connected with the word mind, signifying to have in the mind.

Design and purpose are terms of higher import than intend and mean, which are in familiar use; the latter still more so than the former. The design embraces many objects; the purpose consists of only one:* the former supposes something studied and methodical, it requires reflection; the latter supposes something fixed and determinate, it requires resolution. A design is attainable; a purpose is steady. We speak of the design as it regards the thing conceived; we speak of the purpose as it regards the temper of the person. Men of a sanguine or aspiring character are apt to form designs which cannot be carried into execution; whoever wishes to keep true to his purpose must not listen to many counsellors;

Jove honours me and favors my designs,
His pleasure guides me, and his will confines. POPE.
Proud as he is, that iron heart retains
His stubborn purpose, and his friends disdains. POPE.

The purpose is the thing proposed or set before the mind; the intention is the thing to which the mind bends or inclines: purpose and intend differ therefore both in the nature of the action and the object; we purpose seriously; we intend vaguely: we set about

that which we purpose; we may delay that which we have only intended: the execution of one's purpose rests mostly with one's self; the fulfilment of an intention depends upon circumstances: a man of a resolute temper is not to be diverted from his purpose by trifling objects; we may be disappointed in our intentions by a variety of unforeseen but uncontrolable


Mean, which is a term altogether of colloquial use, differs but little from intend, except that it is used for more familiar objects: to mean is simply to have in the mind; to intend is to lean with the mind towards any thing.

Purpose is always applied to some proximate or definite object;

And I persuade me God hath not permitted

His strength again to grow, were not his purpose To use him further yet.

Intend and mean to that which is general or remote ; The gods would not have delivered a soul into the body, which hath arms and legs, instruments of doing, but that it were intended the mind should employ them.' SIDNEY.

And life more perfect have attain'd than fate

Meant me, by venturing higher than my lot. MILTON. We purpose to set out at a certain time or go a

certain rout; we mean to set out as soon as we can,

and go the way that shall be found most agreeable; the moralist designs by his writings to effect a reformation in the manners of men: a writer purposes to treat on a given subject in some particular manner; it is ridiculous to lay down rules which are not intended to be kept; an honest man always means to satisfy his creditors.

Design and purpose are taken sometimes in the abstract sense; intend and mean always in connexion with the agent who intends or means: we see a design in the whole creation which leads us to reflect on the wisdom and goodness of the Creator; whenever we see any thing done we are led to inquire the purpose for which it is done; or are desirous of knowing the intention of the person for so doing things are said to be done with a design, in opposition to that which happens by chance; they are said to be done for a purpose, in reference to the immediate purpose which expressly qualified by a contrary epithet, is used in a is expected to result from them. Design, when not bad sense in connexion with a particular agent; purpose, intention, and meaning, in an indifferent sense: a designing person is full of latent and interested designs;

His deep design unknown, the hosts approve Atrides speech. POPE.

There is nothing There is nothing so good that it may not be made to serve the purposes of those who are bad;

Change this purpose, Which being so horrible, so bloody, must Lead on to some foul issue.

* Vide Trussler: "Intention, design."

The intentions of a man must always be taken into the account when we are forming an estimate of his actions; I wish others the same intention and greater successes.' TEMPLE. Ignorant people frequently mean much better than they do.

Nothing can evince greater depravity of mind than designedly to rob another of his good name; when a person wishes to get any information he purposely directs his discourse to the subject upon which he desires to be informed; if we unintentionally incur the displeasure of another, it is to be reckoned our misfortune rather than our fault; it is not enough for our endeavours to be well meant, if they be not also well


Then first Polydamus the silence broke,

Long weigh'd the signal, and to Hector spoke:
How oft, my brother! thy reproach I bear,
For words well meant and sentiments sincere. POPE.


Design, v. To design; plan, in French plan, comes from plane or plain, in Latin planus, smooth or even, signifying in general any plane place, or in particular the even surface on which a building is raised and by an extended application the sketch of the plane surface of any building or object; scheme, in Latin schema, Greek oxñua the form or figure, signifies the thing drawn out in the mind; project, in Latin projectus, from projicio, compounded of pro and jacio, signifies to cast or put forth, that is, the thing proposed.

Arrangement is the idea common to these terms: the design includes the thing that is to be brought about; the plan includes the means by which it is to be brought about: a design was formed in the time of James I. for overturning the government of the country; the plan by which this was to have been realized, consisted in placing gunpowder under the parliamenthouse and blowing up the assembly; Is he a prudent man, as to his temporal estate, that lays designs only for a day, without any prospect to the remaining part of his life? TILLOTSON. It was at Marseilles that Virgil formed the plan, and collected the materials of all those excellent pieces which he afterwards finished.' WALSH.

A design is to be estimated according to its intrinsic worth; a plan is to be estimated according to its relative value, or fitness for the design: a design is noble or wicked, a plan is practicable: every founder of a charitable institution may be supposed to have a good design; but he may adopt an erroneous plan for obtaining the end proposed.

immediate circumstances of life: the scheme and project are contrived or conceived for extraordinary or rare occasions: no man takes any step without a design; a general forms the plan of his campaign; adventurous men are always forming schemes for gaining money; ambitious monarchs are full of projects for increasing their dominions;

Scheme and project respect both the end and the means, which makes them analogous to design and plan: the design stimulates to action; the plan determines the mode of action; the scheme and project consist most in speculation: the design and plan are equally practical, and suited to the ordinary and

The happy people in their waxen cells Sat tending public cares, and planning schemes Of temperance for winter poor. THOMSON. Manhood is led on from hope to hope, and from project to project.' JOHNSON.

Scheme and project differ principally in the magnitude of the objects to which they are applied; the former being much less vast and extensive than the latter: a scheme may be formed by an individual for attaining any trifling advantage; projects are mostly conceived in matters of state, or of public interest : the metropolis abounds with persons whose inventive faculties are busy in devising schemes, either of a commercial, a literary, a philosophical, or political description, by which they propose great advantages to the public, but still greater to themselves; the project of universal conquest which entered into the wild speculations of Alexander the Great, did not, unfortunately for the world, perish at his death.


hand, or immediately to be set about: we propose We purpose (v. To design) that which is near at that which is more distant: the former requires the setting before one's mind, the latter requires deliberation and plan. We purpose many things which we never think worth while doing: but we ought not to propose any thing to ourselves, which is not of too much importance to be lightly adopted or rejected. We purpose to go to town on a certain day;

When listening Philomela deigns To let them joy, and purposes in thought Elate, to make her night excel their day. THOMSON.

We propose to spend our time in a particular study; There are but two plans on which any man can propose to conduct himself through the dangers and distresses of human life.' BLAIR.


Intent and intense are both derived from the verb to intend, signifying to stretch towards a point, or to a great degree: the former is said only of the person or mind; the latter qualifies things in general: a person is intent when his mind is on the stretch towards an object; his application is intense when his mind is for a continuance closely fixed on certain objects; cold is intense when it seems to be wound up to its highest

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