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My endeavour has been, throughout this argument, to shew that there were no provinces of lower Egypt to the east of the Nile ; which I have been obliged to prove by all possible means. As


of the antients speak of provinces in those parts; and all the moderns place the Arabian nomes there ; without knowing that there were two cities of the same name; they have caused great confusion in the geography of Egypt. Ptolemy seems to speak only of one Arabian nome, Phaccusa : but, as others add to it both Heliopolis and Bubastus; and they are all three referred alike to that part of the world; I shall join them together. It is to be observed, that these are the only provinces that have been styled Arabian. It may therefore be asked, how they came to have this particular mark of distinction; to which at first sight they seem to have little pretension? There were many prefec

tures downward upon the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, that were rather more advanced towards Arabia : and there were others above, that were really situated in that country, and yet not termed Arabian. Whence then came the provinces we are speaking of, above all others, to be thus denominated, and to be continually referred to Arabia ? What could be the cause of this remarkable distinction ? My answer is, that they were called so from the Arabian shepherds, who had formerly settled in these parts; and held them for many years. This leads me to a very intricate piece of history, which has employed the wit of some of the most learned men; and has never been happily discussed. And I shall think myself particularly fortunate, if I can clear it up toʻthe satisfaction of the reader.

The Arabian nomes are nothing more than the land of Goshen, called by the Seventy Terre This Apaßics. We are told by Syrcellus a that Egypt had been in subjection to a threefold race of kings; who are termed the Aurite, the Mestræi, and the Egyptian. Syncellus places the Auritæ first of the three, because he thought they were first in time. The Mestræi were undoubtedly the genuine descendants of Misraim, who first gave name to the country: the traces of which are not yet ef

26 Chronograph. edit. Parisin. 1652. pag. 51.
27 See the authors cited at pag. 49 of this Volume, note. 7.

faced ; Al Cahira, and, indeed, the whole of Egypt being called Mezré at this day. The Auritæ were the Arabian shepherds, and their kings; who reigned here a considerable time, maintaining them. selves by force; till, after many struggles, they were finally expelled by the natives. The original account of these people we have from Munetho; whose words I shall quote at large.

28 Εγενετο βασιλευς ημιν, Τιμαος ονομα" επι τετε, εκ οιδ' όπως, ο Θεος αντεπνευσεν, και παραδοξως εκ των προς ανασολην μερων, ανθρωποι το. γενος ασημοι, καταθαρσησαντες εωι την χωραν εσρατευσαν, και ραδιως αμαχητι ταυτην κατα κρατος ειλον. Και της ηγεμονεύσαντας εν αυτη χειρωσαμενοι, το λοιπον τας τε πολεις ωμως ενεπρησαν, και τα ιερα των θεων κατεσκαψαν.. Πασι δε τοις επιχωριους εχθροτατα πως εχρησαντο, τες μεν, σφαζοντες, των δε και τα τεκνα και γυναικας £ις δελειαν αγοντες. Περας δε και βασιλεα ένα εξ αυτων εποιησαν, ω ονομα ην Σαλατις. Και ουτος εν τη Μεμφιδι κατεγινετος, την τε άνω και κάτω χωραν δασκολογων, και φρεραν εν τοις επιτηδειοτατους καταλειπων τοπους" μαλιστα δε και τα προς ανατολην ησφάλισατο μερή, προορωμενος, Ασσυρίων, τοτε μειζον ισχυοντων, εσομενην επιθυμιαν της αυτης βασιλειας εφοδε. Ευρων δε εν νομώ το Σαϊτη πολιν επικαιροτατην, κειμενην μεν προς ανατολην τε Βεβάσιτα ποταμο, καλεμενην δ' απο τινος αρχαιας θεολογιας Aυαριν ταυτην εκτισεν τε, και τους τειχεσιν οχυρωτάτην εποιησεν, ενοικισας αυτη και πληθος οπλιτων εις εικοσι και

28 Joseph. Contra Apion. lib. 1. $. 14. edit. Havercamp.

μηνας δυο.

τεσσαρας μυριάδας ανδρων προς φυλακην.

Ενθαδε κατα θερειαν ήρχετο, τα μεν σιτομετρων και μισθοφοριαν παρεχομενος, τα δε και ταις εξοπλισιαις προς φοβον των εξωθεν επιμελως γυμναζων. Αρξας δ' εννεακαιδεκα ετη τον βιον ετελευτησεν. Μετα τετον δε έτερος εβασίλευσεν τεσσαρα και τετρακοντα ετη, καλεμενος Βηων. Μεθ' ον αλλος Απαχνας, εξ και τριακοντα ετη και μηνας επτα.

Επειτα δε και Απωφις έν και εξηκοντα, και Iανιας πεντηκοντα και μηνα ενα. Επι πασι δε και Ασσις εννεα και τεσσαρακοντα και

Και έτοι μεν εξ εν αυτοις εγενηθησαν πρωτοι αρχοντες, πολεμεντες αει και ποθεντες μαλλον της Αιγυπτε εξαραι την ριζαν. Εκαλειτο δε το συμπαν αυτων εθνος “ΥΚΣΩΣ, τετο δε εςι βασιλεις ποιμενες" το γαρ YK καθ' Γεραν γλωσσών βασιλεα σημαινει το δε ΣΩΣ πoιμην εςι και ποιμενες κατα την κοινην διαλεκτον, και ετω συντιθεμενον γινεται “ΥΚΣΩΣ. Τινες δε λεγεσιν αυτες Αραβας ειναι.

“ We had formerly a king named Timaus : in “ whose reign, I know not why, but it pleased “ God to visit us with a 29 blast of his displeasure: " when, on a sudden, there came upon this country

a large body of obscure people from the east; “ and with great boldness invaded the land, and “ took it without opposition. The chief of our

people they reduced to their obedience; and " then in a most cruel manner set fire to their

towns, and overturned their temples. Their be

19 2 Kings. 19. v.7. “ Thus saith the Lord-Behold, I will send a blast upon him (Sennacherib].

“ haviour to the natives was very barbarous : for " they slaughtered the men, and made slaves, of “ their wives and children. At length they con“ stituted one of their body to be their king, “ whose name was Salatis. He resided at Mem

phis ; holding all the upper and the lower Egypt “ tributary, and having his garrisons in every place “ of consequence. He

He took particular care to secure every part to the east: as the Assyrians “ were then very powerful; and he foresaw that “ they would one time or other make an attempt

upon his kingdom. And having observed a city, “ that lay particularly commodious in the nome of “ Saïs ; being situated to the east of the Bubastite “ river ; whose name was 39 Avaris (a name that “ had some relation to the antient theology of the -“ nation): this city he built, and strengthened “ with very strong walls; placing in it a garrison “ of two hundred and forty thousand men. Hither « in summer he resorted; to receive the corn


Avagis, vel (quod idem est) Alapov in libris omnibus. Haver. camp's note at pag. 445. Avaris and Abaris are to be sure convertible, and likely to be put one for the other, according to the Grecian manner of writing. But, in this passage, they must be carefully distinguished; being different places, and not of the same etymology: as I shall hereafter shew. Avaris was in Delta, and was a city and province : Abaris stood without in Arabia, and seems to have been only a large town. See Additional Remarks,

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