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netho; who tells us, that the second Shepherds succeeded to the places which had been deserted by the former : and mentions particularly that the city Abaris, which had been built by the first Shepherd king, was given to those of their body who were em, ployed in the 87 quarries. The Lithotomiæ or quar, ries were close to the deserted city; which for that reason was called by the Greeks in after times Li, thopolis or Litopolis.

Josephus, out of a desire to aggrandize his own nation, supposes that the Shepherds who bore rule in Egypt were his ancestors ; and that hence arose the hatred that the Egyptians bore them : ** óri xata την χωραν αυτων εδυνατευσαν ημων οι προγονοι. For this reason he makes no difference between the twofold race of shepherds, which Manetho, even as he quotes him, sufficiently distinguishes. The first were the Cuseans and their Pastor kings, who held the country in bondage : the others were the Israelitish shepherds ; who succeeded to the first, and were themselves in a state of $9 slavery.

87 Joseph. contra Apion. lib. 1. §. 26. 88 Ibid. §. 25.

89 Many are misled by a mistake of Manetho in making the first Shepherds retire towards Syria and build Jerusalem : from whence they conclude they were Isruelites. But this is a trifing circumstance to go upon, in opposition to express evidence to the contra'ry. And even here they argue upon a false principle; as if Jerusalem was built by the children of Israel. Jebus was a city of

We are informed by Manetho, that the Shepherds who came first into Egypt were called 'Txows, Hycsos; the first syllable, in the sacred dialect, signifying a lord or prince; and the latter, in the national common tongue, a shepherd. This is not satisfactory; though taken, as Josephus assures us, from Manetho. There are few instances of words compounded from two different languages. Besides, the etymology was probably to be looked for in the language of the people who were called so. Eusebius has given us this title somewhat different, and deduces it from one language only : 99 Εκαλειτο δε το συμπαν αυτων εθνος “ Υκεστώς τετο δε εσι, βασιλεις ποιμενες. Το γαρ YK, καθ' δεραν γλωσσαν, βασιλεα σημαινει το δε ΟΥΣΣΩΣ, πoιμην

" This whole nation had the title of Hukoussos or Royal Shepherds : for the first syllable in the sacred tongue signifies a prince, and the two last a

shepherd.” Eusebius seems to have taken some pains, to give us a more genuine or reading than that


the Jebusites before Israel came into Canaan: and it was never fully in their possession, till Joab took the strong hold of Sion. The Israelites therefore did not build it: nor did the Shepherds, I imagine, who were before them; though there is no proof of this, and it is unjust to make any inference either way.

90 Præp. Evang. lib. 10. cap. 13. He makes the whole word to be a compound in the sacred language. From whence we may learn that the language so called by the Egyptians was the Cusean or antient Arabian ; the same as the Chaldee.

9" He probably had corrected this passage from Apion, who, as well as Manetho, wrote the history of Egypt.

which is found in Josephus : and, from the light that he affords us, we may possibly arrive at the true meaning of the word, though contrary to his determination. The Grecians were very unfortunate in their etymologies; and bad copiers of every thing from the orientals : so much so, that there is scarce an instance of their representing things truly. 92 Manetho his self was an Egyptian grecised : and the mistake may be originally in him; as he was as little acquainted with the sacred language of his country as a foreigner; the knowledge of it being in his time lost. The Cuseans were certainly shepherds, and were generally termed so by the Egyptians. But this must not be esteemed their Gentile name: for they were denominated from their country, and distinguished by the name of their fathers. That name was Cush and Cushan; which the Greeks expressed by Xους and Χεσος. . This Eusebius has preserved ; but has not transmitted the name entirely pure and unembarrassed. Uc or Ouc certainly signifies lord or prince, something great and noble. It is a Babylonish word ; and was adopted by the Egyptians, and occurs often in the name of their kings. The original which Josephus copied was "Txxous, or, with the Greek termination, 'Txxouros ; that is, the great Cush, or lord Cusean. It is true, "Txxougos, or, as it had better be written, 'Tx78609, relates to a people who were shepherds : but that profession is not necessarily nor originally included in the name. Josephus having said that Ews signified a shepherd, induced Eusebius to retain it, and to write the word 'Yxxovows : a mistake that is easily remedied.

92 How should they possibly be happy in their etymologies of foreign words, who go so wide of the mark even in their native language, when they undertake to define any thing? Plato in his Cratylus says that ανθρωπος is quasi αναθρων α οπωπε, contemplans quæ viderit : audpaan ospa onu aww pompe guin, quasi youn, fætus: ουρανος, παρα το ενω οραν· θεον και θεος, παρα το θεειν, όπερ εςι τρεχειν. This was one of the brightest geniuses that eyer Greece saw. See Euseb. Præp. Evang. lib. 11. cap. 6.

The Egyptians had several terms of honour, which they prefixed to the names of great personages : such as Petah, Caen or Cohen, and the title that we are speaking of, Uc, Ouo, or Ouac ; for so it is often written. The first is to be found in Petiphra, Potipherah, Petisonius, Petosiris, Petarbemis, Petubastes the Tanite, and 93 Petesuccus builder of the labyrinth. Petis, called Peteos in Homer, the father of Menestheus the Athenian, is of the same original : 94 τον γαρ Πετην τον πατερα Με

93 See Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. 36. cap. 13.

94 Diodor. Sic. lib. 1. pag. 17. Ev tous Xpovoss ds te MwOtws eBoσιλιυσεν Ασσυριων Ερεχθευς Αιγυπτιων δε εβασιλεύσι Πετισωνιος, ο και Dapaw. Cedren. Compend. Historiar. pag. 46. edit. Paris. 1647. See also pag. 41.. Cheremo, as we learn from Josephus, says that the Egyptians called Moses Tisithen, and Juseph Peteseph. Anyuatia 95 2 Samuel 20. v. 26. The same title is given to Zabud the son of Nathan. 1 Kings 4. v. 5.

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νεσθέως τα στρατεύσαντος εις Τροιαν, φανερως Αιγυπτιον υπαρξαντα κ. τ. λ. Cahen likewise, or Cohen, signifies a prince or ruler; and also a priest. For both the antient Cuseans and the Egyptians are said to have chosen their kings from among the priests. It sometimes signifies a great officer : for Ira the Jairite is styled 95 Cahen. We read in Artapanus, as quoted by 99 Eusebius, that the Caen of Heliopolis had a daughter that married one Canebro : in which the history of Joseph is obscurely alluded to; who married Asenath the daughter of Potifera or Petifra, called by or Eutychius the Caen of Heliopolis. Canebro is may na, the Hebrew prince or ruler; 98 Caen, Cohen, Con, having in many languages that signification. Sabacon the Ethiopian means Sabæ Rex, "the Arabian king of Saba ;” and is not properly the name of the person "mentioned. Canoubis, or, as it should be expressed, Can-Ouph, is “the lord

αυτοις ονοματα ειναι, τω μεν Μωύση Τισιθεν, de

TW Ιωσηπω, Πετεσεφ. Contra Apion. lib. 1. $. 32. Peteseph is Petah Oseph or Joseph.

96 Hist. Synagog. pag. 230. edit. Scalig. Amstel. Janson. 1658.

97 Annales. edit. Pocock. tom. 1. p. 87. Gen. 41. v. 45. IX ind, the Cahen of On.

98 Chaan augustum nomen est regum Tartariæ appellatia um. Kæmpfer. Amænitat. Exotic. pag. 156.

9 lp like manner Conchares, Tarracon, Sarracon, &c.

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