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of no great consequence : for while the pyramids. remain on one side, and the hill of Arabia on the other, whatever lay in a 30 line with these may easily be known. They are sure and lasting landmarks ; and nearly between these was the apex of lower Egypt, and the city Cercasorum. So that, if not only the Canobic branch, but the Nile itself was to fail, yet the antient situation of the places, which I have been speaking of, might by this line of direction be made out. The great Æstuary, between the Isle of Thanet 37 and the main land, is in many places reduced to a ditch: yet not only the island, but the towns upon it, together with those that they correspond to of antient date, are known and described : nor has any obscurity ensued.'

I think then, we may rest satisfied that the province of Cushan was the land of Goshen ; and that the chief city in that land was the Carcusha of the antients, the Casa of Artapanus, and the Geeza of the moderns. Cercasorum or Cercasoura was called Car Cush Aur, the city Ur of the Arabians ; just as the sister city was called TV3 718 7p Car Aur Casdim, the city Ur of the Chaldees. Ptolemy indeed calls Phaccusa the metropolis of the Arabian nome: but Strabo, who is in this point very

. 36 See Pocock's large Map of Egypt, which is far preferable to the maps of Norden.

37 See Batteley's Antiquitates Rutupina.

particular and exact, makes Phaccusa only a village; and places it very properly upon the Arabian canal, to which its name alludes, and on the eastern side of the Nile. There is therefore reason to think, that the province of which we have been speaking was termed simply. Cush and Cushan, without the word Phacat, to which it had no relation : and the chief city was called Cushan Aur, as I have before shewn. I am confirmed in my opinion by the testimony of the antient historian Ephorus, who mentioned this city by that name: Kærσανωρος, πολις Αιγυπτια, ής μεμνηται Εφορος. Goltzius has a coin of Vespasiun with an inscription to the same purpose, KAEEANNPITAN. And Stephanus Byzantinus, from whom this testimony of Ephorus is taken, adds to the above, to zdroxov Karrarwgions ; “ the name of the people is Cassanoritæ.Who can, after this, doubt whether the Auritæ of Egypt weré Cuseans ?

Some of the Grecians, who first visited Egypt, spoke of the city Cercasorum as the city of Orus. But others, instead of expressing it sex or spor monov, altered it to 'Hpww wonin. The Seventy therefore, when they say that 3* Joseph went up to meet his father, and render what is in the original Goshen by 'Hpww Todos or Heroum, misinterpret the place that they are referred to; which was not Hero

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opolis on the Red Sea, but the city of Orus in Egypt. So that the place which is really alluded to by them, and that which I treat of, are the same; though they have changed the name, and by that means been the authors of much confusion. Just above the town of Geeza is a little island called Aurea; which certainly is not a name of Roman original, though at first sight there may be some appearance of it. It is bounded by a canal called Calig Al Cusherah ; which is undoubtedly a name of antient date, and witnesses the true etymology of the other. The Romans, finding the place called Aur and Aurah, imitated the Greeks in adapting it to their own language ; and called this island and the adjacent country Aurea. The later Arabians, who succeeded in these parts, have been misled by this; and given the island the name of Guzarat or Gieziret Edahab,“ the golden island.” But the situation of this place, and the name of the canal, Al Cusharah 40 (both near the point where stood the antient Aur) manifestly prove that they have been esteemed appendages to that antient city, and have received their names from it. Indeed, the whole country where the Cuseans principally resided was called Aurah, by the Greeks changed to Aëria : of which there are many tokens. The py

39 Norden's Travels. vol. 2.
40 Pocock's large map of Egypt.

ramids near Faiume are called the pyramids of Hadara; which is the same word, though a little diversified. Such variations must happen in a long course of years. The modern Greeks, who pronounce autos, Aptos, and aurum, avarum, would call Aurah, Avara at this day. These are wonderful memorials of former times; and certainly relate to the histories which I have been treating of; to occurrences, that happened in the most early ages : such as no length of time has been able to cancel.

There are many places to be met with, which terminate in Ur and Our; all manifestly denominated from the same element that the Carour of the Cuseans was derived from; as may be proved from their history and situation : whence it is plain that I am not wrong in the etymology of that place. The city that was the boundary of Phrygia and Caria had a name of the like purport; which was given to it on account of its situation. For it was built in a most inflammable and sulphureous soil, and in the neighbourhood of hot fountains; so that every object betokened fire. It was called Carour and Caroura ; and the country all around termed Κεκαυμενη or burnt. 4 Καρουρα δε δριον εσι της Φρυγιας και της Καριας". κωμη δ' εσιν αυτη πανδοχεια εχεσα, και ζεσων υδατων εκβολας"-Σχεδον δε τοι ευσειςος εςι και πασα

41 Vansleb's State of Egypt.
42 Strabo, vol. 2.


867. 869.


περι τον Μαιανδρον χωρα, και υπονομος πυρι τε και υδαι μεχρι της μεσογαιας-Και δη και τα περι τον Τυφωνα παθη ενταύθα μυθευασι, και τες Αριμες, και την Κατακεκαυμενην ταυτην ειναι φασιν. There was likewise a temple of the same name in the vicinity of the abovementioned city; and denominated from the same circumstances. 43 Μεταξυ δε της Λαοδικείας και Καρουρων ιερον εσι Μηνος, Καρου (Καρουρ) καλεμενον, τιμώμενον αξιολογως. It was called the temple of Menes; and was probably built by some of Egyptian race,

that settled here: who came either from Colchis or Cappadocia, where were the two most antient colonies from that country. The temple was called Carour : and it was probably erected in honor of the first king of Egypt, who was called by that name, and in memory of the city that we have been treating of. There was another city of lower Egypt towards the sea, that was likewise called Carour; and is mentioned in the Notitia Ecclesiastica : by some it was termed Achoris.

Such are the evidences of the Cuseans having resided in Egypt; who left behind them traces, that are not to this day erased. In the antient histories and monuments they occur very frequently; so that Scaliger might well say,

44 Multa Arabica in veteribus monumentis Ægyptiacis observavimus; quæ nobis ignota quarant studiosi.

43 Strabo. vol. 2. pag. 867. 869.
44 Animadv, in Euseb. Chron.

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