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child ; and buried it underneath an altar, which they made use of instead of an idol : for they did not admit of images. The Persians buried people alive. Amestris, the + wife of Xerxes, entombed twelve persons quick under ground for the good of her soul. It would be endless to enumerate every city, or every province, where these sad practices obtained. The 'Cyprians, the Rhodians, the Phoceans, the Ionians, those of Chios, Lesbos, Tenedos, all had human sacrifices. The natives of the Tauric Chersonesus offered up to Diana every stranger, whom chance threw upon their coast.

Hence arose that just expostulation in Euripides, upon the inconsistency of the proceeding; wherein much good reasoning is implied. Iphigenia wonders, as the goddess delighted in the blood of men, that every villain and murderer should be privileged to escape; nay, be driven from the threshold of the temple: whereas, if an honest and virtuous man chanced to stray thither, he only was seized upon, and put to death. The Pelasgi, in a time of

pag. 225. These people are mentioned Isaiah, chap. 21. “The “ burthen of the desert of the sea"-" The burthen of Dumah.

+ Aμηςρις δε ή Ξερξε γυνη δωδεκα κατωρυξεν ανθρωπες ζωντας υπερ αυτης. Ρlutarch. Περι Δεισιδαιμονιας.

$ Clem. Alexandrin. Cohort. ad Gentes. vol. 1. pag. 36. edit. Potter. See also Porphyry above quoted. Euripid. Iphigen. in Tauris.

της Θεε δε μεμφομαι σοφισματα, κ. τ. λ.

scarcity vowed the tenth of all that should be born to them, for a sacrifice in order to procure plenty. Aristomenes the Messenian 7 slew three hundred noble Lacedemonians, among whom was Theopompus the king of Sparta, at the altar of Jupiter at Ithome. Without doubt the Lacedemonians did not fail to make ample returns : for they were a severe and revengeful people, and offered the like victims to Mars, Their festival of the Diamasti, gosis is well known; when the Spartan boys were whipped in the sight of their parents with such severity before the altar of Diana Orthia, that they often expired under the torture. Phylarchus affirms, as he is quoted by 'Porphyry, that of old every Grecian state made it a rule, before they marched towards an enemy, to solicit a blessing on their undertakings by human victims.

The Romans were accustomed to the like sacrifices. They both devoted themselves to the infernal gods, and constrained others to submit to the same horrid doom. Hence we read in "Titus Livius, that in the consulate of Æmilius Paulus and Terentius Varro, two Gauls, a man and a woman,

7 Clem. Alexand. Cohort. pag. 36. Porphyry above.

8 Plutarch. Institutiones Laconicæ. He says, that the cruelty lasted all day long; δι' όλης της ημερας.μεχρι θανάτε πολλακις rugtegeol.

9 De Abstinentiâ. lib. 2. pag. 226.
10 Lib. 22. cap. 57. Zonaræ Annales. lib. 8. cap. 19.

and two in like manner of Greece, were buried alive at Rome in the Or-Market : where was a place under ground, walled round to receive them; which had before been made use of for such cruel purposes. He says, it was a sacrifice not properly Roman ; that is, not originally of Roman institution: yet it was frequently practised there, and that too by public authority. Plutarch makes mention of a like instance a few years before, in the consulship of " Flaminius and Furius. There is reason to think, that for a long time, all the principal captives, who graced the triumphs of the Romans, were at the close of that cruel pageantry put to death at the altar of Jupiter Capitolinus. Caius Marius offered up his own daughter for a victim to the Dii Averrunci, to procure success in a battle against the Cimbri; as we are informed by Dorotheus, quoted by " Clemens. It is likewise attested by " Plutarch, who says that her name was Calpurnia. Marius was a man of a sour and bloody disposition; and had probably heard of such sacri

11 Δυο μεν Ελληνας, ανδρα και γυναικα, δυο δε Γαλατας ομοιως, εν τη καλεμενη βοων αγορα κατορύξαι ζωντας. Ιn Marcello, vol. 4. p. 547. edit. H. Steph. See Dionysius Halicarnass. Histor. lib. 1.

12 ο δε τους Αποτροπαιους Μαριος, ως Δωροθεος εν τη τεταρτη Ιταλικων isopes. Clem. Alex. Cohort. ad Gentes.

13 Plutarchi Parallel. 20mum. The name of this person in Plutarch is Manius : whoever it may have been, the fact is the same : it takes not at all from the evidence of the history,

fices being offered in the enemies camp, among whom they were very common: or he might have beheld them exhibited at a distance: and therefore murdered what was nearest, and should have been dearest, to bim ; to counteract their fearful spells, and outdo them in their wicked machinery. Cicero making mention of this custom being common in Gaul, adds, that it prevailed among that people, even at the time when he was 14 speaking: from whence we may be led to infer, that it was then discontinued among the Romans. And we are told by's Pliny, that it had then, and not very long, been discouraged. For there was a law enacted, when Lentulus and Crassus were consuls, so late as the 657th year of Rome, that there should be no more human sacrifices : for till that time those horrid rites had been celebrated in broad day without any mask, or controul : which, had we not the best evidence for the fact, would appear scarce credible.

14. His [Gallis] quidquam sanctum ac religiosum videri potest, qui etiam, siquando, aliquo metu adducti, Deos placandos esse arbitrantur, humanis hostiis eorum aras ac templa funestant ?-Quis - enim ignorat. eos usque ad hanc diem retinere illam immanem ac barbaram consuetudinem hominum immolandorum? Cicero pro Fonteio. $ 10. See Philippi Cluverü Germania Antigua. 1631. Elz. pag. 251. and Grotius de Satisfactione,

15 Cn. Cornelio Lentulo, P. Licinio Crasso Coss. Senatûs-consultum factum est, ne homo immolaretur: pulamque fuit in tempus illud sacri prodigiosi celebratio. Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. 30. cap. 1.

And however discontinued they may have been for a time, we find, that they were again renewed ; though they became not so public, nor so general, For not very long after this, it is reported of 14 Au- . gustus Cæsar, when Perusia surrendered in the time of the second Triumvirate, that besides multitudes executed in a military manner, he offered up upon the Ides of March three hundred chosen persons, both of the Equestrian and Senatorian order, at an altar dedicated to the manes of his uncle Julius. Even at Rome itself this custom was revived : and "? Porphyry assures us, that in his time a man was every year sacrificed at the shrine of Jupiter Latiaris. Heliogabalus offered the like victims to the Syrian deity, which he introduced among the Romans. The same is said of " Aurelian.


16 Perusia capta-scribunt quidam, trecentos er dedititiis electos, utriusque Ordinis, ad aram Divo Julio extructam, idibus Martiis, bestiarum more mactatos. Suetonius in Augusto. cap. 15.

17 Αλλ' ετι και νυν, τις αγνοει κατα την μεγαλην σολιν τη τε Λατιαρια Abos Soptun opasojevov ardpw@ov; Porph. de Abstin. lib. 2. pag. 226.

Et Latio in hodiernum Jovi media in Urbe humanus sanguis ingustatur. Tertullian. Gnost. cap. 7.

18 Τα αυτω [Ηλιογάβαλω] εθυε, παιδας σφαγιαζομενος, και μαγyameopao Xpwuevos. Xiphilin. in Heliogab,

19 Capitolium Aurelianus indectus, ut illic cæderet servos, quos eaptos vovisse Jovi Optimo Maximo ferebatur. Vopiscus in Aureliano.

These customs prevailed in most parts of the Roman empire till the time of Adrian, who took great pains to have them abo

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