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would not therefore have brought so foul an imputation on the part of the world, in favour of which they were each writing, nor could there be that concurrence of testimony, were not the history in general true.

The like custom prevailed to a great degree at 56 Mexico, and even under the mild government of the 5? Peruvians; and in most parts of America. In Africa it is still kept up; where, in the inland parts they sacrifice some of the captives taken in war to their Fetiches, in order to secure their favour. Snelgrave was in the king of Dahoome's camp, after his inroad into the countries of Adra and Whidaw; and 58 says, that he was a witness to the cruelty of this prince, whom he saw sacrifice multitudes to the deity of his nation,

The sacrifices, of which I have been treating, if we except some few instances, consisted of persons doomed by the chance of war, or assigned by lot to be offered. But among the nations of Canaan, of

56 Antonio de Salis' conquest of Mexico. book 3. chap. 17. book 5. chap. 23.

57 Johannes Acosta, lib. 5. of the Mexicans, and the sacrificing children in Peru.

Garcilasso della Vega says that the Incas put a stop to all such sacrifices.

$8 Snelgrave's Voyage to Guinea. pag. 31. 34. He mentions four thousand Whidaws being sacrificed, besides people of other nations. To part of the tragedy he was an eye-witness.

whom I first spoke, the victims were peculiarly chosen. Their own children, and whatever was nearest and dearest to them, were deemed the most worthy offering to their god. The Carthaginians, who were a colony from Tyre, carried with them the religion of their mother country, and instituted the same worship in the parts where they settled. It consisted in the adoration of several deities, but particularly of Kronus ; to whom they offered human sacrifices; and especially the blood of 59 children. If the parents were not at hand to make an immediate offer, the magistrates did not fail to make choice of, what was most fair, and promising; that the god might not be defrauded of his dues. Upon a check being received in Sicily, and some other alarming circumstances happening, Himilcar without any hesitation laid hold of a boy, and offered him on the spot to Kronus; and at the same time 6o drowned a number of priests, to appease the deity of the sea.

The Carthaginians another time, upon a great defeat of their army by Agathocles, imputed their miscarriages to the anger of this god, whose services had been neglected. Touched with this, and seeing the enemy at their gates, they seized at once two hundred children of the prime nobility, and offered them in public' for a sacrifice. Three

59 Poinei sont solitei sos sacrificare puellos. Ennius. 6o Diodorus Sic. lib. 13. pag. 207. Santos legewv X&TATOPTIC&5.

hundred more, being persons, who were some how obnoxious, yielded themselves voluntarily, and were put to death with the others. The neglect, of which they accused themselves, consisted in sacrificing children, purchased of parents among the poorer sort, who reared them for that purpose; and not selecting the most promising, and the most honourable, as had been the custom of 62 old. In short, there were particular children brought up for the altar, as sheep are fattened for the shambles : and they were bought, and butchered in the same

But this indiscriminate way of proceeding was thought to have given offence. It is remarkable, that the Egyptians looked out for the most specious and handsome person to be sacrificed. The Albanians pitched upon the best man of the community, and made him pay for the wickedness of the rest. The Carthaginians chose what they thought the most excellent, and at the same time the most dear to them: which made the lot fall heavy upon their children. This is taken notice of by Silius Italicus in his fourth book :


Mos erat in populis, quos condidit advena Dido, Poscere cæde Deos veniam, et flagrantibus aris, Infandum dictu ! parvos imponere natos.


61 Diod. Sic. lib. 20. pag. 62 Καθοσον εν τοις εμπροσθεν χρονους θυοντες τετω τω θεώ των υιων της

Kronus, to whom these sacrifices were exhibited, was an oriental deity, the god of light and fire, called by the Greeks Koronus ; and therefore al. ways worshipped with some reference to that element. The Carthaginians, as I have observed, first introduced him into Africa. He was the same as the Orus of the Egyptians, and the Alorus of the eastern nations. That the name given him originally by the Greeks was Koronus, is manifest from a place in Crete, which was sacred to him, and is mentioned by the name Coronis. It is said, that both the chief city, and the adjacent 63 country, were thus denominated; and that these sacrifices were there offered, which we know were peculiar to Kronus. 64 Εν δε τη νυν Σαλαμινι, προτερον Κορωνιδι ονομαζομενη, μηνι κατα Κυπριας Αφροδισιω, εθυετο ανθρωπος Αγραυλο, τη Κεκροπος και νυμφης Αγραυλιδος. If this place, which was consecrated to him (as is apparent by these offerings) was called Koronis ; it is plain, that his name must have been rendered by the Greeks Koronus : and both are a transposition for Kon-Orus, or Chon-Orus," the lord

Orus,or mix He was universally adored in Cyprus; but particularly in this part, which Por

κρατισες, ύσερον ονεμενοι λαθρα παιδας, και θρεψαντες, επεμσον επι την Suorar. Diodorus Sic. lib. 20. pag. 756.

63 Ει δε Κορωνη μοιρα της Σαλαμίνος της εν Κυπρο. Steph. Byzant. It seems to have been an appendage to the city.

64 Porphyr. de Abstinen, lib. 2. pag. 222.

phyry supposes to have been Salamis. This is evident from os Diodorus Siculus, who mentions a city Ouranie here. He makes it indeed distinct from Salamis : but places it hard by, between that city and Carpasia; where the river Chour (the Ouc Our of the Phenicians, and the Courium, Kepov, of the Greeks) runs at this day. The Greeks thought Kronus was the same as Xpovos : but it was an oriental name; and the etymology was to be looked for among people of those parts.

Βηλος επ’ Ευφρηταο, Λιβυς κεκλημένος Αμμων,
Ασις εφυς Νειλωος, ΑΡΑΨ ΚΡΟΝΟΣ, Ασσυριους Ζευς.

The Greeks, we find, called the deity, to whom these offerings were made, Agraulos ; and feigned that she was a woman, and the daughter of Cecrops. But how came Cecrops to have any connection with Cyprus ? Agraulos is a corruption, and transposition of the original name, which should have been rendered Uk El Aur, or Uk El Aurus ;

65 He mentions, that Demetrius took by storm Carpasia and Ouranie. They lay beyond Salamis towards the eastern point of the island.

66. There was another place called Courium, mentioned by Stephanus, Strabo, and Aristotle de mirabilibus. It was not far from Amathus : and near the spot, where it stood, there is a cape, still called Canourie. See Pocock, vol. 2. pag. 218.

67 Nonni Dionysiaca. XL.

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