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THE CITY OF ORUS,
THE CITY ABARIS.
The Greeks by their modifications of words, and unnecessary terminations often caused names of quite a different meaning and etymology to become nearly the same in sound. There have been by this means two cities in Egypt confounded, which ought necessarily to be placed in a proper light; as they stood in the vicinity of each other, and their history is of great consequence in this inquiry. The city Aur at the top of Delta was called Auris and Avaris, as I have shewn: and the subordinate district was named in the same manner from it. When the Shepherd king and his people are said to have been driven to their city Avaris, and there pent up in a fortification of 10000 arouras in ex
tent; it must mean the land of Cushan, which was thus fortified, and was probably of these dimensions. Some copies of Josephus call this place Abaris; but it is a mistake, as may be proved from 'Eusebius, who writes it truly Avapıs, Avaris : and as he quotes the passage from Josephus, we may infer that this was the true reading both in Josephus and Manetho. There would have been no impropriety in terming the city Avaris, Abaris, according to the Grecian marner of inflexion : only in this place it causes a great ambiguity, as there is a city very near called Abaris, of a different meaning and derivation. This has not been taken notice of; but it is apparent, if we attend to the history. The former was by the natives styled Aur, or “the city of Orus :" the latter, the city Abarim, or Habarim. This, which had the better title to the name of Abaris, stood, according to Manetho, * προς ανατολην τε Βεβαςιτε ποταμε, in Arabia, to the east of the Bubastic stream; and was "close by Babylon, which seems to have been a citadel to it. It was directly over against the city of Orus, and close by the quarries : on which account it was called afterwards Lithopolis. It is
* Euseb. Præp. Evang. lib. 10. cap. 13.
Joseph. contra Apion. lib. 1. § 14.
said by Manetho to have been given to those Israelites, who were obliged to work in the quarries, for a retreat after their daily labour. This people were by the Egyptians always styled the Hebrews : and with great propriety; for it was their gentile The wife of Potiphar says;
See, he “ hath brought in an Hebrew unto us to mock
us."-" The Hebrew servant which thou hast
brought unto us, came in unto me to mock me:” 4" There was there with us a young man, an He“ brew, servant to the captain of the guard.” By the same analogy this place, which was given to the Israelites, must naturally be called by the Egyptians " the Hebrew city.” Now the city of the Hebrews is no other than Air Habarim, called Abaris by the Greeks. When Pharaoh's daughter saw the child Moses in the water, she said, De pueris Hebræorum est iste; robin myn." It is one of “ the children of the Habarim, or Hebrews.” I have mentioned before, that the Egyptian language, though it was different from the Hebrew, yet is said by St. Jerome and others to have retained great affinity to it: and in respect to the n'ames of places, and of people, there could not be
3 Gen. 39. v. 14, 17. 4 Gen. 41. v. 12. 3 Erodus, 2. v. 6.
any great variation. But, although I imagine that this place was called in the time of the Israelites, the Hebrew city; yet I believe, that the name was originally given for another reason; though the etymology be ultimately the same. It is to be observed, that this city stood exactly in the passage towards upper Egypt; for the defence of which it was built by the first Shepherd king. The meaning of the name Abarim is likewise “ the city of the
passage :” of which name there were several places; such as O“ Beth Abara beyond Jordan ;* and a mountain of the same name near it, mentioned particularly by ? Moses, as standing over against Jericho at the fords of the river; and named so from its situation ; & ab Hebræo D'gay, græcè diceretur to nepasov, mons Jordani imminens ad Trajectus. The etymology of this city in Egypt was the same, being given on a like account: for it was the key to upper Egypt, and stood at the passage
of the Nile. It was derived from 7y, to pass, as was the name of the Hebrews : so that a twofold reason may be given for this name being originally imposed, and for its being afterwards revived, and continued. Both names are from the same
6 John, 1. v. 28.
root, Haber. Abram was called mepatas, as were all the Hebrews. . 9 Περατης ερμηνεύεται Αβραμ. 1° Παραγενομενος δε των ανασωθεντων της, απηγγειλεν Αβραμ τα Περατη, instead of το Εβραιω. " Περαν τα ποταμ8 παρωχησαν
πατερες υμων το ασαρχης.-Και ελαβον τον πατερα υμων τον Αβααμ ΕΚ ΤΟΥ ΠΕΡΑΝ ΤΟΥ ΠΟΤΑΜΟΥ, και ωδηγησα αυτον εν πάση τη γη.