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Τανίτικα και τα Πηλασιακα λιμναι, και έλη μεγάλα και συνεχη, κωμας πολλας εχοντα και αυτο δε το Πηλασιον κυκλω περικειμενα εχει ελη, α τινες βαραθρα καλεσι, και TEMpaTa. Though this part of the world was inhabited; yet we find it to be situated in the midst of lakes, abounding with swamps and morasses, and full of mud and sea ooze. It was for this reason, that Alexander, when he saw Egypt so finely circumstanced for commerce, chose to found a new city beyond the precincts of the country, rather than make use of any one already built : though there were some more opportunely situated for the trade, which was to be brought down the river; had they been equally fortunate in other particulars. It is a great pity, that men of learning will not consider the natural history of the places, they treat of, before they determine their situation; as it depends so much on this kind of knowledge. Had these things been sufficiently attended to, the best of the land of Egypt would never have been placed in the wilds of Arabia, nor in the salt marshes of Tanis. And although “ Zoan be represented by the name of Tanis; yet they should not have been led merely by sound, but have considered the true representation of the place, as it is to be found in the original writings. Names may be varied and changed: but the context is not so easily perverted.

32 See Bochart's Sedes Aulæ Regiæ. vol. 1. pag. 1103.




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This city and province is often mentioned with Memphis, and occurs always in the vicinity of upper, Egypt, even according to the version of the Seventy, however they may miscall it. 43 EEERITON ór αρχοντες Tανεως, και υψωθησαν οι αρχοντες Μεμφεως και πλανησουσιν Αιγυπτον κατα φυλας.--4 Και ασολω μεγισανας, απο Μεμφεως, και

αρχοντας Μεμφεως, και ουκ Kas atonw ynu Datwens [Pathros], δωσω συρ εσι Τανιν, και ποιησω εκδικησιν εν Διοσπολει. All these places are high up in Egypt. But what puts the matter out of all dispute, is a passage in the book of Judith; where the country of Ramesse and Goshen is mentioned; and the chief cities of that part of the world, Memphis, and, as it is there termed, Tanis are pointed out, and geographical order apparently maintained. Nebuchodonosor, king of the Assyrians, when he was going to engage in a mighty war with Arphaxad of Media,


sent unto all that dwelt in Persia, and to all " that dwelt westward, and to those that

at dwelt i in “ Cilicia, and Damascus, and Libanus, and Antilibanus, and to all that dwelt upon the sea

coast; and to those among the nations, that “ were of Carmel, and Galaad, and the higher

Galilee, and the great plain of Esdrelom ; And

23 Isaiah. 19. v. 13.
24 Ezekiel. 30. v. 13, 14.
25 This part differs greatly from the original,
26 Chap. 1. v. 7, 8, 9.

“ to all that were in Samaria and the cities thereof, " and beyond Jordan unto Jerusalem, and Betane; “ and Chellus, and Kades, and the river of Egypt, " and Taphnes, and Ramesse, and all the land of

Gesem,Εως τε ελθειν επανω Τανεως, και Μεμφεως : “ Until you come above Tanis, and Memphis.I have quoted at large; as nothing can be more cu

pus, and exact, than this geographical series. And we may learn from this and the foregoing passages, that however the place in dispute may be expressed, it was situated high in Egypt, and in the neighbourhood of Memphis. And as the authors of the Greek version resided in Egypt, and knew well the situation of Tanis on the sea-coast, and had at the same time these evidences so immediately under their inspection; they must have been very blind and inattentive, if they were guilty of this misnomer. I cannot help thinking, that the mistake is owing to persons, who copied from them; and that in the original translation the word was Toaavis, which has since been changed to Tanis. Such alterations are sometimes to be observed in the version of the

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27 Where it is said in Ezekiel, chap. 30. .v. 15, “ I will pour

my fury upon Sin [Pelusium] the strength of Egypt;" it has been changed in the Seventy to Sais : και εκχεω τον θυμον με επι Σαϊν, την ισχυς Αιγυπτε. This could hardly be an error in the original translator.

28 The geography of the Scriptures is wonderfully clear and exact; and appears to great advantage, when compared with that

I have mentioned, that this place, which has been rendered Tanis by the Jews, was by ethnic writers

of the ethnic writers. There is in the Acts of the Apostles a description of nations according to their situation, very similar to the account, which I have taken from the book of Judith. Πως ημεις ακοομεν έκαςος τη ιδια διαλεκτω ημων εν η εγεννηθημεν; Παρθoς και Μηδοι και Ελαμιται, και οι κατοικBντες της Μεσοποταμιαν, Ιεδαιαν τε και Κασσαδοκιαν, Ποντου και την Ασιαν, Φρυγιαν τε και Παμφυλιαν, Αιγυπτου και τα μερη της Λιβυης της κατα Κυρηνην, και οι επιδημαντες Ρωμαιοι, Ιεδαιοι τε και Προσηλυται, Κρητες και Αραβες, ακέομεν λαλεντων αυτων ταις ημετεραις γλωσσαις τα μεγαλεια τε Θεε. Εξισαντο de wartes. Acts 2. v. 8, &c. What is mentioned, is concerning the gift of tongues at the feast of pentecost : when the Jews, and strangers, of all nations, who were' come to the passover at Jerusalem, heard the Apostles speaking in the languages of every country.-" How hear we every man in our own language, " wherein we were born? Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, " and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea, and Cappadocia, « in Pontus, and Asia, Phrygia, and Pamphylia ; in Egypt, and “ in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers from Rome, “ both Jews and Proselytes, Cretes and Arabians, we do hear " them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God. And e they were all amazed.” I mention this, because I cannot help suspecting a slight mistake in the passage, as exhibited in our present copies. There seems to be a principal province omitted, where the Jews resided in Asia; and Judea is substituted, which could have had no place in the list. To say,

the nations, residing at Jerusalem during the feast of pentecost, were people of Judea, would be so unnecessary a truth, that we cannot suppose it would have been mentioned by the Apostle: and that these people of Judea should at all wonder to hear the Apostles speak in their tongue the wonderful works of God is a thing impossible; for their tongue was the language of the Apos

that among

expressed Saïs. The Grecians, I know not why, seem to have had a particular fancy in striking out, what is the final letter in the original word 99%, and changing it in many places, where they copied. Thus for Ilium they wrote Incos ; for Pergamum Hegyapos : for Clemens Kamuns, for 29 Crescens Kenoxns, Pudens 118dns. The word op, Keren was changed to Kepas; and ina Cohen, the chief person in the Samothracian mysteries, was expressed Coes : and it is remarkable, that Josephus, when he speaks of Cain and Abel, in his first book of the antiquities of the Jews, always calls the former Kaïs; which is exactly analogous to the expressing Tsaïn by Saïs. 3° Προσηγορευετο δ' αυτων και

μεν τρωτος Καϊς.-Καϊς δε τα τε αλλα πονηροτατος ην.-Ενθεν ο Καϊς παροξυνθεις. Whence we may gather, that, if a Grecian writer be supposed to mention 31 Tsaïn, he must call it

tles. The people here meant were, I imagine, the Lydians; in whose country, and near, it, were the cities Sardis, Thyatira, Colossa, Laodicea, in all which the Jews resided in great numbers : all that part of Asia was full of them. There is a geographical order observed in this detail of nations, as far as it could be maintained : which is interrupted by the mentioning of Ju. dea. This country did not belong to the series: yet is introduced with the nations of Asia minor ; though it was nearer to Egypt. The passage, I imagine, stood originally in this manner -Παρθοι, και Μηδοι, και Eλαμιται, και δε κατοικεντες Μεσοποταμιαν, Καππαδοκίαν τε και Λυδιαν, κ. τ. λ.

39 2 Timothy. 4. v. 10. 21.
3. Joseph. Antiq. Jud. lib. 1. cap. 2.
31 The author means only in respect to the termination,

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