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How can these references be in the least applicable to a place in Arabia, beyond the limits of Egypt, in quite a different direction? They certainly relate to an interamnian city, that lay in the path marked out; as the antient Heliopolis did, the city we have been treating of. The other Heliopolis was unknown to Herodotus; and was situated quite out of the line of direction, lying to the east of the Nile and all its branches : so that it could not be passed by in going up or down the river; nor be any ways referred to, as the other city is referred to.
These uncertainties in the antient geography have misled the moderns very much : who have neglected their evidence in points where they are universally agreed; and too often copy them, where they differ from one another, and are at variance with themselves. Such has been the obscurity, that has hitherto attended the history of three of the principal Egyptian provinces, of which Heliopolis was particularly remarkable. Here was the city On, so famous for its temple and religious rites; whose inhabitants are reported to have been the Αιγυπτιων λογιωτατοι, ,
“ the wisest of the Egyptians.” The temple is said to have been very magnificent: and its original name was Ain Shems or Shemesh, the fountain of the sun: from whence the whole province received its name, being called at different periods a' Ain, Aven, and On. Bubastus was to
34 Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I
the east of this, and likewise a noted province; separated from the former by the great Sebennytic branch; and from Arabia by the Pelusiac. It was, like Heliopolis, renowned for its temple: which is represented as a magnificent structure; and was dedicated to the goddess Besheh or Beshet, the Agrapass cygra or Diana Agrestis, as interpreted by the Greeks and Romans. This nome and the chief city of it are the Phibeseth of the Scriptures : and they are often mentioned in conjunction with On or Heliopolis, which was next in situation. The prophet Ezekiel, in his denunciation of God's vengeance upon the land of Egypt, mentions them as joined together in situation, and partners in calamity. 28 “ The young men of Aven and of Phibe“ seth shall fall by the sword: and these cities shall
go into captivity.” Which two places are by the Seventy very properly translated Heliopolis and Bubastus.
There may not possibly at first sight appear any great similitude between Phibeseth and Bubastus : but they were undoubtedly one and the same place; as may be proved from their situation, and many
will send and take Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon my servant. And when he cometh, he shall smite the land of Egypt. -He shall break also the images of Beth-shemesh, that is in the land of Egypt ; and the houses of the gods of the Egyptians shall he burn with fire. Jeremiah 43. v. 10, 11-13.
Chap. 30. v. 17.
other circumstances. It is to be observed that the mouth or opening of a river or canal was called by the Hebrews :d, Pi or Phi. Hence, 29 Phi Haaroth, before which the children of Israel encamped is by the Seventy translated xata sopa Espwl,“ over
against the mouth of Haaroth or Hiroth ;" or overagainst the opening of 30 Haaroth. The Egyptians seem to have used it in the same acceptation for the mouth of a canal : and it often occurs for the canal itself, or branch of a river. Thus Pithom was properly the canal of Thom: Phi Nepthim the canal of Nepthim. This was one of the tribes of the Mizraim, that settled upon the sea-coast in the lower part of Egypt, to the west: the same that are mentioned in Genesis ; 31 “ And Mizraim
begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and
Naphtuhim.” In these two instances the word is exactly conformable to the 32 Hebrew pronunciation : but it seems in general to have been pronounced with a B, instead of the letter P; which letters are in most languages convertible, and often
29 Exod. 14. v. 2.
30 Than the Lorde spake unto Moses sayinge: bid the chil. dren of Israel, that they turn and pitch their tents before the entrynge of Hiroth. Tindall's translation of the Pentateuch. 1530.
31 Gen. 10. v. 13.
32 Phatnicum seems to be Phitanicum, the mouth of the river Tanis.
substituted one for another. Hence the Bisehor was the canal of the Sehor or Nile proper, which the Greeks called Busiris : Bicalig was the mouth · of the calig or canal, which they termed Bucolicum : and Bi Beseth the river of Beseth, the Phibeseth of the Scriptures, changed by the Greeks to Bibesitus, and contracted Bubastus". Sometimes it was subjoined to the name of the place that was spoken of; as Cnoufbi or Canoufbi, the canal or mouth of the Cnouf; which the Greeks changed to Canoubicum : Athribis, or, as Stephanus reads it, Atharrhabis, the mouth or canal of Athrib. Nor was this manner of denominating cities from the rivers and canals they stood on peculiar to Egypt only, and corresponding to the Hebrew idiom : there was a manifest similitude between all the oriental languages; and the same analogy may be observed to extend to those of Pheniciu and Arabia : so that all seem originally to have been little more than dialects of the same tongue. It is true, Joseph affected before his brethren to make use of an interpreter. Yet, that there was a reseinblance and affinity between the Egyptian language and the
33 The Greeks changed it to Bo and Bou. The Borysthenes seems to be Bo Ruthen, the mouth of the river Ruthen ; called so from the Rutheni. Bithynia is of the same composition: Thyna merce-Horacc. lib. 3. Od. 7. which is further explained by a passage in Claudian: Thyni Thraces erant, quæ nunc Bithynia fertur. In Eutrop. lib. 2. v. 247.
Hebrew is certain; though the Phenician was still nearer : for that was, according to St. Jerome ?4, inter Ægyptiacam et Hebræam media, et Hebræa magna ex parte affinis.
The Latin bucca, the Italian and Spanish bocca, and the French bouche are all derived from hence; and are often made use of in the same signification. It was differently pronounced in different ages, as well as different countries. The city Bona on the coast of Barbary is a corruption of Bi or Bo Anah; the city at the mouth of the river Anah or Anab. Bizerta is the city at the mouth of the Zered or Zerd. The natives say, it is derived from Ben Zerdt, “ the offspring of the canal or rivulet:” but it certainly, without any strain or alteration, signifies the mouth of the river it stands upon; which is called the Zered or Zerdt. This may be inferred from the history of it. 36 “ Eight miles to
the south by west of cape Blanco, at the bottom
34 In Esaiam. lib. 2. cap. 19.
35 Instead of Bo Anah or Anab it is now called Blaid al Aneb, or the town of Aneb : but the country round aboyt preserves the antient name; being still called Anebe, or the conntry at the , mouth of the Ancb. For the situation of this place, see Shaw. pag. 95.
36 Shaw's Travels. pag. 144 and 145.
One of the chief ports in the Red Sea is Yamboe, which signifies the mouth of the sea. It is mentioned by Ovington; and is the lauboce of Ptolemy. Leo Afric. calls it Yambuth.