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following examples. To give these last, however, their true character and full effect, the imagination must be wholly given up to the supposed situation of the speaker; so as to receive a full sympathetic impression of the feeling to be uttered. Vivid emotion only, can prompt true expressive tone.
1. Extreme Surprise.
QUEEN CONSTANCE, [WHEN CONFOUNDED WITH THE INTELLIGENCE OF THE UNION OF LEWIS AND BLANCHE, AND THE CONSEQUENT INJURY TO HER Son, Arthur.]—Shakspeare.
(“Aspirated, guttural, and oral Quality :" "Impassioned" force.)
“Gone to be married! Gone to swear a peace! False blood to false blood joined ! Gone to be friends! Shall Lewis have Blanche, and Blanche these provinces? It is not so; thou hast misspoke, misheard,Be well advised, tell o'er thy tale again: It cannot be;-thou dost but say 't is so."
2. Surprise, Perplexity, and Contempt.
[THE EXAMPLES OF COMPOUND STRESS OCCUR IN THE WORDS WHICH THE SERVANT REPEATS AFTER CORIOLANUS. HE HAS ENTERED, POORLY CLAD, AND UNRECOGNIZED, THE MANSION OF AUFIDIUS, AND IS ILL RECEIVED BY THE DOMESTICS, WHOM HE TREATS WITH HARSHNESS AND DISDAIN |— Shakspeare.
Servant. "Where dwellest thou?
Serv. Under the canopy!
Serv. Where's that?
Cor. I' the city of kites and crows. Serv. I' the city of kites and crows!- Then thou dwellest with daws too?
Cor. No: I serve not thy master."
(What an ass it is!)
1 The disdainful and repulsive manner of Coriolanus, causes all his replies to become striking examples of the most abrupt "radical stress." The short and snappish reply of petulance, always takes this form. It is not till provocation or irritation has stung its subject to the pitch of intolerable excitement, that utterance assumes the "vanishing stress."
V. 66 THOROUGH STRESS."
This species of "stress" is produced by a marked force of utterance, placed distinctively on each part of a sound to which the "radical," "median," and "vanishing" forms of stress, would apply separately. It exhibits all of these, in succession, on one and the same sound.
The "thorough stress" is the natural mode of utterance in powerful emotion of that kind which seems as it were, to delight in full and swelling expression, and to dwell upon and amplify the sounds of the voice.
As far as vocal effect can be an exponent of feeling, this peculiarly characterized force, which omits no prominent portion of a sound, but pervades and obtrudes each one, would seem the appropriate language of all emotions which, in poetic phraseology, are said to "fill the soul," "swell the bosom," "fire the heart," or delight and charm the fancy."
"Thorough stress," is accordingly, the characteristic mode of "expression" in the utterance of rapture, joy, triumph, and exultation, lofty command, indignant emotion, disdain, excessive grief, or whatever high-wrought feeling seems for the time to wreak itself on expressive sound. It is obviously the language of extreme or impassioned feeling only. It abounds, accordingly, in lyric and dramatic poetry. It is found, however, in all vehement declamation in which the emotion is sustained by reflective sentiment, as in the excitement of virtuous indignation and high-souled contempt.
"Thorough stress " is one of the most powerful weapons of oratory, as well as one of the most vivid effects of natural feeling. If indiscriminately used, it becomes ineffective, as savoring of the habit and mannerism of the individual, rather than of just and appropriate energy. In such circumstances, it becomes rant; and when joined, as it sometimes is, to the habit of "mouthing," it can excite nothing but disgust in a hearer of well-regulated taste.
Juvenile readers, however, in some instances, from diffidence, and students, from their enfeebling mode of life, are apt to fall far short of the requisite degree of this expressive function of the voice. To obtain the full command of it in all its applications, and to preserve it always from excess, much careful practice on appropriate examples, and on letters, syllables, and words, becomes indispensable, as a preparatory discipline in elocution.
EXAMPLES OF THOROUGH STRESS."
Rapture, Joy, Triumph, Exultation.
("Expulsive orotund :" "Impassioned" force: Powerful "stress.")
FROM THE DYING CHRISTIAN.-Pope.
"Lend, lend your wings! I mount, I fly!
O Death! where is thy sting!"
("Expulsive orotund:" Force of shouting: Vehement "stress.") 2.
FROM MOORE'S LINES ON THE FATE OF NAPLES.
"Shout, Tyranny, shout
Through your dungeons and palaces, Freedom is o'er!'"
("Expulsive orotund," and "sustained" force of calling, combined: Powerful and prolonged "stress.")
FROM SATAN'S CALL TO HIS LEGIONS.-Milton.
Warriors, the flower of heaven! once yours, now lost,
Awake! arise! or be forever fallen!"
("Expulsive orotund :" " Declamatory" force: Vehement" stress.") FROM CHATHAM'S REBUKE OF LORD SUFFOLK.
“These abominable principles, and this more abominable avowal of them, demand the most decisive indignation. I call upon that right reverend and this most learned Bench, to vindicate the religion of their God, to defend and support the justice of their country. I call upon the bishops to interpose the unsullied sanctity of their lawn, upon the judges to interpose the purity of their ermine, to save us from this pollution.
I call upon the honor of your lordships, to reverence the dignity of your ancestors, and to maintain your own. I call upon the spirit and humanity of my country, to vindicate the national character."
SATAN, [TO ITHURIEL AND ZEPHON.]-Milton.
("Expulsive orotund :" "Impassioned" force: Powerful "stress.")
"Know ye not then," said Satan, filled with scorn, "Know ye not me?—Ye knew me once no mate For you; there sitting where ye durst not soar: Not to know me argues yourselves unknown,— The lowest of your throng."
LADY CAPULET, [ON THE APPARENT death of Juliet.]—Shakspeare. ("Aspirated pectoral and oral Quality:' Explosive" utterance : "Impassioned" force: Violent "stress.") "Accurs'd, unhappy, wretched, hateful day! Most miserable hour that e'er time saw,
In lasting labor of his pilgrimage!"
TREMOR, OR INTERMITTENT STRESS.
When, by the hysterical or excessive force of impassioned feeling, the breath is agitated into brief successive jets, instead of gushing forth in a continuous stream of unbroken sound, a tremor, or tremulous effect of voice, is produced, which breaks its "stress" into tittles or points;—much in the same way that a row of dots may be substituted to the eye, for one continuous line. The human voice, in the case now in view, is as appropriately said to "tremble," as when we apply the term to the shivering motion of the muscular frame.
The "tremor" of the voice is the natural expression of all emotions which, from their peculiar nature, are attended with a weakened condition of the bodily organs; such as
extreme feebleness from age, exhaustion, sickness, fatigue grief, and even joy, and other feelings, in which ardor or extreme tenderness predominates.
In the reading or the recitation of lyric and dramatic poetry, this function of voice is often required for full, vivid, and touching expression. Without its appeals to sympathy, and its peculiar power over the heart, many of the most beautiful and touching passages of Shakspeare and Milton become dry and cold. Like the tremula of the accomplished vocalist, in operatic music, it has a charm, for the absence of which nothing can atone; since nature suggests it as the genuine utterance of the most delicate and thrilling emotion.
The perfect command of " tremor," requires often-repeated prac tice on elements, syllables, and words, as well as on appropriate pas. sages of impassioned language.
EXAMPLES OF TREMOR."
1. The Tremor of Age and Feebleness.
("Pure Tone :" "Subdued" force of Pathos: Tremulous utterance,
STANZA FROM A POPULAR BALLAD.
Pity the sorrows of a poor old man,
Whose trembling limbs have borne him to your door, Whose days are dwindled to the shortest span ;
Oh! give relief; and Heaven will bless your store!"
2. Exhaustion and Fatigue.
("Aspirated pectoral and oral Quality:" "Suppressed" force: “Tremor” throughout.)
FROM "AS YOU LIKE IT."-Shakspeare.
Adam, [to Orlando.] "Dear master, I can go no farther: Oh! I die for food! Here lie I down, and measure out my Farewell! kind master." grave.
("Pure Tone:""Subdued" force of Pathos: Occasional "tremor" of Tenderness.)
Orlando, [to Adam.] "Why, how now, Adam!-no greater heart in thee? Live a little; comfort a little; cheer thyself a little. For my sake be comfortable; hold death awhile at the arm's end: I will here be with thee presently.