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or in a large hall. A voice trained on this scale of practice, easily accommodates itself to a more limited space; while it is equally true, that a voice habituated to parlor reading only, usually fails in the attempt to practise in a room more spacious. Farther, the fact is familiar to instructors in elocution, that persons commencing practice with a very weak and inadequate voice, attain, in a few weeks, a perfect command of the utmost degrees of force, by performing their exercises out of doors, or in a hall of ample dimensions.
It is a matter of great moment, in practising the exercises in force, to observe, at first, with the utmost strictness, the rule of commencing with the slightest and advancing to the most energetic forms of utterance. When practice has imparted due vigor and facility, it will be a useful variation of order, to commence with the more powerful exertions of the voice, and descend to the more gentle. It is a valuable attainment, also, to be able to strike at once, and with perfect ease and precision, into any degree of force, from whispering to shouting.
As the exercises in the various "qualities" of the voice, have already led us over the ground of "force," in all its gradations, it will be sufficient to present them once in succession, without farther explanation. (See "exercises on force," in the appendix.)
DEGREES OF FORCE.
The perfect command of every degree of force, and an exact dis crimination of its stages, as classified by degree and character of emotion, are indispensable to correct and impressive elocution. Extensive and varied practice on force, in all its gradations, becomes, therefore, an important point, in the vocal culture connected with elocution. Nor is it less valuable as the chief means of imparting power of voice and vigor of organ, - as was formerly intimated.
The student's attention is again directed to the importance of this element, for the purpose of securing a patient and persevering prac tice on elementary sounds, with an exclusive view, at present, to the mechanical exertion of the organs in the successive stages of mere loudness of voice. It will be found a useful practice to repeat the first line of each example in succession.
After having completed the practice on force, as prescribed in the preceding exercises, in which its degrees are indicated by the feeling expressed in each example, the various component elements of the language, the "tonics,' "subtonics," and "atonics," and examples of their combination in syllables and words, may be repeated successively, (1.) in forms corresponding to the style of each exercise; (2.) in the musical gradations of" pianissimo," (very soft ;) "piano," (soft;)" mezzo piano," (moderately soft;) "mezzo," (moderate ;) mezzo forte," (moderately loud;) "forte," (loud;) and "fortissimo," (very loud;") (3.) in successive stages, commmencing with the slightest and most delicate sound that can be uttered in "pure tone," and extending to the most vehement force of shouting and calling in the open air, and with all the power that the voice can yield.
Persons who practise such exercises several times a day,' for ten or fifteen minutes at a time, will find a daily gain in vocal power and organic vigor to be the invariable result: every day will enable them to add a degree to their scale of force. To young persons whose organs are yet fully susceptible of the benefits of training, to students and sedentary individuals, in general, whose mode of life is deficient in muscular exercise, and consequently in power of voice, and to professional men whose exercises in public speaking are at comparatively distant intervals, (in which case, the organs need the aid of invigorating daily practice more than in any other,) the mechanical practice of graduated force, is the most effective aid that can be found.
The kind of exercise now recommended, if presented in a form addressed to the eye, might be marked thus:
Each dot represents, in this scale, one and the same sound, or word, repeated with a gradually increasing force. The repetition of the same sound, for at least a dozen times, is preferred to a change of elements, because, by repetition, the ear becomes, as it were, a more exact judge of the successive degrees of force, when not distracted by attention to anything else than the one point of mere loudness.
This exercise can never injure, but will always strengthen, even weak organs, if the gradation of voice be duly observed, and the note of the scale kept rigorously the same, throughout, and not pitched,
at first,—either very high or very low on the scale.
FORCE, as a property of voice, may be regarded either as it exists in consecutive or in single sounds. Thus, the force of utterance, in a sentence or a clause, may be on one phrase, or even on a single word. In the pronunciation of a word, it may be exclusively on one
1 It may not be improper to remark here, that vocal exercise should be practised at a point of time as nearly as may be INTERMEDIATE to the hours assigned for meal-times; as the organs are then in their best condition,― neither embarrassed nor exhausted, as regards the state of the circulation. The rule of the Italian vocal training, which prescribes powerful and continued exertion of voice, before breakfast, with a view to deepen the "register," implies a state of organs already inured to fatigue; and the stereotype direction of the old physicians, to declaim after dinner, with a view to promote digestion, implies either a meal in the poet's style of "spare fast, that oft with gods doth diet," or a strength of the digestive organ, that can render it callous to the powerful shocks which energetic declamation always imparts by impassioned emotion, to that chief "local habitation" of the "sympathetic"
syllable. In the enunciation of a syllable, the organic force may lie chiefly on a single letter. In the sound of a letter, the force of the voice may lie conspicuously on the first, or on the last part of the sound, on the middle, or on both extremes; or it may be distributed, with an approach to equalizing force, over all parts of the sound.
The term "stress," as used by Dr. Rush, is applied to the mode in which force is rendered perceptible or impressive, in single sounds. Stress includes two elements of vocal effect:
- 1st, mere force of sound; 2d, the time which it occupies. To these may be added, not improperly, a third element, which is the result of the union or combination of the other two, viz., abrupt or gradual emission.
The classification of the forms of stress is as follows:
1st, "Radical stress," or that in which the force of utterance is, usually, more or less "explosive," and falls on the "radical" (initial, or first) part of a sound.
2d, “Median stress,” that in which the force is "expulsive” or "effusive," and swells out whether slowly or rapidly, at the middle of a sound.
3d, "Vanishing stress," or that which withholds the “ pulsive" or "explosive" force till the "vanish," or last moment of the sound.
4th, "Compound stress," or that in which the voice, with more or less of "explosive" force, touches forcefully and distinctly on both the initial and the final points of a sound, but passes slightly and almost imperceptibly over the middle part.
5th, "Thorough stress," in which the initial, middle, and final portions of a sound, are all distinctively and impressively marked by special "expulsive force" of voice.
6th, "Tremor," tremulous, or intermittent "stress."
66 RADICAL STRESS."
This form of vocal force is exemplified in the mechanical act of abrupt coughing.' In speech, its highest form exists
1"There are so few speakers able to give a radical stress to syllabic utterance, with this momentary burst, which I here mean to describe, that I must draw an illustration from the effort of coughing. It will be perceived that a single impulse of coughing, is not, in all points, exactly like the abrupt voice on syllables: for that single impulse is a forcing out of almost all the breath yet if the tonic element a-we be employed as the vocality of coughing, its
in the utterance of all sounds which embody startling and abrupt emotions; as fear, anger, &c. It exists, also, although in a reduced form, in the tones of determined will, earnest argument, emphatic and distinct or exact communication, and other unimpassioned modes of expression.
In the latter shape, "radical" stress does little more than impart to speech an additional degree of that clear, distinct, and energetic character of utterance, which is marked by the decision of its “radical movement," the phrase, (it will be recollected,) by which Dr. Rush has designated the opening, or initial part, of articulate sounds. But, even in this reduced degree, it forms one of the most valuable accomplishments of elocution; for, although it does not, in this mode, aim at a sympathetic effect on passion or imagination, it subserves the substantially useful purpose of addressing, in clear, distinct style, the ear and the understanding. The definiteness and decision of the speaker's intention, the clear conviction of his judgment, the distinctness of his perceptions, and the energy of his will, are all indicated in this natural language of voice.
A due "radical stress," farther, imparts point and spirit to articulation: it gives an edge and a life to utterance, and hinders emotion from rendering the voice confused and indistinct. Vehemence, without "radical stress," becomes vociferation and bawling.
The energy of the "radical movement," may, indeed, be justly termed the salt and the relish of oral communication, as it preserves the pungency and penetrating effect of articulate utterance. Without due radical stress," reading or speaking becomes insipid and ineffective. The argumentative speaker who has not this quality at command, seems to strike with the flat rather than the edge of the rhetorical weapon.1 Carried to excess, it becomes, of course, a fault: it savors of dogmatical arrogance and assumption, of selfish wilful
abrupt opening will truly represent the function of radical stress when used in discourse.
"The clear and forcible radical stress can take place only after an interruption of the voice. It would seem as if there is some momentary occlusion in the larynx, by which the breath is barred and accumulated for the purpose of a full and sudden discharge. This occlusion is most under command, and the explosion is most powerful, on syllables beginning with a tonic element, or with an abrupt one preceding a tonic; for, in this last case, an obstruction in the organs of articulation, is combined with the function of the larynx, above supposed."-Dr. Rush.'
1"It is this," (radical stress,) "which draws the cutting edge of words across the ear, and startles even stupor into attention:- this which lessens the fatigue of listening, and outvoices the stir and rustle of an assembly:and it is the sensibility to this, through a general instinct of the animal which gives authority to the groom, and makes the horse submissive to his angry accent.' "-Id.
ness, and self-conceit. Persuasion, not intimidation, is the soul of eloquence; argument, not assertion, the instrument of conviction; sympathy, not opposition, the avenue to the heart. A uniform, hard "radical stress," therefore, can effect none of the best purposes of speech, and must ever be regarded as allied to violence and vulgarity, or the slang of party invective.
The utter absence, however, of "radical stress," bespeaks timidity and indecision, confusion of thought, and feebleness of purpose. The speaker who fails in regard to the effect of the property of "radical stress," solicits our pity, rather than commands our respect. The right degree of this function indicates the manly, self-possessed, and impressive speaker. These remarks all apply, with corresponding force, to the exercise of reading. A feeble, vacillating, inexpressive utterance, kills, as it were, by a slow but sure death, the sentiments of the most impressive writer; and the hacking edge of a uniform, unmodified, "radical stress," turns the parlor or the classroom into the arena of a debating-club.
False taste and style in the practice of elocution, sometimes lead to the cultivation of an exclusive habit of "radical stress," in the utterance of young readers and speakers. The effect of this fault is very unfavorable. The decision of tone which it implies, belongs properly to years and to experience, on special occasions, or to the language of vehement excitement. It is utterly incompatible with the just diffidence and respectful tone appropriate in youth, and forever prevents the winning effect of nature's genuine eloquence, in the tones of feeling chastened and subdued by reverence for truth and respect for man.
The orator, however, and the reader, must still be regarded as, in their function, representing, for the moment, the sentiments of humanity, not merely the opinion or feeling of the individual. Hence, a just degree of firmness and force, (and the "radical stress is the exponent of these qualities,) is a point indispensable to eloquent speaking and impressive reading.
The practice of the following examples should be accompanied by an extensive and thorough course of discipline on all degrees of "explosion," in elements, syllables, and words,-advancing from the very slightest to the intensest form, and occasionally reversing the order, so as to reduce the function of explosion from its most impassioned to its merely intellectual character and expression.
("Explosive" Utterance: "Aspirated Guttural Quality.")
["While throng the citizens with terror dumb,
Or whispering with white lips,] The foe!-they come, they