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"Father! Thy hand

Hath reared these venerable columns; Thou
Didst weave this verdant roof. Thou didst look down
Upon the naked earth; and, forthwith, rose
All these fair ranks of trees. They in Thy sun
Budded, and shook their green leaves in Thy breeze,
And shot towards heaven. The century-living crow,
Whose birth was in their tops, grew old and died
Among their branches, till, at last, they stood,
As now they stand, massy, and tall, and dark,-
Fit shrine for humble worshipper to hold
Communion with his Maker!"

5. Pathos and Sublimity. (Full and prolonged "swell.")

FROM DAVID'S LAMENTATION over Saul and Jonathan.

"How are the mighty fallen!— Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives; and in their death. they were not divided; they were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions. Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you in scarlet, with other delights; who put on ornaments of gold upon your apparel!- How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! O Jonathan! thou wast slain in thy high places !-How are the mighty fallen, and the weapons of war perished!"

6. Solemnity, Sublimity, and Fervor. ("Fullest swell.")


"Oh! sing unto the Lord a new song; for he hath done marvellous things: his right hand and his holy arm hath gotten him the victory.—Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all the earth make a loud noise, and rejoice, and sing praise. Sing unto the Lord with the harp; with the harp, and the voice of a psalm. With trumpets and sound of cornet, make

a joyful noise before the Lord the King. Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein. Let the floods clap their hands: let the hills be joyful together."

II. "Expulsive" Utterance.

"Pure Tone:" "Moderate" Force.
1. Grave Style.'

(Gentle and pure "median stress," without prolongation.)

"The excuses of youth, for the neglect of religion, are those which are most frequently offered, and most easily admitted. The restrictions of religion, though proper enough for maturer age, are too severe, it is said, for this frolicsome and gladsome period. Its consolations, too, they do not want. Leave these to prop the feeble limbs of old age, or to cheer the sinking spirits of adversity.-False and pernicious maxim! As if, at the end of a stated number of years, a man could become religious in a moment! As if the husbandman, at the end of a summer, could call up a harvest from the soil which he had never tilled! As if manhood, too, would have no excuses! And what are they? That he has grown too old to amend. That his parents took no pains with his religious education, and therefore his ignorance is not his own fault. That he must be making provision for old age; and the pressure of cares will allow him no time to attend to the evidences, or learn the rules of religion. Thus life is spent in framing apologies, in making and breaking resolutions, and deferring amendment, till death places his cold hand on the mouth open to make its last excuse, and one more is added to the crowded congregation of the dead."

1 This example furnishes an instance of the "grave" style assuming the "median stress," for impressive effect, as formerly mentioned.

2. Serious Style.'

("Median stress," still shorter in duration, but increased in force.) PLEASURES OF THE NATURALIST.- -Wood.


"Whether the naturalist be at home or abroad, in every different clime, and in every season of the year, universal nature is before him, and invites to a banquet richly replenished with whatever can invigorate his understanding, or gratify his mental taste. The earth on which he treads, the air in which he moves, the sea along the margin of which he walks, all teem with objects that keep his attention perpetually awake, excite him to healthful activity, and charm him with an ever-varying succession of the beautiful, the wonderful, the useful, and the new."

3. Animated Style.1

(The approach to poetic description renders the "swell" still more forcible and full, but also allows the voice to dwell comparatively longer upon it.)


“He who rises early, is met by the domestic animals, with peculiar pleasure: one winds and purs about him, another frisks and capers, and does everything but speak. The stern mastiff, the plodding ox, the noble horse, the harmless sheep, the prating poultry, each in its own way expresses joy when he first appears. Then how incomparably fine is the dawning of the day, when the soft light comes stealing on, at first glimmers with the stars, but gradually outshines them all! How beautiful are the folding and parting of the gray clouds, drawn back like a curtain, to give us a sight of the most magnificent of all appearances, the rising of the sun! How rich is the dew, decking every spire of grass with colored

1 These examples illustrate the application of the "median stress" to "serious" and "animated" style, from fulness of feeling and effect. Had the composition been of a lower tone, the utterance would have exemplified the application of the "unimpassioned radical."

spangles of endless variety, and of inexpressible beauty! Larks mount, and fill the air with a cheap and perfect music; and every tree, every steeple, and every hovel, emits a cooing or a twittering, a warbling or a chirping, -a hailing of the returning day."

4. Declamatory Force.


"Shall we be told that the exasperated feelings of a whole people, goaded and spurred on to clamor and resistance, were excited by the poor and feeble influence of their secluded princesses? or that they could inspire this enthusiasm and this despair into the breasts of a people who felt no grievance, and had suffered no torture?- What motive, then, could have such influence in their bosoms? What motive!

That which Nature, the common parent, plants in the bosom of man, and which is congenial with, and makes part of his being, that feeling which tells him that man was never made to be the property of man; but that, when through pride and insolence of power, one human creature dares to tyrannize over another, it is a power usurped, and resistance is a duty,- that principle which tells him, that resistance to power usurped is not merely a duty which he owes to himself and to his neighbor, but a duty which he owes to his God, in asserting and maintaining the rank which He gave him in the creation!-to that common God, who, where he gives the form of man, whatever may be the complexion, gives also the feelings and the rights of man,that principle which neither the rudeness of ignorance can stifle, nor the enervation of refinement extinguish,—that principle which makes it base for a man to suffer when he ought to act; which, tending to preserve to the species the original designations of Providence, spurns at the arrogant distinctions of man, and vindicates the independent quality of his race."

5. Impassioned Force.

(A full and gushing "swell" of grief.)
"That I did love thee, Cæsar, oh! 'tis true:
If then thy spirit look upon us now,
Shall it not grieve thee, dearer than thy death,
To see thy Antony making his peace,
Shaking the bloody fingers of thy foes,
Most noble! in the presence of thy corse?
Had I as many eyes as thou hast wounds,
Weeping as fast as they stream forth thy blood,
It would become me better, than to close
In terms of friendship with thine enemies.

Pardon me, Julius!-Here wast thou bayed, brave hart,
Here didst thou fall; and here thy hunters stand,
Signed in thy spoil, and crimsoned in thy lethe.
O world! thou wast the forest to this hart;
And this, indeed, O world, the heart of thee!
How like a deer, stricken by many princes,
Dost thou here lie!"

6. Shouting and Calling.

(The strongest "swell" of which the voice is capable, the note prolonged.)

CINNA, [AFTER THE ASSASSINATION OF CESAR.]-Shakspeare. "Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead!Run hence! proclaim, cry it about the streets!"


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"Some to the common pulpits! and cry out, Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement!"



The word "vanishing," in this use of it, is divested entirely of its usual meaning. It has no reference whatever to an effect corresponding to the gradual disappearing of a visible object, withdrawing from the eye. It refers, as a technical term, merely to the last audible moment of a vocal sound,- as

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