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CUM, CON, COM, COG, COL, COR, co, with.
com-pan-ion co-equal con-spire
co-here con-tend cog-nate
CONTRA, CONTRO, COUNTER, against.
DIS, DI, DIF, asunder, and hence sometimes not. dis-miss dis-solve
dis-courage di-gress dis-sect
EX, EC, EF, E, out of, from.
e-duce ex-port ec-cen-tric
e-vict ex-pose ec-lipse
e-mi-grate ex-tend ef-face
per-man-ent POST, after. post-pone post-script
PRÆ, PRE, before. pre-cede pre-fix
pre-vent pre-dict pre-pare
pre-scribe PRO, forth, forward, beforehand. pro-ceed pro-mote
pro-pose pro-duce pro-pel
RE, back, again. re-call
re-pel re-cede re-deem
re-press re-ceive re-duce
re-spond re-claim re-flect
re-fuse re-col-lect re-ject
re-tain re-cord re-mit
re-treat re-count re-pair
re-view RETRO, backwards. retro-grade
retro-spect SUB, SUC, SUF, SUG, SUP, sus, under. sub-join suc-ceed
sup-port sub-merge suc-cumb
sup-pose sub-scribe suf-fer
sus-tain sug-gest SUPER, SUR, above, beyond, upon. super-add
sur-vive TRANS, beyond, through, across. trans-fix
trans-gress trans-fer trans-mit trans-pose
In spelling derivative words formed by aid of suffixes, the following simple rules will be found useful :
RULE I.—When a suffix, beginning with a vowel, as EG, ER, AL, ANCE, ING, ABLE, IBLE, URE, ous, IVE, Y, ISH, is added to a word ending with e, it is usual to drop the final e of the simple word, thusgive, giver ; dispose, dispos-al; connive, conniv-ance; strive, striv-ing; cure, cur-able ; produce, produc-ible; disclose, disclos-ure; fame, fam-ous ; conduce, conduc-ive;
stone, ston-y; slave, slav-ish. Exceptions to this rule.—The final e is sometimes retained, especially when its removal would render the pronunciation of the derivative word doubtful, as in the following examples— peace, peace-able; service, service-able; change, changeable; hie, hie-ing ; vie, vie-ing ; dye, dye-ing; eye, eye-ing; shoe, shoe-ing; hoe, hoe-ing; see, see-ing ; singe, singe-ing.
RULE II.- When a suffix is added to a word ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, it is usual to repeat the final consonant, thusrob, rob-ber; sin, sin-ner; rebel, rebel-led ; commit, commit-ting ; run, run-ner; wet, wet-ting ; red, red-der; big, big-gest; gun, gun-ner; mad, mad-dest; sad, sad-den; glad, glad-den ; wit, wit-ty; rub, rub-ber ; stop, stop-page ;
bag, bag-gage; lug, lug-gage, &c.
Exceptions to this rule.—Words of more than one syllable do not double the final consonant, asbenefit, benefit-ed, bigot, bigot-ed; surrender, surrender-ed;
fever, fever-ish ; credit, credit-or; ruin, ruin-ous ; unless the accent strikes the last syllable, or the final letter be l, asconcur, concur-rent; prefer, prefer-red ; bedim, bedimmed ; allot, allot-ted ; abet, abet-tor; demur, demurred; apparel, apparel-led ; cancel, cancel-led ; dishevel, dishevel-led ; libel, libel-led ; marvel, marvel-ler ; jewel, jewel-ler; travel, travel-ler; rival, rival-led; shovel,
shovel-led. RULE III.-When a suffix is added to a word ending in y preceded by a consonant, the letter y is changed into the cognate sound of i, thustry, tri-al; pity, piti-ful; duty, duti-ful; glory, glori-fy; holy, holi-ness ; merry, merri-ment; envy, envi-ous, enviable; comply, compli-ance; copy, copi-er; carry, carri-er; fry, fri-ed; giddy, giddi-er ; lively, liveli-est; rosy, rosi-er; lazy, lazi-er; worthy, worthi-est; victory, victori-ous;
harmony, harmoni-ous. In a few words y is changed into e, as
beauteous, duteous, plenteous, bounteous, piteous. Exceptions to this rule.—The letter y is not changed when followed by the letter i, as
drying, frying, carrying, plying, denying, &c. Nor in the words
dryness, shyness, slyness. RULE IV.- When the suffixes NESS, LESS, LY or FUL are added to words ending in ll, it is usual to drop one l, thus
dul-ness, wil-ful, skil-ful, &c.