Imágenes de páginas

CUM, CON, COM, COG, COL, COR, co, with. con-cord com-pose

col-lapse con-cur

com-pound col-league con-course com-press

cor-rupt con-fine

com-pel con-gress

com-pan-ion co-equal con-spire

co-here con-tend cog-nate

co-operate cog-nis-ance con-tract

co-ad-jutor con-voke col-late


CONTRA, CONTRO, COUNTER, against. contra-dict contro-vert counter-mand con-tra-ry

DE, from, down.



de-tract de-fend de-press


de-spair DIS, DI, DIF, asunder, and hence sometimes not. dis-miss dis-solve

di-vide dis-join

dis-cour-age di-gress dis-sect

dis-ap-prove dis-tract dis-ap-pear

dif-fer dis-trib-ute

dis-em-bark dif-fuse

EX, EC, EF, E, out of, from. ex-clude ex-tort

ef-flux ex-pel

ex-tract ex-pire

e-duce ex-port ec-cen-tric

e-vict ex-pose ec-lipse

e-ject ex-punge

e-mi-grate ex-tend ef-face


EXTRA, beyond. extra-or-din-ary

extra-vag-an IN, IM, in, into. in-cur in-hab-it

in-trude in-duce

in-ject in-graft in-quire

im-pel in-clude in quest

im-port in-fuse in-scribe

im-pose in-spect

[blocks in formation]


PRÆ, PRE, before. pre-cede pre-fix

pre-vent pre-dict pre-pare

pre-scribe PRO, forth, forward, beforehand. pro-ceed pro-mote

pro-pose pro-duce pro-pel

pro-vide pro-gress

pro-nounce pro-voke

RE, back, again. re-call re-cur

re-pel re-cede re-deem

re-press re-ceive re-duce

re-spond re-claim re-flect

re-spire re-cline

re-fuse re-col-lect re-ject

re-tain re-cord re-mit

re-treat re-count re-pair

re-view RETRO, backwards. retro-grade

retro-spect SUB, SUC, SUF, SUG, SUP, sus, under. sub-join suc-ceed

sup-port sub-merge suc-cumb

sup-pose sub-scribe suf-fer

sup-ply sub-mit

suf-fice sub-tract

sus-tain sug-gest SUPER, SUR, above, beyond, upon. super-add




sur-vive TRANS, beyond, through, across. trans-fix trans-gress

trans-fer trans-mit trans-pose

trans-cend trans-port

trans-mute trans-plant



In spelling derivative words formed by aid of suffixes, the following simple rules will be found useful :

RULE I.—When a suffix, beginning with a vowel, as EG, ER, AL, ANCE, ING, ABLE, IBLE, URE, ous, IVE, Y, ish, is added to a word ending with é, it is usual to drop the final e of the simple word, thusgive, giver; dispose, dispos-al; connive, conniv-ance ; strive, striv-ing; cure, cur-able; produce, produc-ible; disclose, disclos-ure; fame, fam-ous ; conduce, conduc-ive;

stone, ston-y; slave, slav-ish. Exceptions to this rule.-—The final e is sometimes retained, especially when its removal would render the pronunciation of the derivative word doubtful, as in the following examplespeace, peace-able; service, service-able; change, changeable; hie, hie-ing; vie, vie-ing ; dye, dye-ing ; eye, eye-ing; shoe, shoe-ing; hoe, hoe-ing; see, see-ing ; singe, singe-ing.

RULE II.-When a suffix is added to a word ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, it is usual to repeat the final consonant, thus rob, rob-ber; sin, sin-ner; rebel, rebel-led ; commit, commit-ting; run, run-ner; wet, wet-ting ; red, red-der ; big, big-gest ; gun, gun-ner; mad, mad-dest ; sad, sad-den; glad, glad-den; wit, wit-ty; rub, rub-ber ; stop, stop-page ;

bag, bag-gage; lug, lug-gage, &c.

Exceptions to this rule.- Words of more than one syllable do not double the final consonant, asbenefit, benefit-ed, bigot, bigot-ed; surrender, surrender-ed;

fever, fever-ish ; credit, credit-or; ruin, ruin-ous; unless the accent strikes the last syllable, or the final letter be l, asconcur, concur-rent; prefer, prefer-red ; bedim, bedimmed ; allot, allot-ted; abet, abet-tor; demur, demurred; apparel, apparel-led ; cancel, cancel-led ; dishevel, dishevel-led ; libel, libel-led; marvel, marvel-ler; jewel, jewel-ler; travel, travel-ler; rival, rival-led ; shovel,

shovel-led. RULE III. When a suffix is added to a word ending in y preceded by a consonant, the letter y is changed into the cognate sound of i, thustry, tri-al; pity, piti-ful; duty, duti-ful; glory, glori-fy; holy, holi-ness ; merry, merri-ment; envy, envi-ous, enviable ; comply, compli-ance; copy, copi-er; carry, carri-er; fry, fri-ed; giddy, giddi-er; lively, liveli-est; rosy, rosi-er; lazy, lazi-er; worthy, worthi-est; victory, victori-ous;

harmony, harmoni-ous. In a few words y is changed into e, as

beauteous, duteous, plenteous, bounteous, piteous. Exceptions to this rule.The letter y is not changed when followed by the letter i, as

drying, frying, carrying, plying, denying, &c. Nor in the words—

dryness, shyness, slyness. RULE IV.- When the suffixes NESS, LESS, Ly or FUL are added to words ending in ll, it is usual to drop one l, thus

dul-ness, wil-ful, skil-ful, &c.

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