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hands of Esau, are called dukes, the same name is applied to the sons and grand-sons of Esau. The former, however, were only seven in number, while the latter are fourteen, which may arise from the government being enlarged, so as to give each a province for his control; or one portion of these dukes may have been the successors of the others.
540. For some reason, not apparent, another set of dukes is added, after tracing the lineage and government of Seir, eleven in number, and having some of the same names with the former ones. This passage has the appearance of a supplement, intended to supply some omissions; and indeed this may have been its design. When the country was under the government of Seir and his family, it was first governed by dukes, who reigned conjointly, and afterwards by kings, who succeeded each other. But no mention is made of kings among the sons of Esau.
SECTION VII. -SEIR, KING OF EDOM.
20. T These are the sons of Seir the Horite, who inhabited the land; Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah,
21. And Dishon, and Ezer, and Dishan: these are the dukes of the Horites, the children of Seir in the land of Edom.
22. And the children of Lotan were Hori and Heman; and Lotan's sister was Timna.
23. And the children of Shobal were these; Alvan, and Manahath, and Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
24. And these are the children of Zibeon; both Ajah, and Anah: this was that Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father.
25. And the children of Anah were these; Dishon, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah.
26. And these are the children of Dishon; Hemdan, and Eshban, and Ithran, and Cheran.
27. The children of Ezer are these; Bilhan, and Zaavan, and Akan.
28. The children of Dishan are these; Uz, and Aran.
29. These are the dukes that came of the Horites; duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah,
30. Duke Dishon, duke Ezer, duke Dishan: these are the dukes that came of Hori, among their dukes in the land of Seir.
31. And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.
32. And Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom: and the name of his city was Dinhabah.
33. And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his stead.
34. And Jobab died, and Hush
am of the land of Temani reigned in his stead.
35 And Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, who smote Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Avith.
36. And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead.
37. And Samlah died, and Saul
of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead.
38. And Saul died, and Baal-hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his stead.
39. And Baal-hanan the son of Achbor died, and Hadar reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Pan; and his wife's name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.
541. The Seir here mentioned, held the land of Edom before it came into the possession of Esau and his descendants. He is called the Horite, though the name seems to have originated at a later day, and to have been derived from Hori his grand-son.
542. Anah that found the mules in the wilderness, is here associated with this circumstance, from some importance attached to it, that does not appear on the surface of the record. To find some stray mules in the wilderness, was a very small affair in itself; and unless there is something else understood by the writer, and presumed to be understood by the reader, we see no good reason for stating it. We would suggest whether the meaning is not, that this Anah found out the way of raising mules, as he fed or had charge of the asses of his father, in the wilderness. Such an invention is a circumstance worthy of notice, perhaps, while the other cannot be so regarded.
543. It will be observed that the immediate sons of Seir, are all called dukes. Each seems to have had a particular territory or province over which he exercised authority, not successively, but cotemporarily. At a subsequent period, the country was governed by kings, who reigned in succession, as is obvious from the lanuage that one died and another reigned in his stead. It is farther obvious that the term of each reign was during life.
544. "These kings reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel." This passage is thought to be a gloss, and to have been inserted at a late day, when there were kings that reigned over the children of Israel; but I would suggest that
another construction is possible; and the character of the passage renders it not improbable. Edom, the country here spoken of, was at first in the hands of one Seir and his family, whose sons had at first governed it conjointly; and afterwards it was governed by a succession of kings, from the same tribe. All this was before it came into the possession of Esau; and this is the fact the writer desires to inform us of. May not the passage, therefore, be construed thus: These kings reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned there any king over the children of Israel; meaning by the "children of Israel," the descendants of Esau; as that name, though strictly applicable only to the sons of Jacob, would be apt to be applied to all the descendants of Abraham. On the same principle, Nahor is called an Aramean, from his grand-son Aram; and Seir is called a Horite, from Hori, among his descendants.
545. Rehoboth by the River. There are several places called Rehoboth, mentioned in the book of Genesis; and hence some circumstance, to distinguish one from the other, had to be named. Rehoboth is the name of a city built by Asshur in Assyria, x. 11; and it is there called the city Rehoboth, to distinguish it, it may be, from the well Rehoboth, xxv. 22, belonging to Isaac. The city Rehoboth in Edom, is said to be on the river, to distinguish it from the one in Assyria, or some other, not so located.
546. It is worthy of being added, that all the kings mentioned on this list, are spoken of, each in connection with a particular city, with but one exception. No city is named in connection with Baal-hanan; but he is called son of Achbor. Is not the meaning, that he was a citizen of Achbor, as son is often used in this sense. This would make the passages alike.
547. Why Mehetabel, wife of Hadar, is distinguished by being named in this connection, does not appear, though she was probably remarkable for some trait of character, or important transaction, that made her worthy of this distinction.
JACOB AND HIS FAMILY.
CONTENTS; Jacob goes to Padan-aram ; His Marriage; His Family; Contract with Laban; Leaves Laban; The Pursued; Interview at Mount Gilead; Prepares to meet Esau; Meeting of the Brothers; Sojourn at Shalem; Goes to Bethel; Returns to Isaac; Joseph sold into Egypt; Judah; Joseph Tempted; Dreams of the Butler and Baker; Pharaoh's Dreams; Joseph placed over the Land of Egypt; First Journey to Egypt; Second Journey; The Silver Cup; Joseph made known to his Brethren; Jacob sent for; Jacob goes to Egypt; Joseph meets his Father; Interview of the Brethren with Pharaoh; Interview of the Father with Pharaoh; The Famine; Israel about to die; He blesses the Sons of Joseph; Blesses his own Sons; Death of Jacob; Death of Joseph.
The birth of Jacob, and some other circumstances connected with his life, have been noticed in connection with the life of Isaac, as belonging more appropriately there. Other things belong more properly to the present chapter.
41. T And Esau hated Jacob, because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him and Esau said in his heart, The days of mourning for my father are at hand, then will I slay my brother Jacob.
42. And these words of Esau her elder son were told to Rebekah. And she sent and called Jacob her younger son and said unto him, Behold, thy brother Esau, as touching thee,doth comfort himself, purposing to kill thee.
43. Now, therefore, my son, obey my voice: and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother, to Haran;
1. And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. 2. Arise, go to Padan-aram, to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father, and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban, thy mother's brother.
3. And God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest be a multitude of people;
hold, a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and, behold, the angels of God ascending and descending on it.
13. And, behold, the LORD stood above it, and said, I am the LORD God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac: the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed;
14. And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth; and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south: and in thee, and in thy seed, shall all the families of the
4. And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee; that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou art a stran-earth be blessed. ger, which God gave unto Abram.
5. And Isaac sent away Jacob: and he went to Padan-aram, unto Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, the brother of Rebekah, Jacob and Esau's mother.
6. When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, and sent him away to Padan-aram, to take him a wife from thence; and that, as he blessed him, he gave him a charge, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan;
7. And that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Padan-aram;
8. And Esau seeing that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father:
9. Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had, Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham's son, the sister of Nebajoth to be his wife.
10. And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Ha
11. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set: and he took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep.
12. And he dreamed, and, be
15. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee in all places whither thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land: for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.
16. And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said, Surely the LORD is in this place, and I knew it not.
17. And he was afraid, and said, how dreadful is this place; this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.
18. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it.
19. And he called the name of that place Bethel: but the name of that city was called Luz at the first.
20. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on,
21. So that I come again to my father's house in peace; then shall the LORD be my God:
22. And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house: and of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee.