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perly attach to those who advo- cannot have in his individual cate, and those who order, execu- capacity. To the former of these tions, rather than to the execu- no exception can be taken ; and it tioner exclusively. But there is is, as P. M. H. intimates, a truth something far more illogical than peculiarly important now, when this alleged odium of the hang- combination for all kinds of pur

It is when writers on poses is so universal, and when “ Christian ethics” adopt popular we so often see how such divided sentiment (real, or supposed) as responsibility tends to weaken ina test of truth, and insinuate that dividual conscience. With respect " odium” is an evidence of wrong. to the second proposition, I would If we followed out such a deduc- respectfully urge our QUERIST to tion from popular feelings, whether reconsider his position; for he will on this side the Atlantic or the find, on consulting his New Tesother, we should arrive at some tament, that society in its nasurprising conclusions.

tional form has most important (4) “Can any consistently rights and functions, which do not advocate war, who is not ready belong to individual citizens. forthwith to take up arms, and Thus Christianity prohibits prished blood ?” Again, distinguish- vate vengeance (Rom. xii. 19.), ing between conscience and phy- but it recognises public vengeance, sical fitness, I reply No;—but on as the divinely appointed mission this condition, that by “forthwithof civil government (Rom. xiii. 4 P. M. H. means,

so soon as the -6). P. M. H. seems to view circumstances have arisen under society as only an aggregate of which such an one advocated

independent units, instead of what war.' We may thank God that,

it is, an organized whole. Perat the worst times, a very small haps by observing the language proportion of the population is and conduct of inspired men we required actually to engage in may obtain more satisfaction on warfare ; and in a nation of free, these points than by vague genebrave men, the duty of volunteer- ralities about “moral rights and ing for such service can safely be immunities,” theory of society,” left to individual judgment. As &c. St. Paul did not court assassiregards consistency, methinks it nation-he guarded against it is no more inconsistent for one (Acts ix. 25—xxiii. 17.); yet to maintain the lawfulness of war, when before Festus he used these while he sees it not his own duty words, (Acts xxv. 11.)—“If I have to practise arms, than it is for committed anything WORTHY one to advocate the spread of DEATH, I refuse not to die.” Now Christianity without himself be- if St. Paul knew that in reality coming a missionary.

no crime was worthy of death, Our friend's remaining para- and that his execution as graphs do not take the form of actual malefactor would have questions, and are not very easy

been 'as much a murder as his of analysis. If I read them aright being destroyed by the populace they involve two, and only two, for preaching the Gospel, how propositions. (1) That man in could he, whose special glory it his corporate action is as much was to bear witness to the truth amenable to the laws of rectitude, “ before the Gentiles, and kings," as in his private conduct. (2) allow himself to use such language That man in a corporate capacity as this ? To his hearers it could acquires no moral rights which he convey but one meaning ; and to

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suppose a mental reservation on Judgment-day? until when, the his part, under such circumstan- amount of good or evil effected ces—when, if ever, the guilt of through our influences will not death punishments should have be revealed. SPES. been solemnly denounced-is to impute to him a supressio veri,

5.-"Let him that is without which to reconcile with his manly

sin cast the first stone,” Did our straightforwardness were difficult,

Saviour here allude to sin in and with his inspiration, impos- general, or to its particular phase sible.

then brought under His notice? E. J. J.

PHILOSOPHUS. 6.-In any revision of our Bible,

what would be a fuller rendering Queries to be answered in our next of the Scripture which now stands Number.

thus?_"Give us this day our

daily bread ?" ANGLICUS. 4.-To those who feel assured during life of salvation, and after 7.-No declaration appears in life of eternal joy (and many the first chapter of Genesis, that Christians of different denomi- “God saw that the work of the nations assert their assurance of second day was good.” Is this such blessedness), of what great simply a translational omission? or actual importance will be the

BIBLICUS.

The Vulpit and its Three Handmaids.

HISTORY, SCIENCE, ART.

THE NEMESIS OF CIVILISATION.*

come exhausted. He can believe No reflection is borne home that the stars will grow old'; but with more melancholy impressive- he is exquisitely ingenious in ness upon the student of history shielding his breast from thought than that of the range and po- of his own death, and still less tency of the great law of mutation. does he realise that even the forMan sees this law acting in the ces gained by the social union are universe around him, but he is unable to resist the approaches of slow to open his eyes to the extent decay, and that nations and poliof its sway over himself. If the tics sink into the grave as well as forest has grown green and faded individuals. It is a melancholy for hundreds of years, he yet thing to behold the system of knows it will some day fall. He civilisation which has illumined has a terrible suspicion that the the world for a thousand years very soil of the world may be- smouldering in grey ashes. Yet

* We have inserted this article from “THE DIAL" not merely because of its intrinsic excellence and suitability for our pages, but to give our readers a reason for supporting in every way a National Newspaper, conducted by an Editor who thinks and writes in this intellectually, quickening, and morally elevating, fashion.

it is a commonplace of history nature. The lights of culture that many gorgeous civilisations have often been the ominous bloomed out and faded in the tokens presaging national death ; East, from Egypt eastward to but no people, while strong in Hindostan, and all round to Asia faith, reverence, truthfulness, Minor; and the more stable civi- chastity, frugality and the simple lisations of ancient Europe shared household virtues, has sunk into the same fate. What gives its national atrophy and paralysis. keenest edge to the pain such i The second is, that there is much spectacles impart, is the thought in the present state of European that the incurable decay sets society, much even threatening in precisely when majestic repose ourselves, to indicate the failing and pacific yet noble achievement moral vigor of civilisation. seem to have become possible. It Negatively we have said that no is because the poetry and the sta- nation, while retaining the simple tuary of Greece were so beautiful, and quiet virtues, has declined : that we are distressed to see them positively we venture to add. that ornamenting the grave of Greek the unfailing symptoms of the civilisation. It is because the distemper having set in have been Roman, taking rank in the legion, a state of pervading excitement, or writing the law, was a grand a restlessness, an incapacity to specimen of man, that we look enjoy natural and temperate pleawith amazed sadness upon the sures. These have been associawretched Sybarites of the decline ted with a combination, univerand fall. Nor had the diffusion of sally diffused, of pride and selfishculture any appreciable tendency ness ; man has conceived himself to arrest decay. The Greeks of his own master; reverence and the Lower Empire were philoso- humility have passed away tophising about light, when their gether; entertainment has become chains as a nation were being fas- the grand object of existence; and tened ; and the Roman youth universal triviality has ushered flocked to the Universities of in the dance of death. Is there Greece and Egypt, when the not much of this description that strength of the Roman common- can be applied to our modern wealth was crumbling away. Europe? While the bloom of inTurning with the spasmodic re- tellectual enlightenment is with solution of anguish from sights us, hare not the main branches, like these, the inquiring mind is simplicity and chastity, and the apt to rush to the conclusion that stem of duty to God, begun to there is no plan in history—that waste away? Is there not an pantheistic flux and reflux is the atmosphere of excitement more highest law of things—and that it or less encompassing us all ? is best to exclaim with Mr. Has not amusement obtained CARLYLE, “ Alas! nothing will more than its due place in the continue.

ideas of very many men ? A Two things we can advance on necessity, a blessing, in its place, this subject with some degree of amusement,or even enjoyment,can confidence. The first is, that the never be the object of life. That qualities and characteristics whose is fixed for man. He cannot cast decay has heralded and proclaim- himself free of God. “To glorify ed the fall of nations, have always God and to enjoy flim for ever;" — been those connected with the this, as our antiquated fathers moral rather than the intellectual said, will be about the adequate expression for man's chief end.

with on the plea of discomfort. The relaxation of the sense of Worship we must learn to recogresponsibility to God, the asser- nise as a reasonable and an inextion of a vacant, self-exalting orably imperative thing for man; pride against the God who is our we must unreservedly concede Master, whether we choose or no, that he does not go to the house is at the heart of all our modern of God in order to interest himself, disarrangement. When we forget to pass an hour, to hear an eloGOD, nature is no longer sufficient quent sermon, but because he is for our enjoyment. A hankering by nature a God-knowing creaafter inordinate, unnatural ex- ture, called into existence to citement urges us beyond the honor his CREATOR, and for joys of simplicity and moderation. whom it is not in the least a Can any one even think of the matter of choice or indifference character of popular French liter- whether he will honor Him or ature-can any candid person no. We shall find that nature think of the machinery and cha- and God are in league. The racters in several of the works of natural joys of earth become GOETHE—without granting that dust in the mouth of him who this distempered yearning after knows not God; the pleasures of the unnatural has shown itself home and friendship, of the green in modern European Society ? field and dawning morning, of Other phenomena correspond. Christian fellowship and social Rest becomes a weariness and worship, are sweet to him who is impossibility. Social worship, on calmly and constantly conversant the part of persons of education, with the God of nature. The has, to an appalling extent, ceased things and the pursuits of finitude over the continent; and we leave become dignified and worthy in readers to determine how much, the light of the infinite; and we especially in our large cities, it will not kill any of our seventy has ceased among ourselves. The years of time if they are the vesfever of which nations die has tibule to eternity.-Dial. begun.

PATRIOTISM.
We believe that the state of
Great Britain is more healthful

I, for one, do not call the sod than that of any continental

under my feet my country. But country; but even we may do

language, religion, laws, governwell to be warned. The grand

ment, blood;-identity in these supports of national stability are

makes men of one country. contentment with nature and

COLERIDGE. allegiance to God. In our literature and our art, in our house

This is a fine idea of Clarke's: hold arrangements and social cus

The frost is God's plough, which toms, we must study simplicity,

he drives through every inch of truthfulness, and quiet accordance

ground in the world, opening each with nature. We must learn the

clod and pulverising the wbole. capacity of resting, and know that

EMERSON. there may be a worthily-spent Sabbath, though it is not devoted

GRAVITATION. to excited gaiety. We must learn What we call gravitation, and to consider duty to God not a fancy ultimate, is one fork of a thing to be made subservient to mightier stream for which we our pleasure, or to be dispensed ) have yet no name. Ibid.

THE FUNCTION OF FROST.

GENIUS.

COLLECTIVE OPINION.

THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT. Although many fallibles will It is a common thing for Chris not make one infallible, nor many tians of all times and all denomifinites one infinite, yet the col- nations to seek in the Old Testalective wisdom of centuries is ment that support for their favorite entitled to some authority. doctrines which they fail to find

BULWER. in the New.
ART.

MATHEMATICAL TRUTH.
What Nature is to God, Art

The immense mass of matheshould be to man—a sublime, be

matical truth which the intellecneficent, genial and warm, crea- tual labor of ages has accumution. Ibid.

lated is a vast group of splendid

corollaries, logically deduced as LIFE IN DEATH.

necessary and unavoidable conseLife is the one pervading prin- quences of the very simplest facts ciple, and even the thing that that present themselves to the seems to die and putrify, but notice of man. DR. HALLE. engenders new life, and changes to fresh form of matter.-Ibid. THE CONNECTION OF PROTESTANT

ISM WITH LANGUAGE.

It is a most significant circumMan's genius is a bird that stance that no large society of cannot be always on the wing; which the tongue is not Teutonic when the craving for the actual has ever turned Protestant, and world is felt, it is a hunger that that wherever a language derived must be appeased.

They who

from that of ancient Rome is command best the ideal, enjoy spoken, the religion of modern ever most the real.-Ibid.

Rome to this day prevails.

MACAULAY. CHRIST'S IMAGERY DRAWN FROM NATURE.

HASTY CONCLUSIONS. A circumstance of importance Men see a little, presume a in the figurative diction of the great deal, and so jump to the New Testament, relates to the conclusion. LOCKE. source from which it is drawn. Our Lord himself generally ad

SCIENCE. verts to the works of nature and With our sciences and cyclo. the ordinary labors of men; but pædias, we are apt to forget the in the epistles, it is particularly divineness, in those laboratories of observable that the materials of

ours. COLERIDGE. allusion, comparison and metaphor, by which doctrinal points POWER OF THE WORLD IN MODIare illustrated, are derived almost

FYING THOUGHT. exclusively from the religious ob- Strange power of the world, servances of the Old Testament; that the moment we enter it, our the constitution and the principal | great conceptions dwarf ! officers of the Israelitic state; the

D'ISRAELI. site and the services of the Temple; the sacrifices and the altar; the holy place and the mercy- Thinking being inevitable, we seat.

DR. PYE SMITH, ought to be solicitous to think

THINKING.

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