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to speak of as “the grand style." a disposition on his part to allow There can be no difference of “the grand style

» to intrude opinion among reasonable men, elsewhere besides his studio. In that one of the first duties of 1820 the artist believed that he every mortal man who cannot was entering on a career more live without eating, and cannot splendid than had ever been the be comfortable without suitable lot of an English painter. His clothing and lodging, is to en- picture, “ The Entry of Christ deavor to provide these essentials into Jerusalem,” was exhibited for himself, and those dependent in London and was received with on him. If a hero, here is to be unqualified and enthusiastic apmanifested the first effort of his probation. It met with a recepheroism; if a genius, here should tion equally favourable in Edinbe witnessed the earliest flights burgh and Glasgow. By the mere of his genius ; if a poet, here is display of this celebrated painting, room for his primary struggle the artist cleared the sum of two after what is beautiful.

thousand two hundred pounds. Poor Haydon was far more dis- This large amount, with all that posed to cast his share of the he had received from numerous common burden on his immediate sources, did not relieve him from acquaintance, or on the common- pecuniary embarrassment. His wealth. The smaller and the friends were now numerous, and larger circle, not having as yet many of them were wealthy :sufficient evidence of his pre- from these he obtained, as loans, eminent worth, were somewhat considerable sums of nioney. All tardy in supporting him in this these however proved insufficient. manner. It was quite evident he He borrowed therefore from those could paint well; and if he would who were not so patient, and was condescend to paint portraits, soon placed in the King's Bench and such other pictures as his Prison. He was released through friends and the public wanted, the generosity of those who adthere were those who would re- mired his genius, and pardoned imburse him liberally. Such his follies. But a haughty spirit efforts however were regarded by soon led him to do battle with Haydon as beneath his notice ; the “ Academy,” and so to esand he was consequently in great trange many of his best friends. danger of starving, whilst en- His sufferings became extreme, gaged in painting some great and much of his time was spent picture by which his fortune was in prison; indeed he long reto be made, and his name immor- garded it as his home. Within its talized. It is evident, however, precincts he painted the Chairing that he did possess great power,

of the Member,” depicting on canand that circumstances did largely vass a mirthfulness to which his favor him. About the year 1814 soul had long been a stranger. Haydon received five hundred Other pictures were executed in guineas for one of his pictures, the same undesirable abode. The named “The Judgment of Solo- artist, gifted as he undeniably mon.” The sum was sufficient was, could not now extricate himto pay off such debts as he ought self from the thorny mazes into not to have contracted, and would which his own pride of heart had have secured him credit enough led him. to proceed in his efforts undis- Had he secured correct views turbed. Unfortunately there was of his powers and of his vocation,

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his path in middle and later life Oh, but the more venerable for might have been exceedingly thy rudeness, and even because pleasant. As it was the way be- we must pity as well as love thee! came exceedingly dreary, toilsome Hardly-entreated Brother! For and threatening He had been us was thy back so bent, for us accustomed to keep a journal, and were thy straight limbs and fingers had therein faithfully recorded so deformed : thou wert our conthe aspirations he indulged, often script, on whom the lot fell, and hopeful and lofty indeed. How fighting our battles wert so marwould his spirit have revolted red. For in thee too lay a Godwith horror, if, in 1820, created form, but it was not to be journal, as afterwards completed unfolded; encrusted must it stand by his own hand, could have been with the thick adhesions and despread in vision before him! In facements of labor; and thy Midsummer 1846, he made the body, like thy soul, was not to latest entries in the book which know freedom. Yet toil on, toil had often been opened to receive on; thou art in thy duty, be out the glowing anticipations of his of it who may; thou toilest for the sanguine spirit. They read thus : altogether indispensable, for daily -"June 21st,-Slept horribly. bread. A second man I honor, and Prayed in sorrow, and got up in still more highly: him who is agitation. “June 22nd, -God seen toiling for the spiritually forgive me! Amen. Finis of indispensable ; not daily bread, B. R. Haydon.”

but the Bread of Life. Is not We pass no judgment on the he too in his duty ; endeavoreternal state of the sufferer. No ing towards inward harmony; doubt his brain was seriously revealing this, by act or by word, affected by the miserable priva- through all his outward endeations and degradation through vors, be they high or low ? which he had long been passing. Highest of all, when his outward But whilst we leave the soul with and his inward endeavorare God, the Judge of all, we feel one: when we name him sadness of heart that Haydon, artist ; not earthly craftsman possessed of talents so great, only, but inspired thinker, who should have been so terribly in- with heaven-made implements jured by his own fatal error. conquers heaven for us! If the Benjamin Smith.

poor and humble toil that we

have food, must not the high THE MOST HONORABLE.

and glorious toil for him in re6. Two men I honor, and no turn, that he have light, have third. First: The toilworn crafts- guidance, freedom, immortality ? man, that with earth-made imple- These two, in all' their degrees, I ment laboriously conquers the

honor: all else is chaff and dust, earth, and makes her man's. which let the wind blow whither Venerable to me is the hard it listeth. Unspeakably touching hand ; crooked, coarse ; wherein is it, however, when I find both notwithstanding lies a cunning dignities united ; and he that virtue, indefeasibly royal, as of must toil outwardly for the lowest the sceptre of this planet. Ven- of man's wants, is also toiling erable too is the rugged face, all inwardly for the highest. Subweather-tanned, besoiled, with its limer in this world know I rude intelligence; for it is the nothing than a peasant saint, face of a man living manlike. could such now anywhere be met [We hold it to be the duty of an Editor either to give an early notice of the books sent to him for remark, or to return them at once to the Publisher. It is unjust to praise worthless books; it is robbery to retain unnoticed ones.)

can

with. Such a one will take thee back to Nazareth itself; thou wilt see the splendor of heaven spring forth from the humblest

depths of earth, like a light shin. ing in great darkness.”—Thomas Carlile, Sartor Resartus, p. 246.

Literary Notices.

THE REVIEWER'S

CANON

In every work regard the author's end,
Since none can compass more than they intend.

OLD TRUTH AND MODERN SPECULATIONS. By J. ROBERTSON, D.D.

Glasgow. Second Edition. London: Wm. Oliphant and Co. THE work consists of three parts: the first comprising discussions on The Folly of Atheism, The Incredibility of Pantheism, The True God, and The Unreasonableness of Unbelief. The second part-discussions on the Evil of Sin, The Atonement, The Work of the Spirit, The Moral Influence of Christianity, The Functions of Faith, and The Two Representatives : and the third part discussions on The Constitution and Office of the Church, The Second Advent, and The Heart's State. It will be seen that the subjects of this book belong to the most vital of the themes that challenge human reflection, and also to that class which the active sceptical intelligence of our Country is continually projecting into the current of religious thought. The author examines the Old and the New with a keen eye, a tolerably fair judgment, and a soberly orthodox spirit. There is so much dry thinking, and theological statement here, that a few flashes of genial humor, or poetic sentiment would have been a great relief. On the whole the book is very valuable, and we heartily commend it to those whose proclivities are towards modern speculations.

CHAMBERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA. A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge

for the People. Illustrated with Maps and numerous Engrav.

ings. Vol. I. London: W. and R. Chambers, 47, Paternoster Row. This is the first volume of one of the greatest and most useful literary undertakings to which even the popularly educational and the

famously enterprizing House of CHAMBERS has ever set itself about. Having already called the attention of our readers to the high merits by which it is proposed to distinguish this Encyclopædia from all others extant, it is only needful for us to add that we regard this first volume as a satisfactory assurance that the promises in the prospectus will be realized to the utmost extent. We are truly glad that the publishers have renounced their intention of giving little more than a translation of the Conversations-Lexicon of the Germans; and that they have resolved upon merely adopting that celebrated work as a model, and appropriating only so much of its contents as would reach the present stage of English intelligence, and as would prove truly serviceable to the English mind. We shall watch the progress of this great work with much interest, and call the attention of our readers to it as the volumes successively appear. Meanwhile, we heartily recommend it to our large and growing circle of cleric readers as one of the most useful works they could place on their shelves. He who examines this first volume will discover excellencies that will urge him, at almost any sacrifice, to make himself possessor of the whole work.

THE LIFE OF CHRIST IN ITS TRUE HUMANITY. An Argument from

Reason and Scripture for the Absolute Deity and Perfect Humanity of our Lord Jesus Christ. By a LAYMAN. London: Ward and Co.

The office of Reason, in reference to Revelation, the Nature and Object of the Mission of Christ consonant to Reason, the Evidences of the Deity of Christ, the Distinction of the Divine and Human Nature. The nature, extent and results of the atonement, and the practical results arising out of the views presented on the subject are the leading themes of this volume. As the author is an intelligent layman--for his arguments are addressed not ad clerium, but ad populum, his language is happily free from theological technicalities and professional modes of discussion, and thus far more intelligible to the common understanding and attractive to the common mind. We thoroughly sympathize with the author on this point when he says in relation to Christianity,—“That considering that it presents its claims to the whole human family, that it interweaves, or should interweave, itself with every thought of our heart and every action of our life, it is surely desirable that our conversation and writing upon it should harmonize as far as possible with the ordinary forms of language and not be in a jargon known only to the initiated.” The discussion is carried on throughout in a clear language, a convincing force, and a spirit of devoutness, catholicity, and candor.

SACRAMENTAL ADDRESSES AND MEDITATIONS. By the late Rev.

HENRY BELFRAGE, D.D., Falkirk. Sixth Edition. Complete in one volume. Edinburgh : Wm. Oliphant and Co.

For some years these valuable Sacramental Addresses have been out of print, and we are truly glad to receive in one handsome volume the one hundred addresses which in the previous editions occupied two volumes. As to the addresses themselves our opinion goes a great way with the judgment expressed concerning them by the late Professor BALMER, of Berwick.-" These addresses are characterized by extraordinary variety and richness, and what was hardly to be expected in combination with these qualities, by great appropriate. ness. If the expression may be allowed, they are redolent with love and salvation; they breathe the atmosphere of the Redeemer's longsufferings, and of the glory that followed.” Ministers by catching something of the holy fire that glows in them, and the sweet key-notes of redemptive thought which ring in every page, can scarcely fail to be assisted in their endeavor to form for themselves suitable addresses on sacramental occasions.

THE PILGRIM Psalms: An exposition of the Songs of Degrees.

Psalms cxx.xxxiv. By the Rev. N. MÖMICHAEL, D.D. Dumferline, Professor of the History of Doctrine to the United Presbyterian Church. Edinburgh: Wm. Oliphant and Co.

The Songs of Degrees ! What are they? Take the author's remarks on the question :-"There is considerable diversity of opinion with reference to the origin and meaning of the title, Songs of Degrees ;literally, Songs of Ascent. It is a favorite notion of the Jews, that they were sung on the Temple stairs, which led up from the women's court to that of the men ; and that each was sung on a different step, (fifteen it is said in number) until the highest was reached. Luther derived the name from the elevated place occupied by the singers and musical performers. Hence he calls them songs in high chorus, from the lofty position of the orchestra. It is supposed by some that they were a kind of marching songs, sung by the Hebrews on their return from Babylon. This was their Anabasis, their going up to Judea. According to a fourth class, this name was given them because they were sung by the Pilgrims when they went up to Jeru. salem at their annual festivals, to give thanks unto the name of the Lord. The last opinion is the most probable ; but it is not incon. sistent with the idea, that some of an earlier date would be sung by the captives on their journey from the land of idols !

They are em

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