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suffering. Our social evils are but the reflex of our social mistakes and misdoings.

26.-"He hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor.” How is this scripture reconcileable with the facts which are seen around us? In England, for example, the gospel may be preached to those who will hear it, but is it not however an incontrovertible fact, that only those classes desigpated “middling” and “upper” are to be found in our churches and chapels. The bulk of the laboring, poorand destitute classes will not enter our places of worship, and do not otherwise come directly under the influence of gospel preaching.

VIRGITATE ET ORATE.

27.- Is

“ The Revival movement,” as carried on during the last two years in this country, and as advocated by certain religionists, worthy the support of those intelligent and spriritual Christians, who believe that true religion is not fear of hell, but love of God ?-John.

28.-Is it a right and proper thing to be constantly endeavoring to get from children, who have no conviction of the importance of the object, their pence for missionary and other religious enterprises ?-F. L.

29.-Would any of your readers favor us with an explanation, or a suggestive outline on Gal. ii. 20, especially the former part of the verse, and “Moses from Mount Pisgah viewing the promised land ?--R.

The Pulpit and its Three Handmaids.

HISTORY, SCIENCE, ART.

THE SUFFERINGS OF JESUS

CHRIST. Some persons, while “looking to Jesus," see no farther than the physical sufferings produced by transfixion to the cross. They think of the bodily pain He endured, and of nothing else. This is a very inadequate view of the dying agonies of Immanuel. If pain in the flesh was all He felt, many a servant surpasses his master ; many a disciple is above his Lord. In the records of martyrology, we read of martyrs who suffered pain more acute, and more protracted, than the torture that hrilled the body of the Son of Jod. Yet we know that there s no sorrow like the sorrow of Tesus Christ, and that on the

cross, as elsewhere. He was preeminently the “man of sorrows. Among other things, a circumstance at the crucifixion itself shows, that He was the subject of something more grievous to be borne than physical pain. He was comparatively young ; He was healthful and without sin ; consequently there must have been extraordinary tenacity of life in His constitution ; yet He died beneath His sufferings, sooner than the crucified malefactors ; for when the soldiers came to hasten the death of all, by breaking their bones; they broke the bones of the thieves, but they broke not the bones of Jesus Christ, seeing that He already dead.

The principal

was

" It

sufferings of Jesus Christ were ficial glance thereat will supply. mental sufferings—agonies that The anguish and horror that overpierced His righteous soul. whelmed our Saviour when He pleased the Father to bruise him, felt conscious that the Father and put him to grief.” Hence, had forsaken Him, we cannot the awful words : “My God, my fully comprehend ; but by looking God, why hast thou forsaken beyond the corporeal pain to the me ?"

This fact is well set mental agony He endured, we see forth in the painting of the cru- sufficient to impress us with the cifixion, by Tintoretto. On this infinite love of God, in sparing painting a skilful critic remarks : not His own Son, but delivering * In the common and most ca- Him up for us all. No marvel tholic treatment of the crucifix- that the life which would have ion, the mind is either painfully long resisted bodily sufferings, directed to the bodily agony, quickly sank under the pressure coarsely expressed by outward of spiritual anguish; that the anatomical signs, or it is per- heart which quailed not before mitted to reston that countenance the wrath of man was broken by which is inconceivable by man at the bereavement Jesus suffered any time, but chiefly so in its when forsaken by the Father consummated humiliation. In causing Him to utter the mortal the first case, the representation cry “It is finished," and give up is revolting ; in the second case the Ghost. Let us, then, mediit is inefficient and false. The tate lesson the external, and greatest religious painters have more on the internal, agony of failed here. But Tintoretto, the Son of God; so shall we see penetrating into the root and more clearly the exceeding sindeep places of his subject, neg- fulness of sin, and know more lecting outward and bodily ap- deeply the greatness of the love pearances of pain, and seeking of Christ, until we see Him, not for some

means of expressing, as the man of sorrows, but as the not the rack of nerve and sinew, king in His beauty on His gloribut the fainting of the deserted ous high throne.-J. P. WRIGHT. Son of God, has, on the one hand,

INCARNATION ILLUSTRATED filled his picture with such var

BY ANALOGY. ious and impetuous muscular exertion, that the body of the cru- “But how was God in flesh ? As cified is by comparison in perfect fire is in iron, not by being repose ; and, on the other hand, changed into it, but communithe countenance is cast altogether cated to it. For the fire does into shade. But, the agony is not run forth to the iron, but retold by this and by this only; maining in its place, communithat, though there yet remains a cates its peculiar virtue, and is chasm of light on the horizon not diminished by the communi. where the darkness closes on the cation, although it fills with itday, the broad and sun-like glory self the whole of the object which about the head of the Redeemer has partakes of it. Thus, then, the become wan and of the color of Word neither underwent change ashes!"

of place, although he dwelt among Thus Art combines with Theo- us, nor a change of nature, though logy to give us a deeper know- He became flesh. Neither was ledge of the sufferings of Jesus heaven left empty of Him who Christ on the cross than a super- fills it, and yet earth received PAINTER the aspect of the fire; it acquires the glow of “ Like a painter, the mind dethe fire without darkening the lineates its thoughts on the tafire ; it emits flame without ex- blet of the soul. Possessed of tinguishing that of the fire. In free will, it is unconfined and like manner, our Lord's flesh was unfettered, and on account of its received into union with Divinity, incorporeality there are no limits without communicating to li- to the exercise of its love for devinity its own infirmities. You picting, for it finds as much space are not to ascribe to this mortal for the delineation of its ideas as nature an effect analogous to that it chooses. of the fire, and imagine that it Again, just as the painter, imacts on the Divine, but only that mediately after filling his canvass it is acted on by it in accordance with the various figures that make with the analogy which, on ac- up the picture, produces it, and count of human weakness, you removing its coverings, exhibits make use of. Nor need you be it to the gaze of the multitude, at a loss to conceive how the in- no longer requiring to explain corruptible nature can remain what he has painted, but allowing unaffected, having the familiar the painting

THE

man

COMPARED

TO

A

into her bosom the heavenly One. night, is overcome by the beams Dream not of a descent of the of the sun when he has become Divinity, for He does not migrate warm, so death reigned till the from place to place, like beings in- appearance of Christ ; but when vested with bodies. Do not ima- the saving grace of God was regine that the Divinity is changed vealed, and the Sun of righteousinto flesh and altered in nature, ness arose, death was swallowed for Heis immutable and immortal, up in victory. It could not abide Is it asked how the Divine

the presence of the true light. Word was not affected with hu- Oh the depth of the goodness and

weakness ? We reply : love of God!”-Sermon on the fire does not take on the proper- Nativity.-Basil. ties of the iron heated by it. Iron

THE is black and cold, but when

MIND heated, assumes

to explain itself : so spectacle before you—for I still also the soul on its departure keep by the same image—of the from this life is stripped of the fire unconsumed and unaffected veil of the body which covered by the rust of the iron which is the tablet within during the whole heated by it.

of life, while the process of paintLearn the mystery why God ing it with ideas was going on ; is in the flesh. It is that He it shows in distinct outline what may slay death, who lies lurking has been depicted on it; and the in human nature. For as poisons tablet of the soul filled with its lodged in the body are neutralised varied tale lies uncovered for the by introducing antidotes into it, inspection of the universe. and as the darkness which reigns If sacred lessons and virtuous in the house is dissipated at the thoughts have been the subjects entrance of light, so death, which of the pencil, then the mind which tyrannized in human nature, van- drew, and the tablet which conished at the advent and entrance tains the picture, are judged worof Divivity. And as the conge- thy of the highest encomiums. lation, which binds in rigidity Fascinated with its beauty, the the particles of water during spectators are unwilling to withthose things, that he may be nor the pleasant fragrance of heard intelligently, willingly and flowers, and ointments, and spices, obediently ; and if he is able to not manna and honey, not mem- do this, let him not doubt that bers acceptable to corporeal em- the degree in which he is able to braces. It is not these I love do it is to be ascribed rather to when I love my God ; and yet I the piety of his prayers than to love a light, and a voice, and a the power of his oratory ; so that fragrance, and a nourishment, he must be a pleader by praying

draw their eyes from the spec. | when I love my God—the light, tacle, but all admire the loveliness the voice, the fragrance, the food, of the picture—the figures, the the embrace of my inner man ; divinely graceful forms of the where there gleams on my soul objects depicted, and felicitate what is not contained by place, that divine painter on the noble and where there sounds what time use to which he has turned this does not grasp, and where a fragearthly life, by employing it in rance is emitted which is not painting on the tablet of the soul, scattered by the breeze, and where with beauty-loving hand, pictures there is a savor which is not lessurpassing in loveliness the loftiest sened by eating, and where there ideals of the beholders' minds. adheres that which satiety does

But if these paintings turn not tear away. It is this I love, out unseemly and disgraceful, when I love my God. And what then the painter will manifestly is this ? I asked the earth and deserve shame and derision. Far it said, it is not I; and whatever different, perhaps, were the hopes is in it admitted the same. I he cherished previous to the un- asked the sea and its depths, covering of his picture. His fond and the living things that creep expectations are all dissipated there, and they answered, we when the veil is removed and his are not thy God; seek above us. work is shown to the spectators. I asked the blasts of wind, and

Whither, then, shall that artist the universal air with its inhabiflee, who is weighed in the balance tants said, Anaximenes is in error, with the other, is found wanting, I am not God. I asked the hea. and is condemned by all, his own ven, the sun, the moon, the stars, thoughts the meanwhile accusing, and they said, neither are we the or else excusing one another? God you seek. And I said to all Where shall that tablet of the

those things which surround the soul be placed that has filled the

gateways of sense, ye have said beholders' eyes with every shame- to me concerning my God, that ful sight and monstrous idea ?”- ye are not he; tell me something Treatise on True Virginity. Ibid. of him ? And they all exclaimed

with a loud voice, He made us."Confessions, x. 6.-AUGUSTINE.

WHAT WE LOVE WHEN WE LOVE

GOD.

“ With no doubtful, but with WHAT MAKES A PREACHER ! certain consciousness, O Lord, I love Thee !

But

"And so that eloquent preacher what do I love when I love Thee ? of ours labors when he speaks Not the beauty of corporeal form, what is just, and holy, and good nor the gracefulness of time, nor --for he ought to deliver nothing the brightness of light so grateful that is not so,-he labors, I say, to these eyes, nor the sweet melo- to the utmost when he speaks dies of songs of every measure,

for himself and those whom he is spoken by us in the right way to address before he is a preacher. but He in whose hands both we On the approach of the hour in and our sermons are ? And thus which he is to speak, let him raise let him who wishes both to know his thirsting soul to God, that he and to teach learn all that he may send forth what he has drunk requires to teach, and acquire the in, and pour out that with which faculty of speaking as becomes he has replenished his spirit. For an ecclesiastic; but at the hour since on every subject which has of preaching let him think that to be treated in relation to faith more suitable to a pious mind is and love, there are many things what our Lord says : 'Take no to be said, and many ways in thought how or what ye shall which they are expressed, by those speak; for it shall be given you who know them; who knows in that hour what ye shall speak; what is best for us to say, or to for it is not ye that speak, but be said through us, but He who the spirit of your Father that scans the hearts of all ? And speaketh in you.'"-Treatise on who makes the right word to be Christian Doctrine, iv. 52.-Ibid.

Literary Notices.

[WE hold it to be the duty of an Editor either to give an early notice of the books sent to him for remark, or to return them at once to the Publisher. It is unjust to praise worthless books; it is robbery to retain unnoticed ones.]

THE REVIEWER'S CANON.

In every work regard the author's end,

Since none can compass more than they intend. TRAVELS, RESEARCHES, AND MISSIONARY LABORS, during an Eigh

teen Years' Residence in Eastern Africa. By the Rev. Dr. J.

LEWIS KRAPF. London: Trübner and Co. This work, translated from the German, is interesting not only from its relation to the Missionary enterprize and to geographical discovery, but also from the character of the author. He appears to be uncommonly simple-hearted, and consecrated to his work with an unusual entireness of zeal and affection. He makes a very unnecessary apology for plainness of style-but in these days of Auent and pedantic scribbling and schoolboy rhetoric, such plain ness is very much to our taste, and almost as great a curiosity as a black swan.

His way of writing is manly and business-like, and he has so much to say that he has no time or thought to bestow on mere rigmarole, but rushes at once into his subject.

The work is autobiographical, and the first chapter deals wholly with personal details. Ludwig Krapf was born in 1810, at the

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