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to which the Hittites filed, and built a city, and called the name

thereof Luz :* which [is] the name thereof unto this day. 27 Neither did Manasseh, that is, the half tribe which dwelt in

Canaan, drive out (the inhabitants of] Bethshean and her towns, nor Taanach and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Dor and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Ibleam and her towns, nor the inhabitants of Megiddo and her towns : but the Canaanites would dwell in that land. After the death of Joshua they grew remiss in driving out the remain

der of the Canaanites, but made peace with them, which was 28 the first step of their defection. And it came to pass, when

Israel was strong, and could easily have driven them out, that yet, through cowardice or covetousness, they put the

Canaanites to tribute, and did not utterly drive them out. 29 Neither did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites that dwelt in

Gezer ; but the Canaanites dwelt in Gezer among them, 30 Neither did Zebulun drive out the inhabitants of Kitron, nor

the inhabitants of Nahalol ; but the Canaanites dwelt among 31 them and became tributaries. Neither did Asher drive out

the inhabitants of Accho, nor the inhabitants of Zidon, nor of

Ahlab, nor Achzib, nor of Helbah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rehob: 32 But the Asherites dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants

of the land : for they did not drive them out ; and this was the 33 source of all the miseries of Israel. Neither did Naphtali drive

out the inhabitants of Bethshemesh, northe inhabitants of Bethanath ; but he dwelt among the Canaanites, the inhabitants of the land : nevertheless the inhabitants of Bethshemesh and

of Bethanath became tributaries unto them. 34 And the Amorites forced the children of Dan into the

mountain : for they would not suffer them to come down to 35 the valley : But the Amorites would dwell in mount Heres in

Aijalon, and in Shaalbim : yet the hand of the house of Jo36 seph prevailed, so that they became tributaries. And the

coast of the Amorites [was] from the going up to Akrabbim, from the rock, and upward.t

It is generally thought to be in Arabia, because there, as Josephus tells us, is a city of that name.

+ We cannot be very exact in the situation of these places. Some cities are said to be taken several times; the Canaanites were driven out, and then probably returned ; and thus there were continual struggles between them and the Israelites, for want of courage and faith in the promises of Cod.


. TROM the history of Adonizebek we learn the uncer

T tainty of human greatness, and how easily God brings down pride. He had conquered seventy princes ; at length he is conquered himself, and treated as he had used them. God is righteous ; tyrants and oppressors are an abomination unto him ; and their shame and ruin are generally more grievous, in proportion to the extent and greatness of their tyranny. Considering the surprising alterations in the circumstances of many princes, we have no reason to envy their condition ; they are set in slippery places : and the meanest of their subjects, who are contented with their lot, are much happier persons.

2. The cheerfulness with which Caleb enlarged his daughter's portion, shames those parents who grudge their children a reasonable part of their possessions. When they are dutiful and obedient, every thing reasonable ought to be done to encourage them ; otherwise they will be exposed to many temptations, which parents, for their own sakes, as well as their children's, should endeavour to prevent.

3. How sad is it to see persons losing that comfort which they might enjoy, through a careless and negligent spirit. This was the case with the Israelites ; they suffered the Canaanites to be among them, and by this they lost large tracts of good ground, and found them to be so many plagues and scourges to them. God sets blessings often before us, and is ready to help us, if we will but exert ourselves ; the diligent hand maketh rich. In spiritual things it is so : God is ready to assist us against our ene. mies, and make us more than conquerors ; but if we live at our ease, sink into sloth, and are terrified by every little difficulty, the consequence will be fatal ; bad habits will be confirmed, we shall lose what we have at present, and, which will be far the worst of all, shall fall short of the kingdom of heaven.


We have here a particular message sent to Israel by an angel, and

the effect it had ; (then follows a general summary of the whole. book ;) their idolatry, their punishment, and their deliverance. 1 AND an angel of the LORD came up from Gilgal to

0 Bochim,* and said, I made you to go up out of Egypt, and have brought you unto the land which I sware unto your

. Some say this was a prophet; but I rather suppose it was an angel, such as usually appeared on any great occasion, and such as we read ot afterward in this book. The people were probably met at one of their great fcasts; the angel appeared to come from Gilgal, to remind them of the covenant they had renewed there. VOL. II.


fathers ; and I said, I will never break my covenant with you, 2 if you do not break with me by apostacy and idolatry. And ye

shall make no league with the inhabitants of this land ; ye shall throw down their altars : but ye have not obeyed my voice, ye have broken your promise and the divine precept.

He then er postulates with them, saying, Why have ye done 3 this, and disobeyed so express a command? Wherefore I also

said, I will not drive them out from before you ; but they

shall be [as thorns) in your sides, and their gods shall be a 4 snare unto you. And it came to pass, when the angel of the

LORD spake these words unto all the children of Israel, that the people lifted up their voice, and wept, to think how greatly they had offended. God, and to what judgments they were now

liabte ; but there were few true penitents among them, as ap5 pears from what follows. And they called the name of that

place Bochim, that is, weepers ; and they sacrificed there unto the LORD, to expiate their past sin, to regain his favour, and lay themselves under fresh obligations. As the death of Joshua and the elders made way for their revolt, these circumstances are repeated, v, 6 10.

And when Joshua had let the people go, the children of Israel went every man unto his inheritance to possess the 7 land. And the people served the LORD all the days of Josh

ua, and all the days of the elders that outlired Joshua, who had

seen all the great works of the LORD, that he did for Israel. 8 And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of the LORD, died, .9 [being] an hundred and ten years old. And they buried him

in the border of his inheritance in Timnathheres, in the mount

of Ephraim, on the north side of the hill Gaash. 10 And also that generation, who had seen his wonders in Ca.

naan, at Jordan and Jericho, and the sun standing still, were gathered together unto their fathers : and there arose another generation after them, which knew not the LORD, nor yet the works which he had done for Israel ; who were spoiled by their plenty and peace, and had no such sensible experience of

the goodness and power of God as their forefathers had, and so Il were not wrought upon truly to know and fear him. And the

children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, whose eyes 12 ruere always upon them, and served Baalim. And they for

sook the Lord God of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed other gods, of the gods of the people that [were] round about them, the idols of the hea.

then, and bowed themselves unto them, publicly adored and 13 worshipped them, and provoked the LORD to anger. And they

forsook the LORD, and served Baal and Ashtaroth, the sun and

moon, and all the gods and goddesses of their neighbours. 1 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he

delivered them into the hands of spoilers that spoiled them,

married away their persons and effects, and he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about, so that they could not any longer stand before their enemies ; he gave

them over, as the seller does the things bought to the hand of the 15 buyer. Whithersoever they went out, the hand of the LORD

was against them for evil, as the LORD had said, and as the LORD had sworn unto them: and they were greatly distressed. God opposed all their undertakings, crossed all their enterprises, brought those mischiefs upon them which were threatened by Moses, and suffered their enemies to tyrannize over them with great cruelty.

Nevertheless, the Lord raised up judges, which delivered them out of the hand of those that spoiled them, some of whim continued in this office all their lives ; others were raised up for some particular service, and then became private men again.

God först brought them to repentance by their afflictions, and then 17 raised up a deliverer. And yet they would not hearken unto

their judges, who admonished them, and probably punished them for their idolatry ; but they went a whoring after other gods, and bowed themselves unto them, broke their covenant engagements, and proved false' to God : they turned quickly out of the way which their fathers walked in, obeying the commandments of the LORD ; [but] they did not so ; and, as soon as the admonition or terror was gone, relapsed to their old sins, and 18 were as bad as ever. And when the Logd raised them up

judges, then the LORD was with the judge, and delivered them out of the hand of their enemies all the days of the judge : for it repented the Lord because of their groanings by reason of them that oppressed them and vexed them ; when they altered their course and became humble, God altered his methods of dealing with them. And it came to pass, when the judge was dead, [that] they returned, and corrupted [themselves) more than their fathers, in following other gods to serve them, and to bow down unto them ; they ceased not from their own doings, nor from their stubborn way, but persisted in this wickredness, notwithstanding all that had been done to favour or pun. ish them.

And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel ; and he said, Because that this people hath transgressed my cove.' nant which I commanded their fathers, and have not hearken

ed unto my voice, to the repeated admonitions sent them by my 31 furopkets, I also will not henceforth drive out any from before

them of the nations which Joshua left when he died; what.

ever attempts they may make, I will not assist them, as I have 32 formerly done ; That through them I may prove Israel, try

their faith 'and obedience, whether they will keep the way of the LORD to walk therein, as their fathers did keep [it] or

23 not. Therefore the LORD left those nations, without driving

them out hastily ; neither delivered he them into the hand of Joshua ; he restrained Joshua from going on in his conquests, and left some of the old inhabitants among them, to see whether they would be proof against temptations to idolatry ; otherwise they would be a punishment and torment to Israel, and God would be justified in all the judgments he should bring upon them.


1. TTTE learn hence, that there may be sorrow for sin, and

prayer to God, without reformation. The Israelites wept, and sacrificed unto the Lord, and prayed over it ; but immediately after rebelled, and grew worse than before. This is commonly seen among us ; persons are melted under the word, impressed with a sense of sin, brought to tears of contrition, from the fear of hell or some general sense of having provoked God. They offer many prayers for forgiveness, and yet return to folly ; grow as bad, or worse than before. But this is not that godly sorrow which worketh repentance unto salvation. Let us, therefore, not think this sufficient. If the heart be truly broken for sin, it will be attended with a reformation of all that has been amiss. Let none deceive themselves ; he that doeth righteousness is righteous,

2. The folly and presumption of the Israelites in turning to *strange gods, after all the miracles, warnings, and admonitions they had received is very affecting. They had some little sense of decency while their judges lived, but no good principles. How strange was their stupidity in forsaking God and following idols ! But such is the nature of sin ; it hardens the hearts of men, and then, contrary to the remonstrances of God's word, and the convictions of conscience, they run headlong into ruin. The more we have seen and known of God, the more solemnly we have professed to obey him, the greater will our shame and guilt be if we forsake him.

3. It is just in God to make those our torment and vexation, whom, by the neglect of our duty, we make our friends and associates. God commanded Israel to root out the Canaanites, and to avoid their society ; but they would not hear ; therefore God left them to scourge and tyrannize over them. Thus, if men, instead of mortifying their lusts and subduing their corrupt passions, will indulge them, allow them to live, and to govern them, God will give them up to their own heart's lusts, and they will suffer the dreadful consequences of their own neglect. He consults our ease and happiness in all his commands, and we must not expect either if we neglect his commandments. In like manner, if those who have been warned and admonished will be the compan

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