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abasement; but, that they might not lose the remembrance of such an act of kindness, or rather to prolong their humiliation, they were obliged to send to the chief magistrate of Rome an annual deputation, which, in the most humble posture, paid a hundred crowns as a mark of their gratitude. The capitol was a scene of this unworthy imitation of the homages which the tributary kings of Asia formerly came to pay to the Roman senate.

Plagued in every outward act of life, the Jews of Rome were also tormented in their conscience. By virtue of an injunction, equally ridiculous and barbarous, they were obliged every sabbath to hear a sermon, in which a Dominican, with a thundering voice, endeavoured to convert them by maledictions; and shewed them hell gaping to swallow them up, if they did not hasten to take refuge in the bosom of the church. In vain did the poor wretches strive to elude these periodical exhortations, equally tiresome and useless. They conceived the idea of stopping up their ears. Their ears were subjected to the examination of their tormentors. They slept, or feigned to sleep. They were shook till they awoke; and no resource remained but coughing, spitting, and yawning. At length they came out of church somewhat worse Christians than when they went in; some laughing at the imbeci. lity of their tyrants, and others cursing a religion which employed such means in order to make proselytes. It may be truly said that Pius VI. who, by a few good actions performed during his long career, had incurred some little suspicion of humanity; it may be truly said, that he laid a greater load of intolerance upon these unfortunate victims than any one of his predecessors. They had more than one tribute to pay to his rapacity; of which the effects were so fatal to himself, and the produce so ill employed. He seemed to have an exclusive taste for brilliant enterprises. Those which were only useful had no charms for his vanity. Instead of burying millions in the Pontine marshes ; instead of impoverishing his treasury to enrich the sacristy of St. Peter's, to embellish his abbe of Subiaco, and to establish at Cesena, his native place, a sumptuous library, which he could very well have dispensed with, why did he not employ the surplus of his revenue in carrying on the repairs begun by his predecessors in the port of Ancona? in confining to their beds the rivers of La Romagna and of the Ferrarese; in draining the marshes of those two provinces; and in thus restoring to salubrity and fertility a country formerly so wholesome, and in so high a state of cultivation. The only means which he employed to improve it consisted in the making and repairing of roads; and even this was done by oppressive means, which served only to add to the misery of the people. Contrace tors attended at the Apostolical Chamber, and proposed to him the making of a new road. Their plan met with his approbation. They advanced the money for its execution ; but, in order to reimburse them afterwards, the parishes interested in the work were arbitrarily taxed by the Apostolical Chamber. The pope had thus, it must be confessed, made several new roads, and had


repaired the old ones; and, at the moment when he finished his pontificate, it was the part of his administration the least neglected. But to how much discontent did he give rise, even when busied in undertakings, which, if better contrived, might have been useful to the people? He appeared insensible to their murmurs. Captivated with every thing that was likely to spread his fame to distant regions, he interested himself little in the public welfare. The father of the faithful forgot that he ought also to be the father of his subjects. He took no concern but for himself and his family; and even his affection for his nephews was only a modification of self-love.


( By a French Oficer, long resident at Constantinople, written in 1797.)

The Turkish Empire, was long regarded as a colossal power. The fall of a great empire, which marked its origin, the exploits and fortunate fanaticism of its first conquerors, the immense extent of country subjected to its dominion, its establishment in Europe, whose people were its natural enemies, have raised this exaggerated idea of its power. It has however, for a long time, been hastening to its ruin. Montesquieu predicted it, and for the last half century, France has laboured to prevent it. The last wars with the Russians and Austrians, have again discovered its weak. ness.

It would be difficult to believe, did not experience prove it, that this nation, without having suffered any considerable loss of territory, should nevertheless fall so far below her ancient power. In vain have her partisans persuaded themselves, that if the enemies of the Porte, penetrated beyond the two Christian provinces, which she is accustomed to regard as the arena, on which her quarrels are decided, she could punish them; and carry to the walls of Vienna the terrors she formerly spread there. They denied that the Turks had been beaten by armies greatly inferior to their own in numbers ; and pretended that the Russians and Austrians, prevailed only in their own magnificent relations, over the silence of the Turks. Those who have resided in Turkey, entertain very different opinions. And there is every reason to believe that the abuses existing when these observations were penned, are only multiplied, and encreased.

· For the sake of order, we shall take each branch of the mili. tary establishment separately; beginning with

ENGINEERING. · The Turks have no engineers, except four or five pupils of the VOL. 2.-NO. 10.



French engineer, Lafitte Clave. The most skilful of these is scarcely acquainted with the plan of a fortification, and a few principles of rectilinear trigonometry. They would be as embarrassed as the most ignorant Turks, if required to erect fortifications. Practice, necessary in all states, and especially in this, they are quite chestitute of; and they are far from having theory enough to supply the deficiency. So that the Porte always prefers foreigners, who are supposed to have some knowledge* But even when French Engineers of the first merit have been employed, such as Lafitte, Monnier, &c. the pride or avarice of the commissaries, have always either impaired their plans, or delayed their execution. To the same cause is owing the decay of strong places, which they had formerly conquered. Far from seeking to fortify their natural defences of rivers and mountains, they have left them to decay, and upon a frontier of more than three huna dred leagues, there are hardly eight or ten strong places; which should rather be called posts.

They are not more advanced in field fortification. To dig a fosse and throw the earth behind it, or to oppose artillery by an earthen parapet, is all they know how to accomplish. In vain Lafitte the engineer, and Choiseul Gouffer caused treatises on fortifications to be translated and printed in the Turkish tongue. The Turks do not read them, and follow their old errors, of the vices of which they must have been a thousand times sensible, had they the powers of reflection, and amendment. The Porte keeps a corpse of three hundred miners, (lagherndgy) as ignorant as the engineers. They are so uncertain of the success of their work, that they employ twenty times more powder than is nea cessary; and their mines often destroy themselves.

Such a state of things makes it difficult to beliere, what many authors says, that the first bastions were constructed at Otranto, in 1480 by Achmet Pacha, General of Mahomet the Second. Probably the Turks had not the honour of this invention. The second “ enceinte," at Angora, is flanked by towers, strengthened with bastions. It is said to have been constructed by the Greeks, and doubtless such a discovery must be due to those engineers who survived the empire of the east, and entered into the Turkish service. The same is the case with respect to the parallel lines, which the Turks first used at the siege of Condia. They were imagined by an Italian; but the Ottomans had the good sense to adopt them.

[To be contin ued.) * The famous Capitan Pacha Hassan, chose for the first engineer of the empire, a sailor (a French carpenter) without education, He was employed to build forts, and ships of the line,

A Chronological

A Chronological and Historical Account from the first building a Bridge

across the River Thames, from Lonelon to Southwark, till the Conflagration of the Temporary Bridge, the Uth of April, 1758.




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A NUMBER of plans being now before the Committee for repairing or rebuilding London Bridge, the following short account of it may not be unacceptable to many of your readers :

“ The first bridge across the river Thames, at London, stood over-against Botolph-Wharf, and was built of wood, soon after the year 993, which was burnt down A. D. 1136; but as it was so very ruinous as to be new built, A. D. 1163, I suppose the old one had been only repaired.

The continual and large expences in maintaining and repairing a wooden bridge, becoming burthensome to the people, it was resolved to build one of stone, a little to the westward of the former, being the spot where it now stands; whereon was also built a chapel, dedicated to St. Thomas, which was the first building thereon. This bridge was about 33 years in building, and was finished A. D. 1209. However, in about 70 years time it was so ruinated that the citizens were obliged to apply to king Edward the first for its repairs, who granted them a brief for that purpose; but this not proving effectual for so expensive a work, next year his majesty granted his letters patent for collecting toll, viz. For every horseman one penny, and every pack one hallpenny: About four years after this stone bridge was finished, a great fire broke out in Southwark, which taking hold of St. Mary Overy's, the flames thereof, by means of a strong southerly wind, communicated to the north end of the bridge, which 'interrupted the passage, and stopped the return of the multitude of people who had ran from London thereto, and while the cro'd were in vain striving to force a passage to the city, through the flames on the north end of the bridge, a fire broke out at the South end also; so that being inclosed between two great fires, 3000 people pesished in the flames, or were drowned by overloading the vessels which ventured to their assistance. Also, five arches of this bridge were destroyed by the ice and floods, after a great frost and deep snow, A. D. 1282. “ In the

year 1426, a tower was began to be built at the north side of the draw-bridge'

, contrived to give passage for ships with provisions to Queenhithe, and to resist the attempt of an enemy; but the other buildings on the bridge increased very slowly, for in 1471 we read of no more than thirteen houses in all; but in Stow's days we find it had the appearance of a large street, (as of late


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with only three openings for a prospect over three arches wider than the rest. The bridge continued in this state 'till A. D. 1632, when, February the 13th, the building from the north end of the bridge, to the vacancy on both sides, containing forty-two houses, were burnt down in about eight hours, the Thames being frozen over, which occasioned a scarcity of water: this fire was owing to the carelessness of a maid servant, who set a tub of hot sea-coal ashes under a pair of stairs, at a needle-maker's, near St. Magnus church. In this condition the bridge remained for several years, the confusion in the state putting a stop to all public improvements, in order to supply the military demands for money: nor had this bridge, which might be called the bridge of the world, recovered from its ruinous condition in 1666, when it again suffered in the general conflagration of this renowned city; most of the buildings thereon being consumed, except a few at the south end, and the very stone work was so weakened thereby that it cost 1,5001. to repair the piers and arches; but in about five years afterwards it was all rebuilt in such a uniform manner as to render it the admiration of all who beheld it.

“ This bridge was also made serviceable to supply the city with meal and water, by mills and other works erected under the arches at the south end, in such a manner as not to interrupt the navigation of the river. The mills for grinding corn were erected in the reign of queen Elizabeth, with the pure intent to remedy the exorbitant price of corn in time of dearth, exacted by badgers or meal-dealers. Afterwards, in the year 1582, a mill was erected to supply the citizens with Thames water, which, as it has lately been improved by that great master of hydraulicks, Mr. Hadley, is the most complete water-engine in the world, raising 1,954 hogsheads an hour to the height of 120 feet.

.“ In 1672 the draw-bridge, being then decayed, after it had been laid just fifty years, was taken up, and a new one began to be laid, which was completed within the short space of five days.

“ The gate at the south end being greatly damaged by a fire, A.D. 1725, was rebuilt of stone, with two posterns for foot passengers, which was finished A. D. 1728.

“And as the building leases expired, the city being mindful of the safety of their fellow subjects, and moved by the many misfortunes which happened by the numerous carriages continually passing and repassing, projected a plan for rebuilding this street over the bridge, with colonades below for the conveniency of foot passengers. Part of this plan was a few years ago carried into execution from the first opening on the north-east side: but this being so great a thorough-fare between London and Southwark, and still being only wide enough for two carriages abreast, whereby stoppages frequently happened, it has of late been judged necessary to widen this bridge both over and through, for the greater conveniency of the trade of this opulent city; and accordingly a temporary bridge was built whilst they were taking away one of the piers of the old bridge, in order to make one large arch


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