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one of them rose to 54°, but at another it rose no higher than 220. In all our experiments, our instrument was covered with a humid matter, which the open air speedily dissipated without any appearance of alteration. In going over the surface of the crater we perceived a smoking vent half covered by a large mass of pumice stones, and which gave out a strong heat from every part of its circumference. The thermometer, which we first applied to the mouth, and afterwards thurst inwards as far as the form and heat of the place permitted, never rose to above 22° ; a circumstance which excited our surprize, but which we were unable to explain.
The volcanic products which we observed throughout the whole of the crater, were lavas extremely porous, and in several parts reduced by fire to the state of scoriæ; their colour a dark brown, sometimes reddi-h, and occasionally, but very rarely, white. The substances nearest to the spiracles are all covered over or penetrated with sulphur, which is there frequently found in a state of oxygenation. Its colour is sometimes white, and sometimes yellowish; and the strong, sharp impression which it leaves on the tongue, sufficiently discovers the state in which it is. The burning aperture which we have mentioned, yields the same results.
Some basaltic lavas were likewise seen but few in number, and only one of them, which was of considerable weight and a beautiful polish, attracted our attention.
In the north part of the crater were iwo large crevices, one of them 20 feet deep, and the other about 15. Their shape was that of an inverted cone. Their interior was in every respect of the same substance with the surface. They emitted no smoke, nor could we perceive the least warmth in them. Several sulphurious products, however, prove that they have been but a very short time extinct.
* These few observations being terminated, it was necessary to think of returning. The most painful and tedious part of our labour consisted not in descending, but in regaining the summit. It is undoubtedly much more difficult to scale such heights, than to go down, by means of points of purchase so fluctuating and danger
Besires they cannot be ascended but by one at a time, and with a long interval between each, least those who follow should be completely buried; for every resting of the foot displaces the ashes to the extent of 30 feel above and below, so that scarcely one step in sis is made good.
On reaching the projections we were obliged to climb upon the shoulders of a person belov, and to hold by a long pole stretched out to us from another above, all of us pressing as lightly as possible upon the surface of the acclivity. Al length, by means of the olmost precaution and prudence, we regained the summit of Vesuvius; without any serious accident ; only so disguised that we searéely knew each other, being covered with sweat, ashes, and smoke, and exhausted with fatigue. Our six companions who had pot descended, received us with the warmest affection, and administered to us those refreshments of which we were so wuch in need
The surmounting of the greater difficulty makes the lesser disappear. In less than twenty-five minutes' we were at the foot of Mount Vesuvius į having by the examination of several stones, confirmed the observation, that Vesuvius is the only known volcano which ejects primordial substances; without their being altered by fire, as they are now found in strata and veins.
At half past eight in the morning we arrived among the inhabia tants of Portici, who were extremely surprised at seeing us return , without the smallest accident. Their delicious fruits, their excellent wine, and some lachryma Christi, soon dissipated our fatigue, and we arrived at Naples safe and sound, and as full of spirits as when we set out."
ACCOUNT OF THE RUSSIAN BATHS.
t my arrival
ACCOUNTS of the Russian baths have been given by various travellers; but, as they have a great influence on the character and manners of the women of the lower class in particular, it may not be amiss to speak of them here in that regard. At in Russia, one of my first objects was to examine them. I figured in my mind the voluptuous baths of Diana, and thought of nothing less than surprising the nymphs like another Actæon. Accord ingly one day I descended the banks of the Neva with a friend, towards a public bath ; but I had no occasion to go far, to be convinced that the Russian belles were accustomed to expose their charms to the eye of the passenger. A party of women in all ages, tempted by the heat of the month of June, had not thought it necessary to go so far as the precincts of the baths. They had stripped themselves, and were swimming and sporting near the banks of the river. This spectacle, to which I was not accusa. tomed, making a strong impression on me, I stopped and leaned over the quay, and my presence proved no interruption at all to the sports of the bathers.
I afterwards went several times into the baths, and I have seen similar sights on the banks of the islands of the Neva* : but, after what I have said, more ample accounts are quite annecessary It is true, there exists an ukase of Catharine, which enjoins the proprietors of public baths in the cities to construct separate rooms for the two sexes; and not to allow any men to enter into that of the women, except the necessary attendants, or painters and physici
On one of these occasions, an old woman seeing some men of her. acquaintance bathing a little way off, swam up to them, and began a conflict with one of them. The young man not being a swimmer, bis antagonist had the advantage, and seizing bim by the beard, ducked him repeatedly, to the great amusement of both parties, as well as the spectators, who laughed hear at the scene. This transaction took place near a part of the shore, where persons of all ages and sexes were walking, and the young ladies in the neighbouring houses might enjoy it from their windows.
ans, who should come to prosecute their studies. Accordingly an amateur assumes one or other of these titles to obtain admission. At Petersburgh both sexes now have their rooms and enclosures separated by a partition ; but many old women still prefer mixing with the men : and moreover, both men and women, after having taken the vapour bath, run out perfectly naked to plunge together into the river that runs behind it. In the country, the baths are still on the old footing; that is to say, persons of all ages and both sexes use them promiscuously, and a family consisting of a father of forty, a mother of thirty-five, a son of twenty, and a daughter of fifteen, appear together in a state of innocence, and mutually rub each other down.
These customs, which appear to us so shocking, and which are so to all people who wear clothes are no longer savage, are yet by no means either the effect of cosrupt hearts, or indications of libertinism. It is not even these baths, so conducive to the health of the Russians, that dispose them to debauchery. On the contrary, these free interviews becoming habitual from an early age, deaden the senses and cools the imagination. A Russian youth will never feel his blood boil, and his heart palpitale, at the idea of a rising bosom. He never sighs after secret charms, at which he scarcely dares to guess; since from his infancy he has seen and examined every thing. The Russian maiden will never have her cheek suffused with an involuntary blush at an indiscreet idea or curiosity, and her husband will have nothing new to communicate to her, nor will marriage have any novelty for her. Love is here a stranger to those delicate and exquisite approaches which constitute its real charms, and to those preludes to pleasure more delightful than pleasure itself. Where poignant sentiments do not ennoble the happiest of human passions, it becomes a mere momentary impulse, too easily gratified to be highly prized.
MILITARY FORCE OF THE TURKISH EMPIRE.
(Continued from our last. ) .
OF THE ARTILLERY.
The Turkish artillery has not decayed so much as their engineering. Thanks to the care of baron Tott and general St. Remy! But above all, to the activity of C. C. Obert and Cussy, "chefs de batallion,” in the French artillery! The Turkish artillery men jastify, to a certain point, what history tells us of their predecessors, in the best days of the crescent. Bombs were first employed by them, at the second siege of Rhodes, in 1522, but this invention originated with the Greeks, and indeed what strengthens this opie nion is that the ancient corps' of Ottoman artillery, spread through the different provinces of the empire, is partly composed of Greeks and Armenians, and who have the privilege of wearing the green
bonnet and yellow slippers. They send out, from the foundery and arsenal of Constantinople, (establishments created and directed by Frenchmen) pieces of every calibre, well cast, and the frames are finished eren to luxury. These field pieces are unfortunately few in number, compared with what ought to form the artillery of so extensive an empire. More than 150 have never been counted. And indeed a single arsenal,when good workmen are few, cannot be epected to fumish more, and that, in a country where every thing was to be created, and when made, neglect 'in keeping spoils áll.
In vain then, throughout this vast empire, do we seek strong and will defended places; if we except some of the batteries which defend the canal. In most places, which the Turks deem fortified, cannon are placed upon joists or frames, so ill-constructed and so old, as to be unable to bear the first discharge. The Turks are much in want of all those necessary machines in arsenal and parks of artillery, such as " porte-corps," &c. &c. &c. Not that the French artillerists have not presented to them proper models, and even executed some of them, but the Turks reject every thing not absolutely necessary, and few things appear so in the eye of ignorance. Their iron cannon are seldom of sufficient calibre, the balls small, and often unbeaten. Their powder is often very weak, not because they do not know how to make it, but because those who are charged with the manufactures, steal the salt-petre.
Cussy and Obert succeeded, by great labour, in forming 2000 gunners, who served the field pieces, with sufficient celerity. But among those, there was not one possessed of the same theoretical knowledge, which we require of a French sergeant of artillery, Could it be otherwise with the soldiers, when the officers thought themselves degraded, if they instructed them? Two causes prevent this branch from being perfected, and acquiring a certain degree of science. The plague, whose ravages are great in the barracks, and the practice of enrolling the men for life; which induces them to desert, upon the first disgust. There are still however, in Turkey, a corps of 18,000 men, who bear the name, and have the pay of cannoneers. They are almost all inhabitants of towns, where there are pieces of artillery, and their service chiefly consists in drawing them out on the greater and lesser “ Bayram.” (Easter and Whitsuntide.)
The Turks have, besides, a corps of bombardiers, who are rather better familiarized to their arms; but scarcely better theoriists. I have seen many of them, fix the bombs, in the mortar, with real coin, instead of splints, not doubting, that they thereby encrease the force;; and not reflecting, that they rendered the effect of the blow less certain.
The corps founded by the famous Bonnival, should consist of 600 men in peace, and of 1200 in war. It is composed of from 4 to 500 bombardiers, more, or less, exercised..
The “ Obusier," that terrible instrument, which supplies field pieces, and sometimes can replace a mortar, is hardly known among the Turks; at least I never remember to have seen one among
NO. 11.VOL. 2,
them, before the arrivalofa company of light artillery which made part of the suite o Dubayct, This company (it is said,) exercised a few Turks; but the porte grew tired of the expence, and discharged them!
So small is the number of Turkish artillerists, compared with that required by the extent of the empire, and the wants of the service, that all the French have been able to do, is to exercise about 2500 men, not one of whom is a good artillerist. Not an officer can construct a battery according to scientific principles.
Turkish idleness will even oppose itself to improvement, in every thing requiring application and experience. Their proud presumption, which persuades them that they are as knowing as their masters, as soon as they can manæuvre with some exactness, fastens them down in their ignorance. Such is their artillery, and it is even said, that one half of this branch, has fallen in the contest with Passwan Oglou.
The conductors of the artillery, form a separate corps, called (azaradgy) voitüezrs. As this is not a military corps, we shall take no further notice of it.
Op THE CAVALRY, The immense size of this branch of the army, at a review, disappears by trva thirds when ordered for the field.
The word “ Sipahy," generally denotes a horseman armed. But there are two corps properly called so. The oldest one carries the yellow ensign; the more modern and most esteemed, the red. These two corps ought, in time of war, 'to amount to 12,000 mėn.
The “ Zaimes," and the “ Timarioks,” form the greater part of the Turkish horse. They differ from the “ Sipahys," as they are only obliged to a military service for their fiets. They ought to bring to the war a certain number of horsemen. These two bodies, divided into three regiments, are supposed to form about 100,000 men.
The " Dgebedg ys," or curassiers ought to be about 30,000 men. These horsemen as well as all the " Sipahys," ought to be armed tvith a carbine, a pair of pistols, a sabre, and a battle-axe, &c. &c. besides the troops, belonging immediately to the grand seignor, various feudatory princes, such as the bey of Tureomania and Kara Osman-Oglou, furnish from six to seven thousand cavalry. Each pacha also brings with him a corps of horse, more or less formidable, according to his power. These corps are composed of “bely-bache," the name of the pachas horse-guards; and of " seg-ban,” or “ seg-mem," on foot, but who are generally mounted, to go to the war,
All these may be reckoned at 4 or 5000 men. : Such is the firtitious state of the Ottonian cavalry! now for its real condition. We must first, on account of the fiefs, from dispensations and other causes, but above all, from the great number who return at half the journey, deduct 70,000 men.
Seventy thousand horsemen would, doubtless, be a considerable force, were they not obliged to provide themselves, with horses, arms, and equipments. Hence results the misery of come, and