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tercepted by his destiny. · His son, in possession of the cartoons of Raphael, and with the magnificence of Whitehall before his eyes, suffered Verio to contaminate the walls of his palaces, or degraded Lely to paint the Cymons and Iphigenias of his court; whilst the manner of Kneller swept completely what yet might be left of taste, under his successors: such was the equally contemptible and deplorable state of English art, till the genius of Reynolds first rescued from the mannered depravation of foreigners his own branch, and soon extending his view to the bigher departments of art, joined that select body of artists who addressed the ever open ear, ever attentive mind of our Royal Founder, with the first idea of this establishment. His beneficence soon gave it a place and a name, his august patronage, sanction, and individual encouragement: the annually increased merits of thirty exhibitions in this place, with the collateral ones contrived by the speculations of commerce, have told the surprising effects: a mass of self-taught and tutored powers burst upon the general eye, and unequivocally
told the world what might be expected from the concurrence of public encouragement-how far this have been or may be granted or withheld, it is not here my province to surmise: the plans lately adopted and now organizing within these walls for the dignified propagation and support
of art, whether fostered by the great, or left to their own energy, must soon decide what may be produced by the unison of British genius and talent, and whether the painters school of that nation which claims the foremost honours of modern poetry, which has produced with Reynolds, Hogarth, Gainsborough, and Wilson, shall submit to content themselves with a subordinate place among the schools we have enumerated."
In his third lecture, which treats of invention, we regret to find too many attempts at originality, both of thought and expression, that might have been well spared. Mr. Fuseli seems indeed throughout the whole of his task to have been stimulated more by the ambition of acquiring celebrity, as a bold thinker and fine writer, than by the wish of making his lectures subservient to the instruction of his pupils; certainly the great end for which the professorship of painting was instituted by the academy.
Poems by George Dyer, 8vo. Logman and Rees. 1801. The present volume, which the author considers only as introductory to two others of more importance, contains a variety of excellent pieces, that will be read with pleasure by the admirer of trae poetic genius. Mr. Dyer's muse is seldom languid: she generally feels and sings with equal fervour, and has the happy art of persuading us that her strains are the instantaneous offspring of the imagination, or the heart. She may be guilty of an occasional inelegance of expression, but she is rarely deficient either in pathos or energy.
The following short passage from the Redress, must prove a satisfactory testimony of Mr. Dyer's merits :
« Oh! when I trace man's nature, end, and aim,
Whate'er his genius lead him to pursue,
« Or when I read the list of human woes,
“ Yet, know, who hope thc noble prize lo gain,
TRAVELS in Portugal, and through France and Spain; with a Disa
sertation on the Liierature of Portugal, and the Spanish and Portugueze Languages. By Henyy Frederick Link, Professor at the University of Rostock, and Member of various learned Societies. Translated from the German by John Hinckley, Esq. with Notes by the Translator.
These travels performed in 1798 and 1799, abound in useful and entertaining remarks on the character, manners, agriculture, and literature of the Portuguese. The journey was undertaken by the autħor in the quality of assistant to Count Hoffmansegg, who
is well known on the Continent for his entomological knowledge; and though the works of nature constituted the principal object of his investigation, he appears to have bestowed no common attention on the study of mankind. He corrects several errors and misrepresentations of which former travellers have been guilty, and vindicates the character of the people of the country from many foul aspersions by which it has been unjustly debased. He might, however, have omitted his observations on France and Spain, which are in general too trivial or too well known to entitle them to a perusal. Of the celebrated university of Coimbra, the author gives a very satisfactory account.
“ This university is under the government of a rector (reytor) nominated by the king, but not from anong the members of the academy. He is generally a priest, and from this office is promoted to be a bishop; being only appointed for three years, but after the expiration of that period, almost always continued till another promotion. Above him is the reformator, but both these offices are united in Dom Francisco Rafael de Castro. The rector presides in the concelho dos decanos, consist.' ing of the dean of faculty, two fiscals (syndicos), viz. the conservador and ouvidor, and the secretary; which council has jurisdiction over every thing relating to the academy. All transactions relative to the money and property of this very rich university belong to an auxiliary council of finance, called junta da fazenda, consisting of three deputies, viz. a professor of theology, a professor of law, and the professor of calculation, besides the treasurer and a clerk. To supply the place of the rector in case of need, a vicerector is also appointed.
“ The chancellor of the university is the principal superintendant in matters of learning. He confers the degrees at all promotions, and presides at the examinations of students. This place" belongs to the prior and chief of the augustine canons regular at Coimbra.
“ The number of degrees is twice as great as with us; and it is a very wise measure to divide the vast field of philosophy into several departments, even should the portugueze classification not merit our approbation. It is as follows; 1. theology with eight seats or chairs (cadeiras); 2, canon law with nine ; 3. jurisprudence with eight; 4. medicine with six ; 5. mathematics with four; and 6. philosophy with four. In the latter we must not expect to find logic, metaphysics, and similar studies, which are never thought of at Coimbra; the four seats being occupied by a professor of zoology and mineralogy, one of experimental philosophy, one of chemistry, and one of botany and economy. Of all the sciences properly philosophical, the law of nature alone is taught by a professor canonum. The professors are called lertes from ler, to read, the word professor signifying a schoolmaster ; and, besides the ordinary lectures, as with us in Germany, there are lertes substitutos and demonstradores in the branches where any thing is to be demonstrated.
“ The lectures begin in autumn, and, after the conclusion of the session in the month of May, follow the public examinations, to which every one must submit, till the month of July; after which follow about three months of vacation. The public examinations, since the time of Pombal, have been in Portugueze, and must be very severe, for many of the students have run away from them through fear. The lectures also are in Portugueze, and in other respects resemble ours, except that they are not paid for. Every student, whether in theology, jurispru
dence, or medicine, must study here a certain number of years, attend certain lectures, and perform his annual examinations, before he can hold a place or exercise bis profession. The time appointed for physicians is five years, but this is not necessary; for only those take a doctor's degree, who would become tutors at the university, in which case they must dispute publicly, but write no inaugural dissertation. Hence the title of doctor is uncommon, but therefore very honourable. Bachelors and masters of arts are now scarcely ever made."
The botanical world is taught to expect from the joint labours of Professor Link and Count Hoffmansegg the speedy publication of a Fauna and Flora Lusitanice, which will probably contain many natural treasures that have not been hitherto explored.
The translation is executed in a clear and easy style.
Annals of Philosophy, Natural History, Chemistry, Literature, Agri
culture, and the Mechanical and Fine Arts ; for the Year 1800, by T. Garnett, M. D. F. L. S. Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry in the Royal Institution of Great Britain, &c. &c. and other Gentlemen. Vol. I. 8vo. Cadell and Davies, 1801.
The chief object of this publication, which is to give a general and concise view of the discoveries in science during the year 1800, is accomplished in an impartial and satisfactory manner. The departments of philosophical and chemical knowledge have been particularly attended to, but the editor and assistants have been rather negligent in their communications and notices respecting literature, the fine arts and agriculture ; Dr. Garnett has succeeded in rendering the various subjects which he discusses perfectly intelligible, but those who wish to drink deep of the scientific stream, must have recourse to the springs themselves, To persons who cannot-afford to purchase the various books of science published in the course of the year, or whose occupations prevent them from perusing voluminous works, the Annals of Philosophy will prove highly useful, while the learned will at a!l times find in the work an index pointing out to them in the more important branches of knowledge, all the modern authorities which they may wish to consult.
The first section, containing an account of the discovery, progress, and present state of Galvanism, is drawn up in a very masterly manner.
The nature of a publication which professes only to give concise abstracts of each particular subject, prevents us from making selections from it. They might upon so narrowed and partial a scale, be liable to much misconception. The extract of an abstract could not be very satisfactory, although the abstract itself may afford a correct idea of the original.
WRITTEN IN THE ENTRANCE TO THE GROTTO OF PAUSILIPPO,
ON THE SIDE NEXT NAPLES.
For a particular Detail of the unhappy Subject of the following Poem, Vide Biogr. Brit.
V. I. P. 230, and Annual Register for 1759.
STRANGER, mark'st thou yon gibbet, that, peering so high,
The forest's wide tract seems to bound?
Of the ravens, that hover around.
The rude whistling wind's frequent gust,
The gibbet chains, canker'd with rust!
In the anguish of death writh'd aghast ;
Hath been shrivell’d and rock'd by the blast.
Whom science her votary hail'd,
Ah, how little their precepts avail'dI