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i THE ROYAL ACADEMY.
(Copcluded.) AMONG the landscape painters TURNER, LOUTHERBOU RG, and DANIEL take the lead. The productions of the first artist have not disappointed the expectations we were led to entertain from the early display of his talents as an exhibitor. His most finished piece is the Dutck Boats in e Gale. His drawings are numerous and happily executed. That wbich gives a view of London is particularly striking, and the description of an army destroyed by a whirlwind, taken from Jeremiah, is a picture of the first order.
In the portrait line, or what may be called the commercial department of the academy, the exhibition affords as many spe. cimens és on any former occasion, and OPIE, LAWRENCE, SHEE, NORTHCOTE, Sir W. BEECHEY, and Russel maintain their reputation unimpaired.
The miniatures are also very numerous, among which the enamels of Hone and Spicer are entitled to much encomium. The specimens supplied by WHEATLEY, Pope the actor, SHÉLLEY and PLOMER are admirably finished.
In statuary there is nothing like superior excellence ; but the Venus of NOLLEKE.N is not destitute of beauty, grace, and expression, and FLAXMAN has some correct productions. A bust of Lord THURLOW, by Rossi, is judiciously executed.
The architectural department has fallen this year much below the expectations of the amateurs.
HOPPner and SMirke have not exhibited this year. The former has, it is said, refused to send any pieces to the academy, while LAWRENCE is allowed to occupy so much room by such enormous productions as that of Kemble in Hamlet. It is cere tainly snatching a reputation beyond the bounds of nature.
We have also to regret that the elegant pencil of Sir G. BEAUMONT has been inactive this year.
We now dismiss this article with observing, that although the late exhibitions of our national school have manifested a general improvement in the different branches of the fine arts, we have still to lament the want of some splendid and original genius, whose works might contend with those of foreign masters, and perpetuate both his own name and the honour of his country.
REFLECTIONS, STATE-DOCUMENTS, OFFICIAL ACCOUNTS,
FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE, &c.
COME THE THREE CORNERS OF THE WORLD IN ARMS
AND WE SHALL SHOCK THEM: NOUGHT SHALL MAKE US RUE,
THE alarm diffused throughout the country in consequence of the naval and military preparations carrying on along the opposite coasts of France, is evidently more than commensurate to the cause, and appears indeed to have arisen from the wisdom, vigilance, and activity of government, in providing the most effectual means of resisting, in almost every point, any attack which the folly and presumption of the enemy might induce him to make. ' Tó this circumstance we must attribute the anxiety which pervades every part of the kingdom, for there are certainly at the present moment less grounds for apprehension, with respect to our power and resources, both of defence and aggression, than at any period since the commencement of the war. It is not by the prompt and rigorous measures of government that the public mind should calculate the perils of the descent which is said to be meditated by the enemy; for it is the policy of all wise administrations to prepare for every casuality, and to surtound the state by every safeguard and protection the ability and patriotism of the nation can furnish. Ja calling forth the force of the kingdom, government therefore merely executes a duty which it could not forego according to the established rules of political prudence; and in proportion to the magnitude and extent of its exertions, the country, instead of feeling an increase of alarm, should be fortified with a satisfactory pledge and assurance of additional security. i Independently of the protection which our shores derive from our numerous squadrons and cruizers, nothing has been neglected that could augment our internal means of defence. All the principal points along the eastern coast have been considerably strengthened; the entrances of the harbours, and the mouths of the chief rivers have been effectually guarded; and in the counties of Essex, Kent, and Sussex only, a force of 30,000 troops has been distributed, which can be collected into one body in the course of forty hours. The volunteer corps have, in almost every part of the kingdom, expressed their determination to perform the duties of the troops of the line, and this patriotic resolution must prove a considerable addition to the disposable force already prepared to take the field. Amid all these pledges of internal security, we are jusified in anticipating the glorious exertions which
must be made by the unanimity and spirit of the nation, should our liberty, property, and our social happiness, be threatened by actual descent
We are, however, far from thinking that any serious attack is destined against Great Britain.
The preparations making on the coast of France are, no doubt, too great and too expensive for the present impoverished state of Republican finance to suppose that they are intended for mere ostentation or alarm; but the First Consul must be convinced of the folly and extravagance of attempting the invasion of this country. It is but barely possible that he could bring even a small proportion of his armaments, blocked up as they are in all the ports of France, to act against our coasts; and were he to succeed in sending to sea an expedition manned with a number of troops sufficient to establish themselves in Great Britain, he must be aware that the failure of the enterprize would deprive him of the power and rank to which he has been raised by his inordinate ambitioni and usurpation.
The preparations carrying on by the government of France may be accounted for by two considerations. By directing the attention of Great-Britain to her own immediate defence, the enemy may hope to effect a descent upon Ireland, 'or BONAPARTE may wish to give influence and weight to the claims and pretensions of France in the discussions respecting negociation. Upon an impartial review of the relative situation of both powers, the latter motive is, 'we are inclined to think, marked with more probability. ...?
The action of Algesiras, and the loss of the Hannibal, have been hailed by the French government and nation as the omen of fature naval victories. But their triumph is but transient, and they seem to be unmindful of the skill and heroism of men,
si Quos nulla fatigant Proelia ; nec victi possunt abistere ferro: The treaty of peace concluded between Spain and Portugal, promises to be of a very short duration. It is indecd impossible that Bonaparte can be satisfied with any thing less than a large contribution in specie, and the possession of some of the Portų. guese provinces. A considerable reinforcement has accordingly been ordered to join the Republican army in Spain, which will experience little difficulty in gratifying the wishes of the First Consul.
The precise terms of the convention signed at Petersburgh have not been officially published, but the substance of them is con. tained in the following articles :
Art. I. There shall be peace and friendship between the two powers and their subjects.
Art. II. Both of the high contracting parties engage to abide by the ordinances prohibiting any trade in commodities which are
contraband of war, with the enemy against whoin one of the two powers makes war.
Art. III. The ships of the neutral powers shall sail without molestation to the harbours and coasts of Bolligerent nations.-The effects found on board the ships of neutral powers, with the exception of such as are contraband of war, or the property of the enemy, shall be free; the raw or manufactured produce of the countries engaged in war, which the subjects of neutral powers shall have purchased, and are bringing away on their own account, shall also be free: the articles considered as contraband of war shall make no alteration in the particular stipalations of the treaties with other powers. The powers engaged to issue strict oro ders to the captains of their ships to conceal no contraband commodities.
Art. IV. The right of search shall be possessed only by ships of war, and not by privateers. A ship of war belonging to the Belligerent power which shall require to visit a merchant ship convoyed by a ship of war of a neutral nation, shall remain at the distance of a cannon shot, wherever the sea or place of meeting does not hinder a nearer approach necessary. The commander of the ship of war of the Belligerent party'shall send a boat on board the convoying ship, partly to ascertain that she is fully empowered to convoy the merchant ship, with her specific lading, with the port to which she is bound, and partly to be certain that the ship of war belongs to the Imperial of Royal fleet. If the papers of the merchants are in proper order, and there appears no further ground for suspicion, no further visitation shall take place; but in the contrary case, the convoying ship shall detain the convoy the time necessary for visiting the ship, at which visiting one or more officers from the convoying ship shall be present. If the commander of a ship of war shall
think proper to visit a merchant ship for a reason which appears to him important, he shall send notice of his intention to the commander of the convoying ship, who shall be at liberty to send an officer on board to be present at the search. The merchant ship shall be carried into the nearest port of the Belligerent power, and there be subjected to search with all possible care.
Art. V. The commander of a ship of war of the Belligerent parties, who shall detain one or more convoyed ships, shall be answerable for the expences and damage, and, in case he shall ex„ceed his instructions, suffer punishment. On the other hand, a .convoying ship shall under no pretence forcibly oppose the detention of one or more merchant ships, by the ships of war of the Belligerent party,
Art. VI. This article relates to the judicial regulation which both parties engage to observe.
Art. VII. A ship is not acknowledged to belong to the natios whose flag it bears, if the captain and half of the crew are not of the same nation.
Art. VIII. The principles and regulations established in this treaty shall be applied to all naval wars in which one of the powers may be engaged, whilst the other remains neuter. These stipulations shall, therefore, be considered as permanent, and be held as a constant rule to the two nations, with respect to commerce.
Art. IX. Denmark and Sweden shall receive back their ships and colonies when they accede to this convention.
Art. X. This convention shall be ratified within two months, or sooner, if possible.
To this convention, by which the differences between Russia and Great Britain are definitively settled, the courts of Stockholm and Copenhagen have since given their unqualified assent. ders will be immediately dispatched upon the ratification of the treaty, when regularly exchanged between the contracting par ties, to restore to the two last powers their colonial possessions in the West Indies.
In Egypt, the campaign verges to a speedy and glorious termi. nation, and the enemy, dejected by repeated defeats, hopeless of all assistance from the Republic, and surmounted on every side, will, we trust, be soon compelled to acquiesce in an unconditional surrender.
The most impenetrable secrecy is preserved both here and in France on the subject of negociation ; but we understand that some difficulties have recently occurred in the communications between the respective governments, which may lead to an im. mediate rupture of the conferences between Lord HAWKESBURY and M. Otto.
COMMERCE, USEFUL ARTS, &C.
TRADE WITH PORTUGAL. AS we are now about to be for a shorter or longer period de prived of a direct market for our goods in Portugal, the following table of Exports and Imports, during the whole of the last century, may not be unacceptable to our Readers ; the contents are the average from 10 years to 10 years :Exports.
470,000 VOL, 2.NO. 7.