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· The same reason that makes pairing necessary for gregarious birds, obtains with respect to gregarious quadrupeds ; those especially who store up food for winter, and during that season live in common. Discord among such would be attended with worse confe. quences than even among lions and bulls, who are not confined to one place. The beavers, with respect to pairing, resemble birds that place their nests on the ground. As soon as the young are produced, the males abandon their stock of food to their mates, and live at large; but return frequently to visit them while they are fuckling their young.
• Hedge-hogs pair as well as several of the monkey-kind. We are not well acquainted with the natural history of these animals; but it would appear that the young require the nursing care of both parents.
· Seals have a singular economy. Polygamy seems to be a law of nature among them, as a male associates with several females. The sea-curtle has no occasion to pair, as the female concludes her talk by laying her eggs in the fand." The young are hatched by the sun; and immediately crawl to the sea.
• In every other branch of animal economy concerning the continuance of the species, the hand of Providence is equally conspicuous. The young of pairing birds are produced in the spring, when the weather begins to be comfortable; and their early production makes them firm and vigorous before winter, to endure the hardThips of that rigorous season. Such early production is in particular favourable to eagles, and other birds of prey ; for in the spring they have plenty of food, by the return of birds of passage.
• Though the time of gestation varies confiderably in the different quadrupeds that feed on grass, yet the female is regularly delivered early in summer, when grass is in plenty. The mare admits the Itallion in summer, carries eleven months, and is delivered the beginning of May. The cow differs little. A sheep and a goat take the male in November, carry five months, and produce when grass begins to spring. These animals love short grass, upon which a mare or a cow would starve *. The rutting-feaion of the red deer is the end of September, and beginning of O&ober: it continues for three weeks, during which time the male runs from female to female without intermillion. The female brings forth in May, or beginning of June; and the female of the fallow deer brings forth at the same time. The te-ass is in season beginning of fuinner; but the bears twelve months, which fixes her delivery to summer. Wolves and foxes' copulate in December : the female carries five months, and brings forth in April, when animal food is as plentiful as at any other sealon ; and the the lion brings forth about the same time. Of this early birth there is one evidunt advantage, hinted above : the
• I have it upon good authority, that ewes pafturing in a hilly country, picch early on some fnug ípoi, where they may drop their young with safety. And hence the risk of removing a flock to a new field immediately before delivery: many lambs perifh by being dropped in improper places,
young have time to grow so firm as eally to bear the inclemencies of winter.
• Were one to guess what probably would be the time of rutting, summer would be named, especially in a cold climate. And yet to quadrupeds who carry but four or five months, that economy would be pernicious, throwing the time of delivery to an improper season for warmth, as well as for food. Wisely is it ordered, that the deli. very should constantly be at the best season for both.
Gregarious quadrupeds that store up food for winter, differ from all other quadrupeds with respect to the time of delivery. Beavers copulate the end of autumn, and bring forth in January, when their granary is full. The fame economy probably obtains among all other quadrupeds of the same kind.
“One rule takes place among all brute animals, without a fingle exception, That the female never is burdened with two litters a: the same time. The time of gestation is so unerringly calculated by nature, that the young brood upon hand can provide for themselves before anther brood comes on. Even a hare is not an exception, though many litters are produced in a year. The female carries thirty or thirty-one days; but she suckles her young only twenty days, after which they provide for themselves, and leave her free to a new litter.
• The care of animals to preserve their young from harm is a beautiful instance of Providence. When a hind hears the hounds, The puts herself in the way of being hunted, and leads them away from her fawn. The lapwing is no less ingenious: if a person approach, the flies about, retiring always from her nest. A partridge is extremely artful: The hops away, hanging a wing as if broken: lingers till the person approach, and hops again. A hen, timid by nature, is bold as a lion in defence of her young: she darts upon every crea. ture that threatens danger. The roe-buck defends its young with resolution and courage. So doth a ram; and so do many other quadrupeds.
• It is observed by an ingenious writer *, 'that nature sports in the colour of domestic animals, in order that men may the more rea. dily distinguish their own. It is not easy to say, why colour is more varied in such animals, than in those which remain in the state of nature : I can only say, that the cause assigned is not satisfactory, One is feldom at a loss to distinguish one aniinal from another; and Providence never interposes to vary the ordinary course of nature, for an end so little necessary as to make the distinction till more obvious. Such interposition would beside have a bad effekt, by en. couraging inattension and indolence.
• The foregoing particulars are offered to the public as hints merely: may it not be hoped, that they will excite curiosity in those who relish natural history. The field is rich, tho' little cultivated ; and I know no other branch of natural history that opens finer views into the conduct of Providence.'
The English reader will observe a few Scotticisms, &c. fome of the most obvious of which we have only diftinguished by ita. lics : farther notice of such minute blemishes being unneceffary.
[To le continued.]
ART. IV. Eunomus : or Dialogues concerning the Law and Conflitäs
tion of England, concluded. See last Month's Review. He conversations of which we have already given an aca
count, are represented as having been carried on by only two persons, Policrites and Eunomus. But in the dialogue now before us, which comprehends the third volume, an additional Speaker is introduced, Philander, an accomplished gentleman, who had lately returned from abroad, after three years absence, and had travelled to good purpose; having enlarged his knowledge, and cultivated his mind, without injuring his affection and esteem for his native country. This new character adds variety and spirit to the dialogue, which is still farther recommended by the peculiar importance of the subject on which it treats.
After the conversation between Eunomus, Philander, and Policrites had turned upon a number of topics, which naturally presented themselves on the occasion of a friend's having arrived in England who had refided so long in foreign parts, they were insensibly led, from fome observations advanced on one side, and questioned on the other, to a more serious contemplation of government in general, and that of their own constitution in particular. The confideration of government in general is affigned to Philander, whose observations are judicious and liberal. He asserts, with Mr. Locke, that compact is the just original of civil society; and he answers the objections which have been made to this opinion. He considers governments only in two lights, either as monarchical or popular ; but he observes that the combinations of these with all their shades and differences are infinite. With regard to the supposed origin of different forms of government, he thinks that not only an elective monarchy would obtain in the world before an hereditary monarchy; but that monarchy itself seems not to be the first form of government that society (taking its rise from compa&t) would naturally fall into.
• However amiable, says he, a form of government it may be, when qualified as with us; monarchy, in the abitract, is certainly the most remote from the idea of natural equality. For, in the abftract, what can be more opposite than that any set of people, from being all equal in power and authority among themselves, ihould all unite under the power and authority of a fingle person? A democracy, as it has least of the idea of government in it, seems however to be the first obvious mode of a semblage from a state of nature : it is a society indeed that least infringes on natural liberty, but at the same time, least correets the abuses of it, which is the end and aim of all societies. A kind of limited Republic seems to be the first and most obvious step to a regular subordination, and society, properly so called: for without subordination, no durable forin can Rev. June, 1774
fubfift. The very name of government implies it. Besides that the degree of liberty seems to make a Republic an obvious form of government from a state of nature, when liberty is to be given op: lo is it a likely form to be laid hold of, from the impatience of mankind, where liberty has been abused under a monarchy; and that monarchy comes to be dismembered by part of the subjects shaking off their antient subjection, and forming new assemblages of their own. The states of Holland afford a late instance of what I am speaking. The several free states of Italy now exifting, originally the fragments of that valt empire that fell to pieces by its own weight, is a more diftant but a more striking example of the same thing.
As to the great question about the best form of government, our Author is of opinion that less need to be said of it, because it is the duty of subjects, under any government, to take things as they find them; a position which might, in some respects, be justly disputed. A perfect government he looks upon to be as mere an idea as perfect virtue, or perpetual motion. The true general idea of the thing itself is, that it must be," fuch an one as will diminish least of natural liberty, and at the same time, best answer the end of society ;' and he trusts that our own will stand this teft. But though he will not pretend to decide which is the best form of government of those that now exist, fuppofing no one to be entirely perfect ; yet he can by no means agree with Mr. Pope when he says, " That which is best administered is best,” This notion out Dialogift clearly refutes ; after which he traces the natural progress of govern. ment, and points out the difficulties that ftrangers have in acquiring a knowledge of the laws of foreign countries,
Philander having discharged the task assigned him, Qur Author proceeds to his principal subject, which is the English conftitution. His sentiments upon this head are put into the mouth of Eunomus, who, through all the three dialogues, is represented as the chief speaker. In the progress of the disa course, the nature of the English Constitution is described, its antiquity is afferted, and some mistakes concerning ic are seedia fied." li is thewn in particular, and in a very satisfactory man. ner, that the King is one of three eftates of the realm, and that the Spiritual Lords do not constitute a diflinet Statr, The Author, in embracing this opinion, hath no intention to detract from the privileges of the Spiritual Lords, as will amply appear from what he hath alledged in vindication of their being diftinctly mentioned in the legislative declaration of every Ad of Parliament.
* This insertion, he says, serves as a constant recognition of their legislative capacity, either 1. to prevent people in all ages arguing against their legislative right, from some peculiar circumstances attending them; as their not being tried by Parliament as temporal
Lords, in the forms of proceeding at Common Law; or their not giving their votes on the trial of a Peer, tho', it is well known, they attend during the evidence, decline voting in capital cases from prin ciples of the Canon Law, buc when they retire, always proceft their right of voting. 2. More particularly in these later times, to express a just abhorrence of the former age, when their rights were fo wickedly attacked, and their removal from the House of Lords was the first itep to the dissolution of the government. This sacred order, a very early establishment of christianity, I consider as one of the guardians of the English church in the most eminent manner : and in that capacity, I hope, they will continue to fit in that House to the end of time. For the ancient ecclefialtical and civil establishments are so interwoven in our constitucion and formed for each other, that any one who is not indifferent to the latter, cannot but with perpetuity to the former !!
Without inquiring whether the zeal of the Writer has not here carried him fomewhat too far, we proceed to the next object of his consideration, the Representation of the People in Parliament; the present state of which he defends with all the bigotry of the professed Lawyer. After stating, clearly and strongly, the objections commonly urged upon this head, he. exerts his utmost abilities in endeavouring to remove them. Part of what he hath advanced upon the subject we shall lay before our Readers.
• What are we to say in answer to all this? These two things I conceive.' 1. That admitting this inequality to be the grievance complained of, it cannot now be redressed. 2. That it may reasonably be doubted, however, whether, every thing considered, it is in fact such a grievance or not.
• If it is a grievance, it is such an one as cannot be redressed. And I found this affertion on two grounds; that the very attempt to do it would totally unhinge the Constitution; and if it was once done, according to the most imagined plan of perfection, the effects of it could never be lasting.
• Political Projectors will tell us perhaps, this new modelling of the Legislative Body would be only, “ Ripigliari Il Stato," in the Florentine phrase ; " bringing things back to their original establishments? an expedient approved of by all politicians. I should rather look opon the expedient, in this case, not as an attempt to resettle, but to new found the constitution : which if it could succeed at laft, most in the preparation towards it produce univerfal confufion ; by dispossessing every part of the kingdom of rights they have so long been possessed of; and in their nature the most important of all others, because they are the foundation of their security and pro. tection. To disfranchife the boroughs themselves, answers no end; a prescriptive right of fending Meinbers would continue. To dilo annul that prescripcion would be little lefs than suicide in a Parlia. ment. It could never be thought of in practice but in the mos troublesome tumultuous times ; or at least cannot fall of producing them. It was not perhaps the worst project of Cromwell's time ; but it was certainly a project fit for no time, but such as his, when the G g 2