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4 Their sorrows shall be multiply'd
To other gods that haste:
I will no off'ring make;
Up in my lips will take.
And cup the portion;
Thou dost maintain alone. wwwmmmuuuuuuuuumminuuuuuuuuuuu
Verse 4. Their sorrow shall be multiplied fc. Here those that endow it, or present their offerings and devotions to it, the verb having these two senses, shall reap accumulated misery, instead of happiness, from such conduct. This threat applies to those that substitute any Messiah of their own instead of the true one, so would deprive him of his due glory.
The heathen supposed that their gods were peculiarly delighted with swine's blood, which they presented on their altars, of which they often partook at their sacrifices, as an act of communion with their idols. The Jews were forbidden to take up their names into their lips, or to swear by them, this being an acknowledgement of their divinity. Exod. xxiii. 13 Deut, xii. 3. Hos, ii. 16, 17. From these texts we see that prohibition extended to whatever respected idolatry, and must have been so understood by the Psalmist. Christians are not allured at greater latitude.
Verses 5, and 6. The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance, fc. The kingdom over all Israel was the portion of David's inheritance, and so was a figure and pledge of Messiah's heritage and reward, which he will one day completely and infallably enjoy, The same thing is intended by the other phrase-the portion of my cup, in allusion to the cup of wine which the master of the feast gave unto the hand of those whom he en. tertained at his iable. The expression is also taken in a bad sense, and so denotes the share of trouble and afiliation God may appoint to any one and extends even to future punishment, Psal. lxxv. 8. In this sense it i applicd to our Lord's sufferings. The cup which my heavenly Father gir. cth to me, shall I not drink it? - The pleasant places in which David lines or lot had fallen, as in ver. 6th, and the goodly heritage to which hi was raised, intend the same royal possession, or we may view the latter a conprehending all the blessings of the everlasting covenant which God ha made with him in figure, and with Messiah his Son and Lord in reality The terms lot and lines refer to the mode of dividing the land of promise and by a natural transition come to signify the portion or share of proper ty so divided. As Messiah put David in possession of it to him and hi son Solomon his Anointed; whence no part of his inheritance, promise Ps. ji. can finally be lost, or alienated without end. Ilow pleasant, ani goodly shall Messiah's heritage appear, when restored by his grace, an beautified with his salvation and glory!
6 Unto me happily the lines
In pleasant places fell;
In beauty doth excel.
By counsel me conduct;
My reins do me instruct.
Sith it is so that he ммммммммммммммммммммммммммммми Verse 7. I will bless the LORD who hath given me counsel : fc. Heb, Consulteth for me, made such provision for my honour and happiness, and inspired me with that wisdom by which I was led to chuse the Lord for my portion, and find my happiness in his favour. The reins denote the inward thoughts and affections, by which the Lord instructed him in the night watches, and dark seasons of adversity. In these situations such gracious and spiritual communications are still made from above, in the happy experience of the Christian pilgrim. If Christ though an only begotten Son, learned obedience as inan, and was perfected or consecrated to his high offices, by the things which he suffered; do not we much more niel some similar discipline?
Verse 8. I have set the LORD always before me; fc. A believing, realizing view of God's presence, as our iminediate witness, our guardian, helper and Judge, has the most powerful influence in preserving from sin and apostacy, and exciting to the practice of every thing pious, virtuous, and praise-worthy. David found this in his day, Christ exemplified it in a measure peculiar to himself, and every Christian will find it so amidst all the trials of life. If our Lord found such exercise conducive to his stabi. lity and perseverance, can it be unnecessary in the case of any of his people? What is the reason that temptation have such force, trials such weight, and that our fears are so many great and frequent, but because our faith is weak, and our watchfulness is intermitted. When we cease to set the Lord before us, like Peter when his faith failed, we soon begin to sink; and sinners, who are utter strangers to this exercise, soon become a prey to their spiritual foes, the sins that more easily beset them, and their enemies without. Our Lord could not be removed from his arduous path of duty and trial, as the foe could not overreach him; nor can all the hostile powers of eartb or hell prevent bis attaining the full possession of the glorious reward promised him, in the everlasting covenant, by his heavenly Father.
Verse 9. Therefore my heart is glad, fc. By glory here, and in Psal. cviii. 1. we are to understand the tongue, or organs of speech, inclusive of that reason and understanding of which they are the vehicle ; and which may be said to rejoice, when they express the joy of their heart
Doth ever stand at my right hand,
I shall not moved be.
Shall not be left by thee; ммммммммммммммммммммммммммммм, in divine praises. The resting of the flesh or body in hope, expresses an assurance of the resurrection, and so, in the case of our Lord, must include his whole mystical body, fitly termed flesh, in their unrenewed state, which includes their being raised up from the grave of sin and death, in their fullest extent, into newness of life. The resurrection of Christ's natural body was doubtless the figure, pledge, and pattern of the resurrection of his whole mystical body, in the proper sense of that term ; but all the members in their own order, in regard of priority of time, and precedence of dignity. The same prospect is a never-failing source of consolation to Christians in life and death.
Verse 10. For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither will thou suffer thy Holy One to see corruption. To confine the original term, rendered soul, to the animal frame or the human body, is to make the last clause a mere insipid tautology, and to contradict other parts of Scripture. What is capable, from its nature, of seeing or enduring corruption, is quite distinct from the soul, which was not to be left in hell; importing an actual descent thither, and a real deliverance from that state. The last clause intimates that our Lord's body would remain so short a time in the tomb, that, mangled as it was, and in a liot climate, it would not begin to putrify. As the term rendered soul, includes, or rather intends, the conscious part of man, which no created being can destroy, by killing the body; so the word translated hell, is well known often to in. terd the state of the dead, in the fullest sense. The compilers of the Cieed, therefore, speak of our Lord's descent to hell as quite distinct from his trial. In Ps. xviii. 4, 5. we read of two deaths, the sorrows of the first of which compassed our Lord, when wicked men were let loose upon him; and the snares of the latter prevented, overtook and surrounded him, when the sorrows and cords of hell compassed him about. Here are evidently two deaths very different in their nature and effects, the one within the reach of human power and agency to execute on this side of the grave; but the cther such as falls not within the sphere of that agency. .
Do not we also read, that the Lord laid him in the lowest pit, that his Wrath lay hard upon him, and that he afflicted him with all his waves? Ps. lxxxviii. 6, 7. Can this language be accommodated with any proļriety to what our Lord suffered in the garden, or on the cross, or to his hody in the grave?- None of those states could be called literally or metaphorically, the lowest pit. Though our Lord remained for a time in that state, yet is he said to be free among the dead, as he could not be detained as a prisoner; which looks beyond his death and burial, and supposes his life entire, ver. 5. As there is no pit lower than hell, there the prediction must have been realized. It is evident that these things cannot apply to Ilerean, the writer of the psalm; and hence commentators
Nor will thou give thine Holy One
Corruption to see.
agree in applying them to Christ, though in a way that come not up to their obvious import, and rational interpretation.
Does not the Psalmist, speaking in the person of Messiah, say that not only the sorrows of death compassed him, but also, that the pains of hell got hold upon him, or found him, as on margin? Ps. cxvi. 3. From these be prays the LORD would deliver his soul, not his animal frame surely, ver. 4. Peter's reasoning, Acts ii. 25–32. necessarily leads to the same conclusion; for confine it to our Lord's body, and we destroy his argument. He sums it up in this conclusion, He, seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption. This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. To make his soul here to intend his flesh, and so the last clause to be the petition of the first in different terms, is absurd. As his resurrection must import the re-union of soul and body, to exclude the former from the passage, as distinct from the latter, is to countenance the material sys tem, that denies him, and all men, any intelligent, distinct conscious principle different from organised matter, or the animal frame.
Paul resumes the same subject, Acts xiii. 27-38. and perfectly agrees with his brother Peter in the inference he draws from the whole, ver. 35. Wherefore he saith also in another psalm, Thou shall not suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. As this refers to our Lord's resurrection, it is evi. dent the language must include his soul or spirit, which the Psalmist and Peter declare would not be left in hell, and by which, in union with his body, and both with his Deity, he was, by way of eminence, God's holy One, and his Anointed.
Does not David thank God, in a soleitin prayer_Great is thy mercy toward me; and thou hast delivered my soul from the lowest hell, metrical version " out from the lowest hell!" Psal. Ixxxvi. 13. David had never been in any state that could properly, or even by metaphor, be so des, cribed. To him therefore the passage can by no means apply; and to exclude the true and proper sense, as it refers to Christ, is to offer violence to divine truth to serve a purpose. The term rendered in this verse soul, is the same that occurs Psal. xlii, six times, and in ciii. 1, 2, 22. and civ. 35. and many other texts. But how absurd and subversive of the obvious sense,- would it be to render it in these places body or animal frame, as commentators do in this verse of our psalm! In what consistent sense can the body be said to bless God, and not forget, or gratefully to remen:ber his benefits?
Was not Jonah, when buried alive in his supposed hell, capable of des. pondency, and fear, and of prayer, faith and hope? but could our Lord's body or animal frame be so exercised in the grave? or could his grave be said to be in the heart of the earth? The Psalmist makes Messiah to say, Ps. xl. 2. IIe brought me up also out of an horrible pit. Bishop Horne Tenders it a pit of confused tumultuous noise, and thus comments upon it; • The sufferings from which our Redeemer was delivered, are here described under the image of a dark subterraneous cavern, from which there was no emerging, and where roaring cataracts of water broke in upon
him, overwhelming him on every side; till, as it is expressed in the xviiit psalm, God sent from above, and took him, and drew him out of many great waters.
Does not the apostle Peter assure us, that Christ, after his crucifixio went and preached to the spirits in prison, and inform us of the consi quence, so honourable to him, and so beneficial to them? 1 Pet. iii, 1
That he ascended in his disembodied spirit at death to that paradise, which he promised the believing thief would be with him that day, cou not hinder his visiting the other region of sheol, or proper state of t dead, before his resurrection. The solemn scene described, Ps. xviii. cor mentators explain as taking place at that interesting event, when the was a great earthquake; and admit that his blessed Spirit was then ascen ing to heaven through the territories of Satan. But we view him as ri ing from the lower regions or nether parts of the earth,(Eph. iv. 10), ai thus viewed, what additional solemnity does that scene acquire! But i are led to think that he descended to these parts in his disembodied, a also in his embodied state, and that his first descent in both was of t most painful kind, by which he learned to sympathize with the prison in that state; though the subsequent ones would be triumphant. This a mitted, what was endured by Jonah in figure would be fully realized our Lord as the Antitype, which on the common view was not. When view the scene of his sufferings and death in this latitude, we see with wl increasing propriety he exclaimed at their near approach,-My soul is ceeding sorrowful, or, more literally, encompassed with sorrow even z death-a death infinitely more awful than the human mind can concei
Thus we consider our blessed Lord as having drunk of every cup wh the sins of men had mingled, even to the dregs, and by so doing, learı as the great High Priest of our profession, to sympathize with all his s fering subjects, whether on this, or on the other side the grave; thou divine wisdom requires the summerers should reap no benefit from this fitted to receive it. Thus we account for leading captivity captive, at ascension, or a multitude of captives, as on margin, Eph. iv. 8. A thus also he fulfilled what he says in the psalm from which the apo quotes, I will bring my people again from the depths of the sea, Ps. lxy 32. Let the Reader consult Job xi. 8. Prov. xv. 11. Ps. ix. 17, and will there find proofs, to mention no other, that the Heb. word sheol, r dered in our psalm hell, is used to denote the state of the damned. Bis! Beveridge on the Creed adduces no fewer, I think, than twelve of fathers of the church to vouch for the early opinion, that Christ desce ed to the local hell alone, but brought thence a great multitude ; which article of the Creed he himself strenuouslv contends.
As Christ's soul could not be left where it had never been, and as expresses his faith that his Father would not leave his soul in hell; y go about to deny a truth so clearly revealed, and so fully attested, and at the expence of absurdly making the soul here to mean the body or mal frame; while that is mentioned as distinct from what was not to corruption. This being an important article of the faith delivered to saints, it is worth contending for in the spirit of the truth. • The corresponding terms in Heb. Greek and Latin, that are usually i dered Hell, are allowed primarily to intend the receptacle of righteous wicked souls after death, that of the former on the right hand, called by