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PRESENT STATE OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.
From the Literary Gazette. IN one of the last year's numbers of a which depend on the imagination, and 1 foreign journal, La Bibliotheque one of whose chief merits is to harmonUniverselle, we have met with a view ize with the tone of society, savour more of the present state of English Literature, and more of their native soil. The obwhich on the whole gives a pretty im- servations of the author respecting the partial review of our literature for the state of society and manners in Eogland last twenty years, and names many of seem to us to be more applicable to things our most distinguished writers in the as they were five and twenty years ago, different departments of learning. than as they are now. The article con
The author is of opinion that the En- cludes in the following manner : glish manners, particularly the exclusion “ If we must lament that certain exof the women from general society, pre- aggerated opinions gain ground in EngVents the literati from adding to their land, of which Methodism is a proof, solid learning a refined and delicate taste. the generous sacrifices of some societies Every requisite for this was found in the which are animated with an ardent zeal bighest possible degree in Paris before to extend what is good, must on the oththe revolution. The English, who ri- er band afford the more lively satistacvalled the French in the sciences, found tion. It cannot be denied that gold is them the only school in which they the idol of this people, that their luxueould modify and soften the peculiarities ry and vanity are without bounds, that arising from their character, their man- the higher classes set the example of imners, their insular situation, their inde- morality, and in general that one finds pendence, and their favorite recreations, in England all the vices which are pere play, and the table.
haps inseparable from excess of refineThe English having been cut off dur- ment. But on the other hand we may ing a twenty years' war from all commu- add to our consolation, that there is no nication with the civilized world, ex- country where the virtues which tend to sept such as arose from increasing com- alleviate natural evils and the sufferings merce and great military operations, the of society, are so general, and practised natural consequence was, that the richer with such judicious activity. classes having no more any opportunity “While political fanaticism and war of neutralising their habits in a foreign deluged Europe with blood, the English country, the national defects took deep- were improving all the means of allevia. er rool, and the literary productions ting the sufferings of their fellow crea. IC ATENEUM. Vd. 2.
Iures, and spreading among them the
(vol. 2 knowledge of the truth. Thus they im- norance. In general, a universal spirit proved upon the principles of Howard, of beneficence, respect for misfortune, the management of the hospitals and emulation in works of charity, predomiprisons : they acquainted Europe with nated among this same people, whose the discovery of the immortal Jenner ; spirit was exalted by the sepse of its inthey abolished the slave-trade, and intro- dependence and its strength, which bad duced civilization into Africa ; they es- made itself master of the commerce of tablished societies for the relief of for- the world, and of the sovereignty of the eigners in distress; they spread the light seas. It seems that England, while it of knowledge over distant countries, by was destined to unite the rest of Europe making them acquainted with our sacred in a common exertion of its strength, and writings ; they discovered, and taught to give to the enemy of social order the to the rest of the world, that simplified last decisive blow, was selected by beavand easy method of elementary instruc- en for the noble vocation of preserving tion, the object of which is to raise to the sacred flame of virtue, and the exthe dignity of man millions of individu- ample of those tender relations which beals whom fortune has condemned to igDeficence establishes among mankind."
From the Literary Gazette. ZUMA OU LA DECOUVERTE DU QUINQUINA, SUIVA DE LA BELLE PAULE, DE ZENEIDE, DES RO
SEAUX DU TIBRE, &c. &c. PAR MADAME LA COMTESSE DE GENUS. VZUMA was conveyed to her chamber. Azan : he therefore resolved to die with
The Couot and Beatrice deemed it bis wretched wife. prudent to conceal this supposed crime At break of day, the council assembled to from the knowledge of the Vice-Queen; examine and pass sentence on Mirvan and she, said the Count, will sue for mercy Zuma. The doors of the court were thrown on this wretch, whom no consideration open, and the Indians were permitted to on earth can induce me to pardon; there enter; they assembled in great numbers, must be an example, and I am resolved headed by their secret chiefs, Ximeo, to make one. It was soon proclaimed Azan, and Thamir. Mirvan and Zuma through the palace and the city, that Zu- were brought in loaded with chains. The ma had been detected in an attempt to latter, on beholding her busband, expoison the Vice-Queen. That very claimed with vehemence, “he is not evening she was delivered into the hands guilty, he had no share in what I did, he of justice and conveyed to prison. Mir- was ignorant of my design"... "Zuma," van hastened in search of Azan and interrupted Mirvan, “ your death is cerThamir: the hand of death was already tain, how then can you think of defendon his heart, and he could utter only the ing my life? .... I am not accused, following words : “My son is in your I voluntarily share your fate . . . Zuma, power. At least promise, on condition let us die in silence, let us die with couthat we keep this secret inviolably, that rage, and our child will still live" .... after our death, you will restore the child Zuma understood the real meaning of to my father.”—“ We swear to do so," these words, she made no reply, but her answered Azan, “but you are well aware, face was bathed in tears. The examinathat his life must be the forfeit of the tion then commenced. least indiscretion."." We know how to Zuma was unable to deny the facts to die,” replied Mirvan. With these words which Beatrice and the Viceroy had he quitted the ferocious Indian, and vol- been witnesses. She was asked from untarily conimitted himself to prison. whom she had obtained the powder. He could easily guess the act which Zu- “She received it from me,” exclaimed ma had attempted, but to explain it and Mirvan. Zuma denied this, still protesijustify her, would have been to abandon ing that her husband was entirely ignobis child to the rage of the ferocious rant of her designs. " And what were VOL. 2.]
Zuma : a Tale, by Madame de Genlis.
your designs ?” enquired the Judge. berself at his feet: I have sacrificed “ Did you not intend to poison the you, she exclaimed, that thought fills me Vice-Queen ? Why else did you make with remorse, dare I hope for your foruse of this powder ? Did you fancy that giveness !... Let us not accuse our you were employing a salutary remedy ?" Judges of cruelty, he replied, the tyrants .... At this question, Zuma trembled; who condemn us, deliver us from a horher eyes, at this moment, met those of rible yoke ; a few hours will free us the cruel Azan, his threatening glance from the bonds of slavery!..... These filled her with horror, she fancied she words moved the obdurate heart of Azan beheld him strangling her child. “ No, himself: Mirvan, said he, be not conno,” she exclaimed, in a distracted tone, cerned for the fate of your son, he shall “ I know of no salutary remedy." __“ It be as dear to me as if he were my own. was poison, then ? .... You confess It was now oine in the morning, and it ?"-" I confess nothing.”—“ Answer orders were given for erecting the fatal then."--" Alas! I am compelled to be pile. silent.” At these words, Ximeo ad- The Vice-queen was dying; the vanced and placed himself between Mir- Physician announced to the Viceroy that vao and Zuma; “let me likewise be every hope had vanished, that it was imchained,” said he, “I will die along with possible she could support three more them.” “Oh my father! live for our fits of fever, and that six or seven days, child's sake!” they exclaimed with one at most, would terminate her existence, voice. But Ximeo persisted.
The Count, in a paroxysm of despair, The Judges had been directed neither could entertain no thought of mercy : to employ torture nor to make any en- besides, regarding Zuma as the most exquiry respecting accomplices; they re- ecrable monster that nature had ever moved Ximeo, and Mirvan and Zuma produced, he was divested of all feeling were conveyed back to prison. The of compassion for her. He gave orders Couotess's physician appeared, and was that a pardon should be offered to Mirexamined. He declared that the illness van, on condition of his making a sinof the Vice-Queen having baffled the cere confession of his crime. Tell the most efficacious remedies, and being ac- Viceroy,” answered Mirvan, “ that even companied by extraordinary symptoms, though he promised me the life of Zuma, horrible suspicions at length arose in his he should never draw from me another mind, and that the action in which Zuma syllable." had been detected, leaving no room to The Viceroy did not wish to be in doubt the atrocity of her design, had con- Lima during this dreadful execution, firmed him in an idea which he had long en- He therefore departed for one of his deavoured to repel; that finally he no lon- pleasure-houses, situated about half a ger doubted that this perverse slave had league from the city, intending not to administered a slow poison to the Vice- return until the evening. Queen, and that finding herself excluded The wretched Ximeo vainly devised from the service of the chamber, and a thousand different projects, all tending fearing lest the youth of the Countess, to save Mirvan and Zuma; he anxiousand the attention which was devoted to ly wished to assemble his friends, but her, might in course of time overcome during the whole of the morning, the the effects of a poison, which had been Indians were so closely watched, that he sparingly administered, she intended to found no possibility of secretly converconsuminate her crime by a powerful sing with Azan and Thamir. A procdose. At this detail, the Judges were lamation was issued ordering all the Innearly petrified with horror ; they col- dians in Lima to attend the execution. lected the votes and condemned Mirvan They were without arins; the Spanish and Zuma to perish amidst the flames of guard was doubled and ranged round a pile, that very day at noon. They the pile ; in addition to this, the unforwere again brought into the court. Mir- tunate victims were escorted by two hunyan heard bis sentence with hervic firm- dred soldiers. Ximeo found hiinself Dess. Zuma, bathed in tears, threw compelled to submit to his fate, he was
[vol. 2 overwhelmed with despair, and resolved collecting her strength, that she might to throw himself on the pile with his once again embrace the adored child, children.
she disengaged herself from the hands of Whilst the whole city, filled with the priest and the soldiers, and darted consternation, awaited this dreadful spec- towards Azan ...... Azan placed tacle, the vice-queen, still ignorant of the child on the palpitating bosom of the tragical event, was stretched upon Zuma. The wretched mother, amidst a her bed of sickness, weaker and more af- torrent of tears, gave her child the last flicted than ever. Since six in the maternal kiss. “ Zuma," said Azan, in morning all her attendants had evinced a low tone of voice, “summon all your the utmost agitation. This at length at- courage ; recollect that your death is in tracted the notice of the Countess ; she itself a revenge, and that it will serve to made enquiries, and plainly perceived render our secret the more inviolable" that Beatrice wished to conceal some- ..... “ Oh! I wish for no revenge: thing from her, and that she imposed sie answered Zuma.“ Alas! were it possilence on the rest of her women. Bea- ble to save the Vice-queen!"...., trice frequently quitted the apartment, She could not utter more, the soldiers that she might without constraint give came to lead her away; the hand of vent to her sorrow. In one of these mo- death was upon her when they tore her ments, the Countess strictly questioned from her child; and at that terrible moone of her maids, and so imperatively ment she seemed to be offering up the enjoined her to tell the truth, that the sacrifice of her life .... girt informed her of all, and added, that The procession advanced ; they were Mirvan and Zuma far from denying the scarcely three hundred paces from the imputation laid to their charge, had glo- place of execution. At this moment a ried in their crime. The surprise of the mournful trumpet announced the apo Countess was equal to the horror with proach of the victims, the resinous wood which she was inspired by this dreadful which formed the top of the pile was communication. "Oh supreme Mer- kindled. .... They entered an alley cy!” she exclaimed, “I can now in- of plane trees, at the end of which they voke thee with more confidence than beheld the fatal spot, and the flames ever.” . . . . She immediately ordered which seemed to mingle with the clouds. her servants to prepare an open litter, and At this terrible spectacle Zuma shrunk with the assistance of her women she back with horror; at that moment she rose, and was dressed in a loose robe of was delivered from the torment of thinkmuslin. In spite of the tears and entrea- ing on her husband and her child ; stuties of the Spanish ladies and Beatrice, por succeeded to sensibility, and the ide the Countess threw herself upon the lite of her approaching destruction now ter which was borne by four slaves, a wholly occupied her mind; she saw befifth carrying over her head a large para- fore her inevitable death, and death unsol of taffety : in this manner, with her der the most horribly threatening aspect! face concealed by a long white veil, she .... Her strength failed her ; the frozen departed ... Twelve o'clock struck ! blood no longer circulated in her veios; . .. At this moment Mirvan and Zu- her face was tinged with mortal paleness; ma on foot, loaded with chains, quitted and, though not in a state of total uncontheir prison to undergo the execution of sciousness, she sunk into the arms of the their sentence. Zuma, who was scarce- priest, who, notwithstanding her repeat. ly able to support herself, rested on the ed but vague protestations, still exhorted arm of a priest, and was guarded by two her to repentance !.... Zuma, said Mirsoldiers ; immense crowds had collected van, our suffering will not be of long duto see them. Amidst the multitude, she ration ; behold those whirlwinds of perceived Azan, bearing her child in his smoke we shall be suffocated in a few arins, and making an effort to attract ber moments!..... Ab! replied Zuma, in observation. At this sight she uttered a a voice scarcely audible, I see nothing piercing shriek, a maternal shriek which but fire ..... nothing but flame.... They vibrated through every heart ..., but advanced.... Every step which brought
Zuma nearer to her death, augmented did so, and placed themselves at her bed. ber unconquerable terror!... The In- side. Owing to the agitation, fatigue dians had already ranged themselves and distress of mind, which the Countess round the pile in sad consternation ; they had undergone, her strength was so all held in their bands a branch of cy- completely exhausted, that she fancied press, as an emblem of mourning; they herself to be bordering on the last mowere surrounded by Spanish Guards....ments of her existence !...... She A noise was suddenly heard at some stretched forth one hand to Mirvan and distance, a horseman at full gallop ap- the other to Zuma, who batbed in tears, peared within view, exclaiming, “Hold, fell on her knees, to receive it!..... hold, by order of the Vice-queen, she is Beatrice could no longer support this approaching."... At these words all scene, and she entreated the Countess to were struck motionless ; Zuma folded suffer the two Indians to be removed, her bands and sent forth a supplication under guard, to an adjoining chamber. to heaven; but her soul weighed down No, no, said the Vice-queen, I will anby terror was not yet penetrated by the swer for them here, and will do so befaiutest gleam of hope !.... At length fore the Supreme Arbiter by whom we the litter of the Vice-queen was perceiv. shall all be judged ! ....Oh ! leave ed, she urged her slaves to advance with them here, they are sent 10 oren for me the utmost speed, and she quickly reach- the gates of heaven !.... Great God ! ed the fatal spot : the Spanish Guards said Beatrice, must I see you in the hands Tanged themselves round the Vice-queen of the monsters who have poisoned you ! and the Indians formed a semi-circle Where can I be better at this moment? before her : the Countess then raised replied the Vice-queen : ....On the her veil and discovered a pale and lan- bosom of friendship my mind is overguishing countenance, but full of grace whelmed with superfluous regret..., but and gentleness, and which was itself a these trembling hands which I press speaking emblem of mercy !.... I do within my own, fortify my courage ; the pot possess, said she, the happy right of very sight of these unfortunate beings, granting pardon, but it is a favour which diffuses calmness and confidence through I am certain of obtaining from the good- my soul !.... Oh my benetactress, said dess of the Viceroy. In the meanwbile Zuma, suffocated with grief, should heava I take under my protection and safe- en frustrate my only hope, it will then he guard these two unfortunate creatures ; seen whether or not the wretched Zuma let their chains be taken off, extinguish loved you! No, I never can survive without delay this terrific pile which you !.... At these words Beatrice shudshould never bave been kindled, had I dered. Detestable hypocrisy! she exbeen sooner informed of the event. .... claimed .... Do not insult them, said the At these words the Indians threw down Countess, they repent; see, they shed their branches of cypress, and the air re- tears! .... Ah! Zuma, pursued she, sounded with reiterated cries of Long you, whose gentle figure bespoke a celive the Vice-queen! .... Ximeo rushed lestial soul!... You whom I have so forward, exclaiming, Yes, she shall live ! dearly loved !.... how can I entertain .... Zuma threw herself on ber knees, the slightest resentinent against you?.... Almighty God, she said, finish the work I look upon you both as the instruments Thou hast begun !.... The Vice-queen of my eternal happiness ; I forgive you signified her wish that Mirvan and Zu- with a willing heart; may you return to ma should follow her ; she caused them the consolations of religion with equal to be placed near her litter, and in this sincerity.... Zuna, almost driven io dismanner returned to the palace, followed traction, was about to speak, and perhaps by an immense multitude who enthusi- to reveal a part of the secret which astically invoked blessings on her clem- weighed a thousand times more beavily ency and goodness. Having arrived at on her mind, than if she had only had the palace she threw herself on her bed, her own life to defend ; but Mirvan inand expressed a desire that Mirvan and terrupted ber : Zuma, said he, let us be Zuma should enter her apartment; they silent! the voice of the Countess will