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Letters from a father lo his Son. sciousness of inability, or hazard the and indeed, if what you receive as the favourable disposition of those wbo can wages of your service, is to be used only bestow it, by any known disqualifica- for providing the supplies to your pleation consequent of an idle or inconsid- sures, I should not hesitate to pronounce, erate neglect of his opportunities that it is a great deal too much
If these remarks have any claim to left at the disposal of any youth, who your attention, I would ground it upon froin living under a paternal roof, and at the following corollary to the proposi- a paternal board, has no other demands tion from which they originate;- That upon his purse, than what are indispenif he who employs his time in the ser- sable to keep his wardrobe in moderate vice of others, calculates its worth with repair. Much money is a possession as so much precision, he who has the pow- dangerous to a young man, as much er of appropriating it to his own more leisure, if the one be not prudentially immediate advantage, ought not to be economized, and the other wisely imless considerate in his application of it. proved; the profligate waste of the one, But you will perhaps tell me that who- leads to the pernicious abuse of the othever makes a pecuniary profit of his er; and vicious inclination is too often time, may be regarded as employing it found to be commensurate with the to his own benefit ; and that you are means of indulgence. But the ruinous doing this while you receive in return facilities of both may be avoided by the for your attendance six or eight hours right application of your time; or, in in the day, an equivalent salary, and the best sense of the phrase, “by make that when these hours are elapsed, you ing the most of it.” And how is this to have a right to dispose of the remaining be done? I will tell you. part in throwing away your earnings
Divide it regularly ; upon what you consider as a requisite Employ it profitably; recreation of your mind after the fatigues Apply it sedulously; of its daily toil.
Redeem it anxiously. I should not find much difficulty in Divide it regularly. admitting your answer, could I be assu- Business, study, and recreation, make red that such recreation were not more up the sum of a young man's occupation calculated to corrupt and dissipate the of time. In the first rank of his engagethoughts, than to recruit and renovate the ments ought to be placed the pledge mind; and did not this consequent pre- which he has given to his employers, to sent itself to my reflection, that, while you fulfil the duties attached to his situation. are occupied six hours in business, at a This, therefore, constitutes the first divicertain salary, and your leisure hours are sion of his time—and this division will squandered in the unprofitable pursuits comprehend the hours of attendance. of dissipation, you are, as it were, throw- That it may not trench upon the ing the remainder of your time into the regularity of his system, he will take bargain, and for eighty or a hundred care to accomplish all he has to do withpounds a year so consumed, you are con- in the given period; and that he may tented to sacrifice the best part of your effect this, he will not allow any unsealife. How much wiser do those think and sonable interruption wbich he can preact, who, in their plodding calculations vent, to interfere with his purpose : he of the quid pro quo, tell us “they can will reflect that he is of no other impormake more of their time."
tance in his office, than as he fulfils the And how much more, my dear G- , duties of his peculiar department; but may not you make of your time! I do that wbile he continues to perform these, not mean in a pecuniary way-you are he secures to himself the important charpaid for your industry as much as the use- acter of a young man who can be defulness of your exertions can justly de- pended upon. In office hours, therefore, mand-and for six or eight hours' daily he must have no other concern than that employment, the renumeration is quite which relates to his official businesssufficient; your responsibility being all and every other object must be rejected as comprehended in your punctuality of an irrelevant intrusion upon bis attention. attendance and accuracy of transcript Now, my dear G , you are thus
occupied six hours in a day, and you are reading and answering them at your solemnly bound, by an honourable sense desk--and books or parcels which have of your compact, to apply them to the nothing to do with the affairs of your service of your engagement. It seldom business, should not be admitted among happens, I believe, that in your profession your professional papers; the mixture does the pressure of business exceeds the oppor- not bespeak the man of business, and tunities which the hours set apart for its this is the only character in wbich you execution afford for its completion. You should be known at such hours; and may, therefore, reckon upon the entire here I would protest against that idle possession of the rest of the day for your practice of many of your brother clerks independent application to your own who are in the habit of keeping books peculiar purposes ;-whatever these pur- of light or vicious reading in their desks, poses may be, therefore, do not suffer with which they waste many a half-hour them to distract your thoughts, or divert that might and ought to be otherwise your attention from that official direction employed. Such a practice is apt to of both to which both ought to be con- produce an estrangement of thought that formed; but content yourself with the detaches them from their occupation, and conviction that you have time enough unfits them for that deliberative part of it in the rest of the day to attend to them. which is at all times requisite, even in its
By this arrangement, pressure will not most cursory claims upon their attention. produce hurry, nor will hurry, should it Let it not be thought by you that I carry occur from any extraordinary cause, im- this subject too far, and strain it beyond plicate you in desultory or inaccurate its generalimportance, by minutiæ which, performance of your duty
in your opinion, have no influence upon By dividing your time, you reduce the common progress of the business of all your pursuits into a regular system office;—for the fact is, my dear Gof action; you prevent their interfering that in whatever station a young man is with and confounding each other; and, placed, his mind displays itself more by what is of greater consequence than all such deviations, than by the graver exthis, you effectually obviate all that long ercises of his employ-these he is well train of disabilities which invariably fol- aware if not performed with due conlow from procrastination, that “thief of sideration, give a stamp to his character time" as Young very aptly calls it. Your at once, and therefore he keeps himself hours of business, therefore, must be ap- upon bis guard, while he concludes, that plied to business only—and I should ad. he may indulge in the former without any vise you got to fall into that custom danger of committing himself to the cenwhich prevails among young men, of sure of his employers. But all such inmaking appointments with their young dulgences, if continued, are very likely acquaintance to meet them at their place to clothe his proceedings with that desof business upon the most trifling occa- ultory air, which, in time, will grow into sions; and carrying thither books either character, and willgo a great way towards of frivolous import, or of a less justifia- diminishing the estimate of his official ble description.
usefulness, or personal worth. SteadiThis caution, unnecessary as it may ness in a youth is a qualification which appear, will assume some shape of im- is held in much higher esteem by his portance, when it is recollected that every superiors, than that sort of quickness interruption produces delay in business. which he is in the habit of depending The value of your time will never be upon for getting up his lost time, and duly appreciated by those who take no supplying those consequent omissions account of their own ; and while they which a uniform tenor of settled applicathink they have hours to spare, they will tion would have enabled him to avoid. not reflect that you have not a moment to This steadiness is the satisfactory lose. Such impertinents you should brush ground of their confidence, but this away as you would the fly that lights quickness, while they perceive it to be upon the paper on which you are writing. the resource of his irregularity, will
Your private letters also are as much always deter them from giving him any out of place, if you are in the habit of agency of extraordinary trust; you will
therefore do well to avoid this common plicate you in some inconvenient treserror of young men similarly situated pass upon the time allotted for the avowith yourself; because whatever of cations of your employ, and in that proyour private pursuits mixes itself with portion the execution of them will be you public duties, will be sure to im- imperfect, and incomplete.
Concluded in our next.
ON THE VIRTUES OF COFFEE.
From the European Magazine. TT is a generally-received opinion, that rates the process of digestion, corrects
the human frame is not less influenced crudities, and removes the colic and by diet, than by climate; that its dispo- flatulencies. sitions, and characteristics, owe their orig- Besides its effect in keeping up the inality as much to food, as those diseas- harmony of the gastrick powers, it difes evidently do, which are the legitimate fuses a genial warmth that cherishes the and indisputable issue of it.
animal spirits, and takes away the listIf the preceding position be just, there lessness and languor which so greatly cannot surely by a subject more interest- embitter the hours of nervous people, ing to man, than the pursuit of that know- after any deviation to excess, fatigue, or ledge which may instruct him to avoid irregularity. what is hurtful to health, to select for his From the warmth and efficacy of cofuse such things as tend to raise the val- fee in attenuating the viscid fluids, and ue of his condition, and to carry the en- increasing the vigour of the circulation, joyments of life to their utmost improve- it has been used with great success in ment.
the fluor albus, in the dropsy, and in worm In England the use of this berry hith- complaints; and in those comatose, erto has been principally confined to the anasarcous, and such otherdiseases as arise occasional luxury of individuals; as from unwholesome food, want of exercise, such, it is scarcely an object of public weak fibres, and obstructed perspiration. concern ; but government, wisely con. There are but few people who are sidering that this produce of our own not informed of its utility for the headWest India islands is raised by our fel. ache; the steam sometimes is very uselow-subjects, and paid for in our own ful to mitigate pains of the head :-in manufactures, has lately reduced the the West Indies, where the violent speduty on the importation of plantation cies of head-ache, such as cephalæa, coffee; which has brought it within the hemicrania, and clavus, are more frereach of almost every description of peo- quent and more severe than in Europe, ple; and as it is not liable to any per- coffee is the only medicine that gives renicious process in curing it, and is inca- lief. Opiates are sometime used, but pable of adulteration, the use of it will coffee has an advantage that opium does probably become greatly extended; as not possess; it may be taken in all corin other countries, it may diffuse itself ditions of the stomach ; and at all times among the mass of the people, and make by women, who are most subject to a considerable ingredient in their daily these complaints; as it dissipates those sustenance.
congestions and obstructions that are The extraordinary influence that cof- frequently the cause of the disease, and fee, judiciously prepared, imparts to the which opium is known to increase, when stomach, from its tonic and invigorating its temporary relief is past. qualities, is strongly exemplified by the Coffee having the admirable property immediate effect produced on taking it, of promoting perspiration, it allays thirst, when the stomach is overloaded with and checks preternatural heat. food, or pauseated with surfeit, or de- The great use of coffee in France is bilitated by intemperance.
supposed to have abated the prevalency To constitutionally weak stomachs, it of the gravel. affords a pleasing sensation; it accele. In the French Colonies, where coffee 24
Dr. Moseley on the Virtues of Coffee.
is more used than with the English, as opinion has been received, and propagawell as in Turkey, where it is the princi- ted from hiin, as he received and propapal beverage, not only the gravel, but the gated it from its fabulous origin. The gout, those tormentors of so many of facts have been refuted by Du Four, the human race, are scarce known, and many travellers.
It has been found useful in quieting Sir Thomas Herbert, who was sevethe tickling vexatious cough that often ral years in the East, tells us that the Peraccompanies the small-pox, and other sians have a different opinion of coffee : eruptive fevers. A dish of strong cof- _“They say, that coffee comforts the fee, without milk or sugar, taken fre- brain, expels melancholy and sleep, pur. quently in the paroxysm of an asthma, ges choler, lightens the spirits, and begets abates the fit; and I have often known an excellentconcoction : and, by custom, it to remove the fit entirely. Sir John becomes delicious. But all these virtues Floyer, who had been afflicted with the do not conciliate their liking of it so much, asthma from the seventeenth year of his as the romantic notion, that it was inventage until he was upwards of fourscore, ed and brewed by the Angel GABRIEL found no remedy in all his elaborate re- to restore Mahomet's decayed moisture, searches, until the latter part of his life, which it did effectually. when he obtained it by coffee.
A subject like coffee, possessed of acPrepared strong and clear, and diluted tive principles and evident operations, with a great portion of boiled milk, it be- must necessarily be capable of misapplicomes a highly nutritious and balsamic cation and abuse; and there must be diet; proper in hectic, pulmonic, and all particular habits which these operations complaints where a milk diet is useful; disturb. Slare says he used it in too and is a great restorative to constitutions great excess, and it affected his nerves; emaciated by the gout and other chronic but Dr. Fothergill, who was a sensible disorders.
man, and did not use it to great excess, Long watching and intense study are though he was of a very delicate habit, wonderfully supported by it, and without and could not use tea, drank coffee “althe ill consequences that succeed the sus- most constantly for many years, without pension of rest and sleep, when the ner- receiving any inconvenience from it.” vous influence has nothing so sustain it. But the history of particular cases
Bacon says, “coffee comforts the head sometimes serves but to prove, that manand heart, and helps digestion.” Dr. Wil- kind are not all organized alike; and lis says, “being daily drank, it wonder- that the sympathy of one, and the anfully clears and enligbtens each part of tipathy of another, ought by no means to the soul, and disperses all the clouds of render useles that infinite variety which every function." The celebrated Dr. pervades all nature; and with which Hervey used it often; Voltaire lived al- the earth is blessed in the vegetable cremost on it; and the learned and seden- ation. Were it so, physic would actary of every country bave recourse to it quire but little aid from the toils of phito refresh the brain, oppressed by study losophy, when philosophy had no other and contemplation.
incitement to labour than barren specuIt is not to be expected that coffee lation, should escape objections; and among its It has long been a custom with many most furious enemies was Simon Paulli; people among us, to add mustard to but he founded his prejudice against cof- their coffee : mustard, or aromatics, may, fee, as he had his prejudices against tea, with great propriety, be added in flatuchocolate, and sugar, not on experience, lent, languid, and scorbutic constitutions ; but on anecdotes that he had picked up and particularly by invalids, and in such by hasty travellers, which had no other cases where warmth or stimulus is refoundation than absurd report and con- quired. jecture :--but on these absurd tales this The Eastern nations add either cloves, learned man confesses he supports a no- cinnamon, cardamoms, cummin-seed, or tion that coffee (like tea to the Chinese) essence of amber, &c. but neither milk acted as a great drier to the Persians, and or sugar. Milk and sugar, without the abated apbrodisiacal warmth. This aromatics, are generally used with it in
25 Europe, America, and the West India unerring test of experience has confirmIslands, except when taken after dinner ; ed its utility, in many countries, not exthen the method of the French is com- clusively productive of those inconvemonly followed, and the milk is omitted. 'niencies, habits, and diseases, for which
A cup or two thus taken after dinner, its peculiar properties seem most appliwithout cream or milk, promotes diges, cable :- let those properties be duly tion, and has been found very servicea- considered, and let us reflect on the ble to those who are habitually costive, state of our atmosphere, the food and If a draught of water is taken before mode of life of the inhabitants, so injucoffee, according to the eastern custom, rious to youth and beauty, filling the it gives it a tendency to act as an aperi. large towns and cities with chronical inent,
firmities ; and I think it will be evident If a knowledge of the principles of what advantages will result from the coffee, founded on examination and va- general use of coffee in England, as an rious experiments, added to observations article of diet, from the comforts of made on the extensive and indiscriminate which the poor are not excluded, and to use of it, cannot authorise us to attribute what purposes it may often be employed, to it any particular circumstance un- as a safe and powerful medicine. friendly to the human frame :--if the London ; April 8, 1817.
DR. CAREY ON A COFFEE SIMMERER.
From La Belle Assemblee.
El Hill Mi
bottom; thus admitting and confining a THE use of coffee becoming every body of hot air all round and underneath
1 day more extensive in this country, the pot: the lid is double, and the vessel I presume that any suggestion for the is, of course, furnished with a convenient improvement of that pleasant and salu- handle and spout. brious beverage cannot be unacceptable The extract may be made either with to the public. Under that persuasion, I hot or cold water. If intended for . beg leave to communicate a method of speedy use hot water will be proper, but coffee-making, which I have long prac- not actually boiling; and, the powdered tised, and which I find to answer my coffee being added, nothing remains but purpose better than any other; although to close the lid tight, to stop the spout I bave tried several, and bestowed on the with a cork, and place the vessel over the subject a share of attention, which your lamp, where it may remain unattended readers will hardly deem censurable, until the coffee is wanted for immediate when apprised that coffee has, for the use. It may then be strained through a last three years, been my only beverage, bag of stout coarse linen, which will except morning and evening tea. transmit the liquid so perfectly clcar as
My process is that of simmering over not to contain the smallest particle of the small but steady flame of a lamp; a the powder. The strainer is tied round process at oncesimple, easy, and uniformly the mouth of an open cylinder, or tube, productive of an extract so grateful to which is fitted into the mouth of the cofthe palate and the stomach as to leave fee-pot that is to receive the fluid, as a me neither the want nor desire of any streamer is fitted into the mouth of a stronger liquor. But to accomplish this, saucepan ; and if the coffee-pot have a a vessel of peculiar construction is re- cock pear the bottom, the liquid may be quisite, Mine is a straight-sided pot, as drawn out as fast and as hot as it flows wide at top as at bottom, and inclosed from the strainer. in a case of similar shape, to which it is Ifthe coffee be not intended for speedy soldered air-tight at the top. The case use, as is the case with me, who have my is above an inch wider than the pot; siinmerer placed over my night-lamp at descends somewbat less than an inch bed-time, io produce the beverage wbich below it, and is entirely open at the lam to drink the next day at dinner and C Vol. 2. ATAEN ET M.
supper lime; in such cases cold water