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VOL. 2.]
Ellis's Journal of the late Embassy to China.

331 Our countrymen were not treated with the masonry may be considered a facing: the utmost attention at this time. Their there is not, however, sufficient strength supplies were scanty; yet such is the re- at the top to allow of guns of large sponsibility of ministers, that several calibre being mounted in the embrasures. high Mandarins are punished, because At all the gates, and at certain intervals, they could not overcome Lord Amherst's there are towers of immense height, with refusal to perform the Ko-tou. This, four ranges of ernbrasures, intended for however, they pressed insolently enough, cannon: I saw none actually mounted, and at Tong-chou, where the conferences but in their stead there were some imitawere renewed, endeavoured strongly to tions in wood. Besides the tower, a enforce a belief that it was a high honour wooden building of several stories marked to be so debased in the Celestial Empire; the gateways ; one of these buildings the Koong-Yay, one of the greatest was bigly decorated; the projecting men, vehemently asserting, " that as there roofs diminishing in size according to is but one sun, there is only one Ta- their height, were covered with green and whang-te; he is the universal sovereign, yellow tiles, that had a very brilliant effect and all must pay him homage.” Threats under the rays of the sun. A wet ditch of being sent back, a personal attack on skirted the part of the walls round which Sir George Staunton, complaints of the we were carried. Pekin is situated in a manner in which trade had lately been plain ; its losty walls, with its numerous conducted, were next employed seriatim; bastions and stupendous towers, certainly but Lord Amherst remained firm, and give it an imposing appearance, not unwould not consent to have his head nine worthy the capital of a great empire. On times knocked on the floor upon any con- the side near Haiteen we crossed a large sideration.

conmon, wholly incultivated ; a reFrom Tong-chow they were hurried, markable circumstance so near Pekin. travelling all night, to Pekin, stared at There are large tracts of ground covered like wild beasts, and an attempt made with the Nelumbrium, or water lily, near literally to force them at once into the the walls, which, from the luxuriant presence of the Emperor. This was vegetation of this plant, are extremely resisted, and an excuse of indisposition grateful to the eye. The Tartarean sent instead of the real apology, viz. the inountains, with their blue and immeasufatigue of travelling all night, and the rable summits, are the finest objects in want of their dresses. The consequence the vicinity of Pekin.” was, that the enemies of the Embassy had The author, in this part of his narraan opportunity of persuading their sove- tive, mentions that the mules which he reign, that he was disrespectfully treated, saw are very fine animals. He also exand baulked by unfounded apologies ; amined “the wooden collar called Kang, and the Embassy was ordered to depart which is fixed on the necks of convicted forthwith. This affords another proof felons as a punishment: it is a square that “a round unvarnished tale" would board, thirty inches wide, with an aperhave been better than diplomatic sinuo- ture for the head ; it is worn diagonally, sities, and that, in all relations of life, and enables the bearer to rest the corner honesty is the best policy.

• upon a stone while sitting."-We are sorry that these affairs have “When two Chinese quarrel, they demanded so much of our attention, and generally seize each other by the tails, therefore now gladly take our leave of which they twist violently: both often Chinese politics, to confine our remain- fall to the ground, and it is surprising to ing strictures to the appearance, manners, see how long they can endure such acute habits, and characteristics of the country pain : their eyes seem bursting from their and people.

sockets, the whole countenance is distortA stay of a few hours only furnishes ed, and I am convinced that pugilists of a slight picture of Pekin. Its walls are the best bottom must yield in such a built of brick, with a foundation of contest from utter incapacity to bear the stone:

dreadful suffering. Though violent to * They are of considerable thickness, madness in gesture and language, they the body of them being of mud, so that seldom proceed to action, and I have seen

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Original Leller from David Hume to the Comtesse de Boufflers. (vol. 2.

a smart tap with a fan satisfy extreme boxes. It is said that in presents the rage. When, however, they actually outward package not unfrequently exbave recourse to blows, they fight most' ceeds the value of the contents. The front foully, and death has been koown to yard of all their houses is set off by some ensue from a kick.”

flowering shrubs, or dwarf trees; and In another place a remarkable piece not seldom a bower of treillage work, of ordnance is described. It had five with beautiful creeping plants, adds conmouths, and was bound round with iron venience to ornament." hoops. The military seem to be equally Two Russians and a Frenchman in warlike ; but we shall condense the va- the Russian service, dressed completely rious information scattered through the à la Chinoise, wished to enter into an volume, concerning them, into one point intercourse with the embassy, near Peby and by

kin; but were discountenanced, lest the On one of the cities it is observed : jealousy of the Chinese should be ex

“ The business of the eating-house cited. The people were generally civil, seemed principally to be carried on in and not displeased with the inquisitivethe streets : tea and other liquors, soups ness of the travellers; but they were and different preparations of meat, were barred the pleasure of gossiping with the divided into small portions, and ready for ladies of little feet, by an imperial edict immediate consumption: this must be a forbidding females to be seen by the great accommodation and saving to the strangers. In spite of this, a glimpse labouring classes, although it may be was occasionally caught of a peeper: considered as a proof of the absence of and many of them were pretty enougb to domestic habits among them. It is cause the restraint to be felt as a very unimpossible not to remark the neatness of gallant act of the Emperor. the Chinese in their tubs, baskets, and

Concluded in our next.

From the Literary Gazette. ORIGINAL LETTER FROM DAVID HUME TO THE COMTESSE

DE BOUFFLERS. We have been favoured with some most interesting to do justice to all parties and persons, Epistolary remains of our late admired Historian and should also do some to myself, and should Philosopher, addressed to this celebrated Lady ; and

not feed my vanity with chimeras, which, it is our intention to avail ourselves of the permission granted us to present our readers with a few extracts I am sensible in my cooler moments, can in succession.

have no foundation in reason. When Madam,

I had the pleasure of passing some time IT is not easy for your Ladyship to in France, I had the agreeable esperience

imagine the pleasure I received from of the polite hospitality by which your your letter, with which you have so un- nation is distinguished; and I now find expectedly honoured me, nor the agree that the same favorable indulgence has able visions of vanity, in which upon that appeared in your Ladyship's judgment occasion, I indulged myself. I conclu- of my writings. And perhaps your esded, and, as I fancied, with certainty, that teem for the entire impartiality which I a person, who could write so well herself, aim at, and which, to tell the truth, is so must certainly be a good judge of wri- unusual in English Historians, has made ting in others, and that an author, who your Ladyship overlook muny defects, could please a Lady of your distinction, into which the want of art or genius bas educated in the Court of France, and fa- betrayed me. miliarized with every thing elegant and In'this particular, Madam, I must own polite, might reasonably pretend to some that I am inclined to take your civilities degree of merit, and might presume to in their full latitude, and to hope that I take his rank above the middling histo- have not fallen much short of my inten rians. But, Madam, it is but fair, that I, tions. The spirit of faction, which prewho have pretended, in so long a work, vails in this country, and which is a natu

VOL. 2.]

Character, Manners and Customs of the People of India.

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ral attendant on civil liberty, carries every is drawing towards a period, and that the thing to extremes on the one side as well former intercourse between them will as the other; and I have the satisfaction again be renewed. If this happy event to find, that my performance has ajter- take place, I have entertained hopes, that nately given displeasure to both parties. my affairs will permit me to take a jourI could not reasonably hope to please ney to Paris, and the obliging offer which both. Such success is impossible from you are pleased to make me of allowing the nature of things : and next to your me to pay my respects to you, will prove Ladyship’s approbation, who, as a fo- a new and very powerful inducement to reigner, must necessarily be a candid make me basten the execution of my purjudge, I shall always regard the anger of pose. But I give your ladyship warning both as the surest warrant of my impar- that I shall on many accounts stand in tiality.

need of your indulgence. I passed a As I find that you are pleased to em- few years in France during my early ploy your leisure hours in the perusal of youth, but I lived in a provincial town History, I shall presume to recommend where I enjoyed the advantages of leisure to your Ladyship a late work of this for study, and an opportunity of learning. kind wrote by my friend and countryman, the language. What I had imperfectly Dr. Robertson, which has met with the learned, long disuse, I am afraid, bas highest approbation from all good judges. made me forget.

It is the History of Scotland during I have rested amid books and study ; the age of the unfortunate Queen Mary : bave been little engaged in the active, and it is wrote in an elegant, agreeable, and not much in the pleasurable scenes and interesting manner, and far exceed- of life; and am more accustomed to a ing, I shall venture to say, any perform- select society than to general companies. ance of that kiod that has appeared in But all these disadvantages, and much English. The failiags of that Princess greater, will be abundantly compensated are not covered over, but her singular by the honour of your ladyship's proteccatastrophe is rendered truly lamentable tion, and I hope that my profound sense and tragical; and the reader cannot for- of your obliging favour will render me bear shedding tears for her fate, at the not altogether unworthy of it. same tiine he blames her conduct. There I have the honor to be, with the greatare few historical productions where both est respect, Madam, the subject and execution have appeared Your Ladyship's most obedient so happy.

and most humble Servant, Some prospect is now given us that this

David Hume, iniserable war between the two nations Edinburgh, 15th May, 1761.

From the Literary Gazette. CHARACTER,MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE PEOPLE

OF INDIA. BY THE ABBE J. A. DUBOIS, MISSIONARY IN THE MYSORE. 4to. 1817. N E have seldom met with a more give more information on that interesting

V valuable or instructive work than subject than any former writer. the volume now before us. The author, 'The work is translated from the French during his residence among the natives, MS. and published under the auspices of as a Missionary, followed the inaxim of the Court of Directors, for the express St. Paul, of being“ all things to all men,” purpose of enabling such of our countryand thus, by humouring their custoins, men as reside in India, to becoine betadopting their costume, and seemingly ter acquainted with the habits and manrespecting their prejudices, became fa- ners of the people, than, from imperfect iniliar with their various tribes, and ac- information, they have hitherto been. It quired that initiation into their several would appear, that though we are not modes of life, which has enabled him to always anxious enough to concijata

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Character, Manners and Customs of the People of India.

[vol. 2.

them, when we know how, we still more them beyond their former situations, the often offend and disgust them, in cases greater danger aspears to be, that the where we should have no objection to needy or the ambitious would affect a humour their peculiarities, were we con- conversion which they never felt, and scious that these existed.

apostatise upon speculation. In truth, no means should be omitted, We have room only for one short exof securing the hold we have of that tract, on the odious custom of buroing country ; since we are decidedly con- wives upon the funeral piles of their husvinced, that it is now the object of envy bands. It is taken from the Bharata, a and will hereafter be the object of attack, work of great authority among the Hindus. whenever the continental powers, at “ Pandee, the King, retired, with his present paralysed by the late war, shall two wives, into the forest, to pursue a feel their nerves sufficiently strengthened, course of penitence. He had a so enter. and their plans sufficiently ripe, for a ed into a solemn vow, under the curse new career of conquest and desolation, of instant death, that he should hold no If there be found little gratitude in indi- commerce with either of them. viduals, the gratitude of nations is still “The youngest was extremely beauti. more rare ; nay, the very consciousness ful, and her charms were so powerful as that England has already been able to to overcome the terrors of perdition. For save Europe froin universal despotism, a long ime she resisted his solicitations, bas, we are too well persuaded, excited and reasoned with him on the dauger of a feeling among those powers, that she, yielding to them, for she was unwilling who has protected them because she to incur the imputation of being the cause found it her interest, would also subvert of his death. But all was in vain, her or injure them, should she ever find it her refusal only serving to increase the vioconvenience. They judge of her abili- lence of his passion. He was at length ty by what she has herself done, and driven to the gratifinition of it, and imthey judge of her inclination, by waat mediately the curse fell upon him with they would themselves do, under similar full effect. Being now dead, a question circumstances, Asia, not Europe, will arose, which of the two wives ought to probably be the next great seat of strug. follow hiin to the funeral pile; and a gle; and Russia, not France, will be the sbarp altercation took place between power, whose arms and whose intrigues then for the preference. An assembly we shall have the greatest cause to dread. of Brahinins was held to decide the dis

This work sufficiently refutes the silly pute; wbea the elder of the two wives assertion of the Edinburgh Review, that insisted that her rank, as his original con. the nations of India are an innocent and sort, gave her a precedence above any inoffensive race. A more odious and posterior one, and farther observed, that disgusting detail of private crimes and her competitor had several young chilnational abominations, were never exhi- dren whose education absolutely requirbited in print, than these pages present ed the prolongation of her life. to our perusal. They likewise clearly “The second wife then addressed the disprove another gross doctrine' to he assembly, admitting the superior rank of found in that Review----namely, that it is her opponent, but insisting that, as she useless and injurious to send any Mis- was the immediate instrument of their sionaries amongst them. And yet, we husband's death, and the fatal cause find, that conversions are not uncoininon, which brought down the malediction and that many of their more enlightened upon him, that she alone ought to endure natives see, and confess, and ridicule the its consequences. And as to the bringe absurdities of their own religious tenets. ing up of the children, quoth sbe, turnTo set about converting a people divid- ing tenderly towards her rival, are they ed into casts, might indeed, prove an not yours as well as mine? Besides, hopeless undertaking, were there no place what sort of education could they expect of refuge for the excommunicated ; but from a young inexperienced girl like me? where there is a governinent who have it in Believe me it will better suit with your their power, to receive, protect, and exalt gravity and years.

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" In the Bharata, the debate is carried court gave the preference to the other, on to much greater length, but it will be and admitted her,' says the author, “to sufficient to relate that, notwithstanding the distinguished honour of being consuthe eloquence of the younger lady, the med alive with the body of her husband.'”

From the Monthly Magazine, October, 1817,

L’APE ITALIANA.
Dor 'ape susurrando
Nei mattutini albori
Voia suggendo i rugiadosi umori.-Guarini.
Where the bee at early dawn

Murmuring sips the dews of morn.
SIR,

“It is a common and just observaThe increased interest which has of late been taken in tion, that from the abundance of the the literature of modern Italy, assures me that some

Therefore, account of it will not be unacceptable to such of your beart the mouth speaketh. readers as have not an opportunity of becoming ac. ye who are of gentle and noble minds, quainted with it in the originals; and I therefore first of all dispose your hearts to please purpose-under the title of THE ITALIAN BEE, God-honouriog. fearing, and praising L'Ape Italiana-to present them, from time to time, hi

* him! and, in the next place, if it be lawwith a selection of such extracts as may appear to me amusing, and calculated to give a general idea of its ful, on any subject not offensive to him, features. The fortunes of that celebrated country to talk for bodily recreation and amusehave had, from the earliest ages, so important an ment, let it be done with all courtesy influence on the destiny of the world at large, that it

ne and decorum. And, whereas the poble is justly considered as possessing claims on the attention of mankind,superior to those of any other region, and genteel are in their words and acThe ancient theatre of Roman glory, the fostering tions a mirror, as it were, to their insenurse of modern arts and learning - it was in Italy riors-their conversation being the more that the exquisite productions of Grecian genius were fondly cherished and successfully imitated; and, acceptable, as proceeding from a more after the desoiating inundation of Northern barbare delicate instrument--we shall here comism had nearly extinguished the intellectual fire, it memorate some flowers of speech and was in her bosom that the dying embers were cher- foir courtes

fair courtesies, seasonable replies and acts ished, till, at a more propitious season, they burst into that cheering flame by which the nations are

e of valour, noble donations and honourastill illumined. The natural advantages which ble loves-by which many have distinItaly enjoys form another important circumstance guished themselves in time past. And in her favour. The imagination turns from re- he that hath a noble mind and a subtle gions desolated by winter, to rest with delight on the « land of the olive and vine"-fanned by soft gales understanding will thus be enabled to and crowned with almost perennial verdure; and imita:e them in the time that is to come; leaves the severer pursuits of philosophy and science, and to argue, and relate, and speak, as to revel in the beauties of a poetry glowing with all

occasion may offer to the profit and the warmth and luxuriance of the delicious climate which inspired it.

LEICESTRIENSIS.

pleasure of those that are ignorant and

desirous of being informed. And let it ANTE, PETRARCH,and BoccacCIO, not displease you, if the flowers we shall

are justly considered as the fathers exhibit should be intermixed in a multiof Italian literature; but, before enter- tude of other words-since gold is set oil ing on the consideration of these “ mighty by black; and a single fine and delicate masters," it may be proper to take some fruit will recommend a whole orchard, notice of a work which claims an antiquity and a few fair flowers a whole garden. even more remote; this is the collection Let not this offend the reader for many of anecdotes know by the title of, “ Le have lived through a long life without cento Novelle Antich:-the Hundred having ever said or done anything Ancient Stories. It is interesting from worth recording." its simplicity, from its relation to the These flowers of speech" consist, as times in which it was written, and from has been observed, of historical anec. its having occasionally supplied the sub- dotes--for the most part curiously mejects of the novels of Boccaccio. It tamorphosed. of stories from the rocommences with the following pro- mances of the Round Table and the @mium:

Paladins of France, which the writer

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